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Yu. A. Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu. A. Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu. A. Zuev Tamgas of vassal princedoms
Yu. A. Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
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1 K.U.Torlanbaeva kindly participated in the selection of material and writing of separate paragraphs in this section.
In the available written records about connections of the western Türks and Türgeshes with the peoples of Sayano-Altai are some facts relevant to the theme. In 568 Kagan of the Türkic Kaganate western ulus Dizabul (Silzibul~Sirdjibun), whose close and trusted representative was a Manichaean by the name Maniach, to celebrate a successful end of the Türkic-Byzantine negotiations, presented the Byzantium ambassador with a maiden from Kyrgyz people - Kherkhis [Menandr, 1861, p. 370-375]. In 638, when the tribes and territories of the Western Türkic Kaganate were divided into two parts with the border along the river Ili, in the domain of one of Kagans fell the possessions Tszüeüeshi, Boma, Tszegu, Basmyl, etc. [Du Yu, ch. 199, f. 7à]. Transliteration Ñ8308, 9967, 8748 Tszüeüeshi (< kiwat-jiwat-siet) corresponds to the name of area Kürüshi in the river Ejim valley (Ch. Ayan < a-iam, Türkic Ayam). There, was found a runiform monument with Manichaean contents (E, 45). The Chinese name “Boma" (literally " Skewbald/motley horses”, Türkic Ala-at, Alat) is an area on the river Narym. “Tszegu" is one of the forms of transmitting the term Kyrgyz. The leader of a Basimi (Basmyl) tribe, initially located in the basin of lake Alakul, and then in the Beshbalyk area, had a Manichaean title-rank Yduk-Kut.
In the beginning of the 8th century this region or its part were a part of the Manichaean Türgesh Kaganate. "I have died inside Türgesh El" of Karakhan (i.e. Chinese "Kagan of the black surname"), says the hero of the third monument from the Tuba (E, 37).
The combination qara qan was found in the text of the first monument from Uibat (E, 30), in Uibat delta were found not less than eleven Manichaean monasteries [Kyzlasov, 1999, p. 17-18]. The ethnonym Türgesh survived in the name of seok Tirgesh among Altaians [Baskakov, 1965, p. 9]. The name Argu is found in the Enisei inscriptions as Tängir (Tängri) Arqu El ("Divine state Arku"), Arqu, Arqy [Bekjan, 2001, p. 476-483]. Most likely, its other designation in Eniseica (Enisei-related studies - Translator's Note) was Tängri El "divine/heavenly state" (E 3, E 14, E 15).
The Manichaean name Sakal/Sakla survived in the name of the Altai seok Sagal. The title Kara-chor survived in the name of ulus Karachör (17th century) and in the name of a clan Kara-Shor [Potapov, 1969, p. 136]. The chronologically vague message of the (Chinese) annals says: “When Uigurs began to weaken gradually, Ajo (Ynal) declared himself a Kagan. His mother was a daughter of Türgesh [Kagan], he made her a [widow] Katun. His spouse was a daughter of Karluk yabgu, he made her Katun " [Ouyang Xiu , ch. 2176, p. 1531, f. 12b]. The Karluks were Shir-Karluks, in the events of 709-711 they were headed by Shir-Irkin, aka Arslan-Irkin, i.e. they also were Manichaeans.
The Manichaean lexicon of the Enisei runiform monuments repeat a part
of Talas Manichaeans terminology (ynal, ögä, etc.). The name
of consortium otuz oγlan "thirty young men" (i.e. oglan warriors sent
by Primogenitor to fight against the forces of Darkness?) finds
analogy in otuz er "thirty soldier-men" in the Enisei texts (for
example, E 32 on the left bank of the river Uibat, above the confluences of
the river Bei). Its exact Chinese translation calque is sanshi jen "thirty men”. When
the emperor Gao-tszun (650-684) in 664 made a sacrifice at the mountain Tai
("Tai" is a generic name “mountain" in
Türkic - Translator's Note) , he was accompanied by “(about) thirty men" of Manichaean Karluks [Lü Süy, ch. 194à, p. 1440, f. 9à].
The ancient Türkic term er ("herr"
in Germanic spelling - Translator's Note) quite often
meant a head of a tribe and was its symbol (for example, toquz eg "nine
men”, Tokiz-Oguzes; jeti eren "seven men”, seven Oguz tribes).
Their Chinese correspondences were tszü sin "nine surnames" and tsi sin
"seven surnames”. For that reason the combination otuz er "thirty
men" should correspond to Chinese sanyshi sin "thirty
surnames - tribes”, i. e. a Manichaean consortium within a
tribe or confederation [alternate: Chavannes, 1912, p. 84, Bombaci, 1971, p. 117, Rybatzki, 2000, p. 228]. The combination Otuz Tatar
(< *otuz-er Tatar: KTb, 14) corresponds to Chinese sanshi sin
dada [Se Tszunchjen, 1992, p. 445: sanshi sin si-kai] which means
not a "Thirty Tribe Tatars" or "Tatars, consisting of thirty
tribes”, but "Tatars with a Manichaean consortium otuz er”, the Tatars-Manichaeans. The last is confirmed by the the name cha an Tatar "white Tatars"
of the "Secret tale" [Poucha, 1956, p. 31, 57], "cha an alchy Tatar"
for "white Alchi-Tatars" in the same documents [Van Govei, 1959, 3, p. 642, 794-795]. Are also known the sanshi sin basimi "Basmyls with consortium otuz er"
[Schlegel, 1896, p. 27-28: “forty Basmyl tribes”, Kamalov, 2001, p. 180: “Basmyls of 40 surnames"].
About Beshbalyk Basmyls is also known that their leader, an Ashinian, had a title Yduk-Kut (BK, 25), usual for the Manichaeism
rulers in Turfan [Arat, 1963, p. 150-157, especially: Rybatzki, 2000, p. 253-255, 269-271]. The Türkic Bilge-Kagan in one of the texts is
called sanshi sin kehan "Kagan with Manichaean consortium otuz er"
[Tsen Chünmian, 1958, p. 809-825]. The first line of Kül-Tegin
inscription begins with the words of Bilge-Kagan addressed to the highest
ranks of the state. The last letters of the line are interrupted on
the word otuz... Tsen Chünmian in the Chinese translation of inscription used there a
combination sanshi sin ("thirty surnames - tribes”) [Tsen Chünmian, 1958, p. 878, 889]. The above discourse compels to reconstruct the missing letters and to read
the last words of the inscription otuz er ("thirty men”) .
In 724 (Chinese) emperor Süan-tszun organized a magnificent reception for envoys of different countries. Among invited are mentioned “wise rulers (syan van) of the left and right sides" with consortiums sanshi sin (otuz er) [Lu Sui (Xu Liu) , ch. 23, p. 272, f. 12à-b]. The expression syan van "wise ruler" originates in the social terminology of the ancient Sünnu, it designated the successors to the throne. In the 6-8th centuries annalists used it only in references to the Eastern Türks-Tutszüe.
Later the image of otuz eg and sanshi sin has changed, became vague. Juvaini wrote "Uigurs believe that the beginning of their origin and growth was on the banks of the river Orkhon (Arqωn), with its sources in the Kara-Korum mountain... and thirty rivers flow from it, along each river lived a different "tribe" [Radloff, 1893, p. 56, Juvaini, 1958, 1, p. 54]. Further, he says that their ancestor was Buku - khan [Bügü: Pelliot, 1930, p. 22]. J.Marquart saw in this man a historical Bögü-Kagan, who converted Uigurs to Manichaeism [Marquart, 1912, p. 466-7]. According to the Chinese version, the rise of Buku-khan was accompanied by a presence of thirty (version: forty) ruler men and acquisition of a title Ürüng-digin [Song Lian, ch. 122, p. 1425, f. la-b, Su Tiantszüe, ch. 28, p. 325, Huan Venbi, 1983, p. 462-3].
The founder of the first dynasty of the Türgesh state before the
enthronization was a Tutuk-commander of the Talas district and a town Balu, known
from 658 and surviving till the time of Mahmud Kashgari (11th century). His son and successor Sakal/Sakla
was also from there. They both were had a church rank of Yuzlik
("having a hundred - yuz”, "leader of a hundred") and were Kagans
of the first dynasty. The word Balu symbolizes some relation to a divine
or heavenly sphere. The same is attested by the (Chinese) term
huan ("golden-yellow", "royal"), symptomatic for
the Tiantszy ("sons of the Sky”) Chinese emperors, used by
Chinese to designate their dynasty. The both Türgesh dynasts were leaders of Manichaean
consortium yüz er "hundred men”, judging by their ranking
title Yuzlik (yüzlig). Their residence (Great horde) was the city Suyab in the valley of the river Chu.
The Türgeshes of the "black surname”, or Kara-Türgeshes, were located in the Talas valley. In the first two decades of the existence of the Türgesh state, their center was the city of Talas and its environs. In the texts of the Talas monuments their Manichaean “school" colony was called otuz oγlan “thirty young men”.
Despite of a common "Talas" origin, two consortiums were in some opposition. Immediately after the death of the first all-Türgesh dynast (706) and enthronization of Sakal, also an Yuzlik, the confrontation grew aggressive, with a frank hostile character. The leader of the Talas Kara-Türgeshes Chje'nu, not being able to occupy with his own forces the throne in Suyab, applied for military support to Eastern Türkic Kapagan-Kagan. Military campaign of Eastern Türks in Jeti-su came in 708. But the Türkic soldiers lead their horses not into the Chuy valley, but against Kara-Türgeshes of Talas, and inflicted a severe defeat on them. The situation was repeated in 738, when the members of the huan-Òürgesh dynasty invited military troops from the Tang state, Fergana, Chach, Kesh and other possessions, and they crushed the army of Kara-Türgesh Kagans both in Suyab, and in Talas.
Sayan-Altai lands belonged to the possessions of Türgesh Kaganate. A similar picture was there too. In an inscription from the left bank of Enisei in the eastern corner of Koibal steppe (E 27, line 6), the hero memoriant tells about a defeat of the otuz er "thirty men" consortium: qadyr yaγyda otuz erig ölürtüm, "in a grave war I killed "thirty men”. From the name of Tarhan-sangun, who died
together with headed by him consortium otuz er the third
monument on the left bank of the middle course of Uibat (E, 32)
says: otuz er bashlayu tutuγqa bard [ym] adyryldym, "in the head of "thirty men" I
joined fight - and separated”. Parting with the consortium yüz qadash "hundred
kins" of alty[baγ] people "six uluses”, a kalyktyk (?) Ynal-ogya informs: yaγida otuz er ölürdim, "from the enemies I have killed "thirty men" [Kormushin, 1997, p. 60-63, 99-117, 169-174].
These monuments were or are still remaining in the territory of Tuva.
In 1915, during a trip to Northwest Mongolia, B.Ya.Vladimirtsov found in a valley of the river Tes a small inscription in Türkic runiform letters. It was carved on a granite rock between the river Tes and Hunduin mountain on the right bank of the river. The inscription consisted of one line and two tamgas. At the bottom of inscription is a "figure as a cross in a circle with four beams”. In 1969 and 1973 the inscription was surveyed again by S.G.Klyashtorny. He published materials that did not see a light of the day in their time, and the translation of the inscription made by B.Ya.Vladimirtsov. The inscription was carved in unusual way: upside down. The influence of Enisei runiform script is felt from some paleographic features in the inscription. One of the tamgas in the text is typologically similar to one of three Kagan tamgas of the Uigur dynasty recorded on the Eletmish-Kagan monument in Mogoin Shine Usu. "A tamga located below inscription belongs to a circle of Enisei Kyrgyz signs, however its connection with the inscription is unprovable”, - writes S.G.Klyashtorny. He offered his version of reading the inscription and translation, different from those by B.Ya.Vladimirtsov.
Vladimirtsov - (a)lp (a)shun [tamga] Türk (a)lp (a)shun b(i)t(i)d(i)m. (y)z(y)n b(a)rt(y)m
- “Heroic Shun (Shon, Ashun, Ashon); [tamga], Türkic heroic Shun (Shon, Ashun, Ashon); I wrote, in the spring I went".
Klyashtorny - alp shul [tamga] tüpesh alp shul bitidim äsän olurtym
- "[I], Alp Shul [from a clan with these tamgas]. I, Tüpesh Alp Shul, [this] wrote. I was [then] healthy (intact) (version: I was then Esen)”.
S.G.Klyashtorny wrote “Thus, the most probable dating of inscription is possible within the second half
of the 8th century, it can be attributed to a person from a clan
of Uigur Kagans (clan Yaglakar)" [Klyashtorny, 1978, p. 152-155].
In its degree of high historical information this brief visitor's inscription is unique and can surpass other multi-line inscriptions. Judging by the photo reproduced (p. 153) in the S.G.Klyashtorny article, the runiform letters in the inscription (21 total) were whitened to create contrast with the stone background and convenience of photographing. After the first five letters in the beginning of the line follows the tamga composition (Fig. 1à, b), consisting of signs (1à) and under it (1b). The sign (1à) is a baby cradle with two ropes on the sides for suspension under birches in the springtime. A curved line connected at the top (or below on the images) with the cradle or a cord is a "baby's dummy" tube fixed under a notch on the birch, "for the birch's sweet juice to dribble through tube into his son mouth”. Finally, the sign (1b) is a urinal tube "tüpek" made of cleaned intestine, by which the baby's urine flows down to a leather sack. That is the semantics of the tamga composition 1à, b.
In the Uigur Eletmish-Kagan monument (Fig. 2à, b, c; here 2à) is
really present an image of a baby cradle (1à) in the tamga
composition in the top part [Ramstedt, 1912, taf. 2]. The sign (2b) is a rhombus
with the sharp end down, an universal sexual symbol of the woman
found everywhere [Antonova, 1984, p. 142-144]. As
a closest and indicative evidence of this meaning of
the "rhombus" can serve a rhombus in the same position with arising inside
of it hoofed animal in Noin Ula collection from
the turn of the eras, [Rudenko, 1962, p. 78, 80, fig. 57b]. In the Uigur
composition to the left of "rhombus" is a sickle of a young
moon (Fig. 2à), a cosmogenic twin of a woman, a Katun-Queen, a
clan of Princess and Katun. On the other side of the top was carved a large circle of
a full moon, the residence of deities, who are the purifiers of
Soul alive, the intermediary between Light and Darkness, where a righteous soul of a Manichaean was freed
from the terrestrial pollutants [Smagina, 1998, p. 450-451]. The
composition in the top can viewed as the thoughtful and complete image of the Manichaean Khatun consortium. But the
combination "rhombus" - "cradle" (2b+2à, 2b+1à, woman + baby cradle) was
not a property of Eltemish monument only. From a private message by S.Harjaubai-uly, this combination is found in Shivet-Ulan funeral complex, in an inscription on
the Bichigt-buts rock (Gobi - Altai), among tamgas on a Taihar-chulu rock(Hoit-Tamryn), Baishin-Dzur and in other places. This combination is typical not only for Uigur monuments, but reflected a phenomenon intrinsic
to different ethnic groups.
In a rare occasion: the title-name of the visitor inscription hero was recorded in the Chinese annals in a section about Kyrgyzes. The ancient Türkic term alp "sharpshooter”, "brave", "courageous" was written with the hieroglyph Ñ1925 he (<γap). The word sol "left" was written with the hieroglyph Ñ14346 su (< suo) and tszu (< t'suo). He means "brave", su means “left”, i.e. brave sharpshooter from the left hand, - says the New edition of the "History of Tang dynasty" [Ouyang Xiu , ch. 217b, p. 1531, f. 12à, Bichurin, 1, p. 356]. The annals recorded two alps. The "name" of the first alp was Tabu (< t'ap-puo < tapuγ, compare tapuγ "service", "servitude", which includes "service to god"). The "name" of another alp was Ñ567, 1992 Chju-u (ts'iu-nguo < süngü, compare the Türkic süngü lance").
In 821 a daughter of the Tang's emperor Syan-tszun (806-820) by the name Tai-he became a katun - spouse of the Uigur Kagan (Kun Tengride Ulug Bolmish, 821 - 824 - Translator's Note) . The establishment of marriage relations between Uigur Kagan and (Chinese) imperial house Li expected, among other things, establishment of political and military mutual aid of the marrying parties. Tai-he went through three consecutively superseding Kagans Kuch Kuchluk Bilge Kagan, 824 - 832, Tengride Kut Bolmish, Kuch Bilge Kagan, 832 - 839, Tengride Kut Bolmish, Kuchluk Bilge Kagan - Translator's Note), and retained exclusive position in the state until the last days of its existence. In the 839-840 in the country of Uigurs happened a terrible djut and mass dieing of cattle, the famine and spreading epidemics decimated a significant part of the population, begun boiling civil tumults. It was a catastrophe on a state scale.
The last stroke was inflicted by Enisei Kyrgyzes. According to the Chinese
annalistic tradition, Kyrgyzes were descendants of a Han general Li
Lin who surrendered in 99 BC to the Sünnu shanyu
(Kutigu Shanyu, 101-96 BC - Translator's Note) and was appointed
to govern the Enisei Kyrgyzes (who in this
funny Chinese annalistic tradition are held to this day as his
descendents - Translator's Note) . Thus, the Kyrgyzes and the Tang's
dynasts from the house Li were ostensibly united by a family relationship.
With a victorious raid of 840, the Kyrgyzes captured and
burnt the golden horde, a court of the Uigur Yaglakar-Kagan. The Kagan was
killed, and Tai-he fell into the hands Kyrgyzes.
To legitimize their rights over the conquered people and the country, according to the traditional laws of the Steppe, the ruler had to marry the widow of the defeated enemy. But the Kyrgyz rulers were considered to be the descendants of the Han general Li Lin and hence, like the Tang dynasty, carried a surname Li. This "blood-related" marriage was impossible, and Kyrgyz Kagan decided to send Tai-he to Changan, thus depriving Uigurs of the only remaining hope for a military help from the Tang side.
With the purpose to prevent military help from the Tang side, in 841 Kyrgyzes sent to the Tang's capital a mission led by Dulüishi He (< tuo-liwo-sie γap < *tölüsh alp). On a fifth day the expedition was intercepted by the remaining Uigurs led by a new Kagan Utsze (Ugi Tekin, 841 - 845 - Translator's Note) . The escort of the Chinese-born Katun was totally mowed down, and she again fell into Uigur fold, now as a spouse-Katun of the new Uigur Kagan.
More than a year the Kyrgyz Kagan was waiting for the return of the embassy. Ignorant about the sutuation, Kagan send a new embassy. It was headed by Tapug Alp-Sol.
In the 10th moon of 842 (6 November - 5 December) to the fort Tian-de arrived the Kyrgyz envoy with a letter from Kagan (Yaglakar, 840-847 - Translator's Note) . He said that Kyrgyzes did not have any news about the Dulüishi He (Tölüsh-alp) embassy and the princess [Suprunenko, 1963, p. 63]. The further story of the embassy is unknown. By a sequence of events in the story, it came to the Tang's capital, but did not return home.
The information about the beginning of the third embassy, led by Süngü Alp Sol, are divergent. Known is only that only after three-year wandering it could reach the Tang's capital.
The continuation of the line in the Tes 2 inscription after a word separator it reads:
(a)lp sol b(i)t(i)d(i)m. t(e)z(i)p b(a)rt(i)m “I, Alp Sol, wrote (this). I fled (from captivity, literally: “I, fleeing, went")”. The combined translation
of the line is: “(I) Alp Sol from a clan (tamga) Tüpek. I
wrote (this). I fled [from captivity]" [compare: Kyzlasov, 1994, p. 192].
Changan was glad to find a convenient (because of remoteness) and strong ally in struggle against Uigurs. Süngü Alp Sola was invited to inner chambers in the palace, in the receptions he was placed above other ambassadors. In his guest court were sent a highly educated ranking Wei Tszintsun and a court painter Lüi Shu, "to arrange an informal meeting, to find out similarity and distinction, to inventory in detail deficiencies and omissions, to clearly describe the sounds [of language] of the foreigners, to write down the location of mountains and rivers”. They were charged with compiling an illustrated composition, an album "Wan huei tu”. A minister Li Deüi reported to the emperor: “I ordered the painter Lüi Shu to paint portraits of Chju-u He-su with others, and place them above the description. Not counting on outward descriptions, I simultaneously wrote a foreword" [Li Deüi, 1936, book 1, ch. 2, p. 12, book 2, ch. 18, p. 152, Suprunenko, 1963, p. 71, 79].
The name Alp Sol is found once again in an inscription on the City wall (E 144): “(I) Alp Sol. When is destroyed the sinful (literaly: low)... " [Kyzlasov, 1994, p. 191]. Both heroes (Tapug Alp Sol and Süngü Alp Sol) were envoys of Kyrgyz Kagan, also a "Kagan of Light" (see below), fighting with a Manichaean Uigur Kagan, who in the eyes of the Kyrgyzes represented an embodiment of forces of Darkness. Possibly, sending the ambassadors and their titles reflect the fable about soldiers of Light sent to battle the forces of Darkness.
S.G.Klyashtorny noted a "Kyrgyzism" in some paleographic features of the inscription, and presence in Eniseica
(Enisei-related studies - Translator's Note) of a sign located under it [Klyashtorny, 1978, fig. 6]. In a figure on the rock Dzurdzin-ova (Zavkhan aimak, Mongolia) this sign is placed near
present in Alp-sol inscription an baby cradle (Fig. 8). Its easily recognized image
is contained in the Tang's "quartermaster register of tamgas”, preserved in the composition " Tanghuyao": “Horses
from Ta-Ashide, their tamga is
“[Wan Pu, ch. 72, p. 1307]. In that register, among 43 names of tribes, three tribes are designated by a word (transcription) Ñ5042, 11010, 5312 阿史德 A-shi-de < A-si-tak < Ashtaq~ [Pelliot, 1929]. The word Ashtak ascends to the to Middle Persian 'cydh'k-ajdahak "dragon" and has no ethnic meaning. In the Manichaeism, the dragon with a head of a lion is a king of a
Darkness world and Matter, and its presence within the name of this or that Türkic ethnic collective of
that time testifies about their Manichaean creed.
The first transcriptional part of the binomial Ñ5834 ta (< t'at)
corresponds to the middle Persian tat. This term also has no
concrete ethnogeographical address. Persians were called Tats
(by the Türks? - Translator's Note) when they had to be distinguished from Kurds, Arabs and Türks [Oransky, 1963, p. 122-123]. The wide circulation of this designation and
its characteristic were examined in a number of studies
[Minorsky, 1937, p. 408, Pelliot, 1950, p. 155, Savin, 1980, p.
143]. Türks of the Central Asia called Tats the inhabitants of numerous
Sogdian trading and craft colonies [Klyashtorny, 1964, p. 122-123].
A close connection of Sogdian colonies with nomadic Türks is
indicated by the words of Bilge-Kagan monument: “My hearty speech you
(all) to the sons [of people] “ten arrows" and Tats... recognize! "
(BK 10b, 15). In the 11th century Türks still remembered a proverb: Tatsyz
Türk bolmaz, bashsyz börk bolmaz, "There is no Türk without Tat
as there is no cap without a head" [Mahmud Kashgari, 1, 1, p. 326, Ancient Türkic Dictionary, p. 541]. Both Türks, and Uigurs west from Beshbalyk were called Tats
[Mahmud Kashgari, 1, p. 446-447]. Thus, to state something certain
about the ethno-linguistical attribution of the Tat-Ashtaks in that document is inappropriate, though the term Ashtak is typical only for the Türkic
world. An only common element in the addressed monuments is only their tamga
From the use there of the term
Ashtak, this image belongs to the category of Manichaean symbology, in this case probably originating in Zoroastrism, like so much in Manichaeism.
The third line of the Golden Lake second inscription (E, 29) in I.V.Kormushin's
reading contains words which cou;d be used for an epigraph of this paragraph: Azru[a] alqanyp erdem[l]ig män ”...
After praising [god] Zurvan, I shall find valour again!" [Kormushin, 1997, p. 66-74, compare Vasiliev, 1983, p. 25]. In Persian mythology, Zurvan (~Zervan, Sogdian "zrw”) is the Almighty
God. He is thought of as an infinite time existing primordially, father of Ormazd and Ahriman, more powerful than Good and Evil. The outcome of struggle between Good and Evil, human destiny, and all events
in this world are predetermined by Zurvan [Boyes, 1987, p. 84-87]. In
Manichaeism, Zurvan is also possessing these qualities. Zurvan is
a god of Greatness, Father of Light, the God of True, absolute, an immeasurable incomprehensible and hidden deity, a primogenitor of
all light substances. In the Chinese Manicheica (Manichaeism-related studies -
Translator's Note) it is rendered with words Ñ8414, 492 Da Shen "Great Saint”. In Chinese treatise the Messenger
of Light (Mani) tells the clerics that Da Shen is one for
three worlds, He is universal for everything alive, He is a father and
mother of compassion, He is a great conductor in three worlds, He is a medicine for suffering souls, it is the upper sky as a
shell everything in existence, He is also a true land producing true
fruits, He is also a great sea of sweet for everything alive, He is also a
wide, great, sweet smelling mountain of jewelry, He is also a precious
diamond column supporting everything, He is a great, skilful and
dexterous captain in a huge sea, He is also a sympathizing helping
hand always ready for those in trouble, He is a central substance among all light
substances, He is Gate of Light (i.e. Teaching?), freeing from strong prisons
of three worlds [Chavannes, Pelliot, 1911, p. 557, 586, 592-593, 607].
In Türkic Manichaeism Zurvan (Azrua) came as the most significant figure of a pantheon. Repenting in his sins, the Manichaean layman says in a pray: “And because we all sinned and erred against the base and root of all light souls, against the pure and light God Zurvan (Azrua), because [we said] that Light and Darkness, gods and demons, base and root is Him [Zurvan], as [we said] that if [who] is reviving, it is God [Zurvan] [reviving], and if [who] kills it is God [Zurvan] that kills, as we said that God [Zurvan] [created] all good and bad, as we said that He [created] eternal gods, as [we said] that god Hormusta and [demon] Shymna are younger and senior brothers (inilü ichilü), oh my God, not understanding this [in the heart], in respect to God [Zurvana] falsely we so significant words spoke" [Huastuanift, 21-24, Asmussen, 1965, p. 168-169, 193-194].
Judging by Türkic-Manichaean texts from Turfan, god Zurvan somehow correspond with the concept of qut "goodness", being a center of the country of gods, i.e. of the country of Light [Zieme, 1972, p. 31, 49]. The first seal (Türkic, tamγa) of the god Zurvan was amranmaq love [Huastuanift, 141].
The hero of the second inscription from Kyzyl-Chiraa (E, 44) is
Külüg-Togan, son of Arslan-Külüg-Tirig (line 6). The term
tirig means "life", "alive". In Manichaeism the concepts "life", "alive" are
inherent only to Light, they are alien to the Darkness, and are used
as equivalent to concepts of Light and goodness [Smagina, 1998, p.
405]. In "Iki yyltyz nom" god of the Moon is called ölügüg
tiriglügli beg ay Tengri "resurrecting the dead lord Ay-Tengri" [Le Coq, 1912, p. 24]. Arslan "Lion" is a head of
a dragon Ashtak, king of a Darkness world and a material world. Farewell
to the Sun and Moon is expressed by words: kün ay siz yyta “you, the Sun and
the Moon, my sorrow!" (line 3). In Manichaeism a cult of gods of the Sun and Moon has a special status. They
are created by Spirit alive, these are the only light substances
visible in a material world. On the Sun live gods-demiurges, on the Moon live
gods-purifiers of Soul alive. The Sun and Moon serve as only gates through which
the souls of righteous humans get into the country of Light. To them were
addressed the daily (four times) prays of Selected (dyntar) and Students-auditors (niγoshak).
Digression about the Sun and the Moon
The majority of the world nations had a cult of the Sun and the Moon. Written records about the peoples of the Central Asia record that the cult is known since the Sünnu times. In approximately 167 BC the Sünnu ruler Shanyu Laoshan sent to the emperor Han a letter on a wooden board, beginning with the words: Tian di soshen ji üe sochji Sünnu da shanuy “Born by the Sky and the Earth, enthroned by the Sun and the Moon great Sünnu shanuy" [Sima Qian, ch. 123, p. 1037, f. 16b].
This title clearly depicts the correlation Sky~Sun, Earth~Moon, symbolizing their equal status position in space and the identical position of the male ("royal") and female ("queen's") order in the dynastic coalition in the state as mini-models of their cosmic co-rule. It reflects the condition of the family in a transitional stage. That situation continued for many centuries. In the eastern Türkic Kaganate, the Kagan ("royal”) was Sharduly ("Sun-bird" and "Sun - deer") of the Ashina ("blue [Sky]") tribe. The Khatun's ("queen's") clan were Shirs ["lion of the full moon", expression of E.Zehren, 1976], heading the tribe Ashtak, i.e. Edizes, the descendants of the gynocratic lunar tribe and of the Uechji (Pin. Yuezhi) state. The example of Sünnu also apply to characterize the society of Eastern Türks, which by then did not yet pass a stage of "brotherly family", and was not dominated by a patriarchal type of a family. Therefore the self-glorification of Bilge-Kagan "born by the Sky" can be perceived only as an appeal for, and attempt to legitimize the Kagan unilateralism (only the Sky and the Sun) that did not take hold. I na word, the Sun and the Moon (~Kagan and Katun) existed in the cosmogenic and terrestrial consciousness of Eastern Türks as conflicting and separate, but equal rank duality.
In Türkic-Buddhist texts the joint mention of the Sun and Moon
(kün ay) does not carry a genealogical meaning [Bang, Gabain, 1931, p. 333, Bang, Gabain, Rachmati, 1934, p. 159]. The same apply to the Türkic-Manichaean literature and other sources containing information about Türkic Manichaeism. The Chinese transcriptions of the ethnonyms
Chigil (Ch. Chuüe "abode of the
Moon [god]", küngul) and Chumul (Ch. Chumi "abode of the
Sun [god]”) are probably connected with representation of a ship (kemi.)
E.B.Smagina wrote "Could be the name ships implied a role of stars in the salvation of righteous souls”. The Sun was called a Ship of Day or a Ship of Live Fire. There lived demiurge ("demiurge" has two opposing meanings of creator of the universe and subordinate deity, which one the author is using is not stated - Translator's Note) Deities: Great spirit, Spirit alive and a Third Messenger. The Moon was a Ship of Night or the Ship of Live Water. On the Moon lived purifier deities, Primogenitor, Jesus-Brilliancy and Maiden of Light [Smagina, 1998, p. 416, 450]. In the “Sacred book of two fundamentals" the Sun and Moon are called deities (kün tangri, ay tangri) [Le Coq, 1912, p 24]. In the “Sacred book" they are together, a pair. Manichaeans did not see, or did not want to see a difference between the Sun and the Moon and the deities Sun and Moon: Kün Tangri is "Sun God", Ay Tangri is “Moon God" [Asmussen, 1965, p. 205]. In the “Repentance prayer" the Sun and Moon are joined as one deity: Kün Ay Tangri "God of Sun and Moon”, located "in two shining [light] palaces" iki yaruq ordu ichrä [Huastuanift, 40]. On a column of light, as the Milky Way was perceived, the righteous souls were rising to the Moon, where was happening their purgation (ablution) from the terrestrial pollutants. Not for nothing was taken that the Moon was created from the Water elements.
Reading Enisei inscriptions (E 8 line 1 Baryk 4, E 10 line 3 Elegest 1, E 12 line 3 Aldyy-Bel, E 44 line 3 Kyzyl-Chiraa 2, E 92 line 1 Demir-Sug, E 147 line 4 Eerbek 1, E 149 line 3 Eerbek 2) located mainly in the territory of Tuva, creates an impression that their authors perceived Sun and Moon as a two-dual cosmic body on a blue (i.e. day time) heavenly vault (Fig. 9). In the majority (except for E 8, E 44) cases, the memoriant of the inscriptions is sorrow about his parting with "Sun - Moon in the blue sky" (kök tängridä Kün Ay).
Fig. 9. The god of Sun and the god of Moon.
Rich with information for the subject of this research is a text of the first
inscription from a left bank of Enisei near its confluence with the river Elegest (E 10) [Kormushin, 1997, p. 228-242].
The memoriant of the inscription lived in the of Körtle-khan (Körtle-qan)
state, the Khan bestowed his shoulder and a belt with a scarlet stripe (line 5).
In the second (by time of detection) inscription from Elegest (E 52) a memoriant carries a name Körtle-sangun [Kormushin, 1997, p. 174, 177]. The combination körtle-khanym “my Körtle-khan" was found in a fragment of a Manichaean text from Turfan [Zieme, 1975, p. 81]. The word körtle means "beautiful", "gorgeous", but are known cases of its "independent" (without a determinant word) uses, whereas in the illustrated word-combinations it also becomes a substantive as a "beauty".
The concept of beauty is common to all humankind, and belongs to all faiths. A special relation to it distinguishes the Manichaean doctrine. A true beauty is inherent only to the creations of Light. It is also normal to the creatures of the material world, but the beauty of the material world is imperfect and transitional, like the transitory and mortal beauty of Adam and Eve, only similar to the beauty of the Third Messenger of Light, but born by the Matter. In them, just like in animals and plants, is contained the Soul alive. In the eastern Manichaeism the concepts of Light, Beauty and Soul alive are frequently adequate (adequate = sufficient? More suitable to the content is “equivalent" - Translator's Note) [Gershevich, 1980, p. 279-280, Litvinsky, Smagina, 1992, p. 514, Smagina, 1998, p. 402, 417].
In its turn, the Soul alive in the Manichaeism texts are the five oglan-elements
of the Primogenitor, named a God of Zephyr (Tyntura Tängri), a God of
Wind (Yil Tängri), a God of Light (Yaruq Tängri), a God of Water (Suv
Tängri), a God of Fire (Ot Tängri)
[Huastuanift, 71-73]. These are five sons, five soldiers, five
garbs and weapon, sent by Primogenitor to a struggle against antipodes in the country of Darkness and Evil, which
are: a Smoke, a Wind (Storm), a Darkness, a Water (Poison), a Fire (Inferno).
During the fight these and those became mutually bound, they mixed
up, they formed a zone of Mixture. The Light elements remained there
and stay until now, suffering grief and excruciation, but continue
struggling. The Chaos-Mixture served for creation by demiurge-deities of the Belt, i.e.
the cosmic world (compare above belt) where live gods of the Sun and Moon, and
also a Judge of human souls.
The forces of the Darkness started to give back the Light mixed in them, and the Sun and Moon started to cloister in heavens collecting Light and purifying it. The pair combination Sun - Moon (Kün Ay) is one of Manichaean attributes. It is noted in line 3 of the examined inscription, and also in a number of others: E 22 (Demir-Sug) line 1, E 42 (Bai-Bulun 1) line 7, E 147 (Eerbek 1) line 4, E 149 (Eerbek 2) line 3, E 8 (Baryk 4). They belong to eastern group of inscriptions and are located in the eastern part of Upper Enisei depression, east from the Haiyrakan mountain and a right tributary of Enisei, the river Ejim. The inscriptions of that group name the "Hundred Kömüls" people [Kormushin, 1997, p. 14-15].
Külüg-Togan was from Yuz-Kömül people: sizimä yüz kömül bodunum adyryltim “from you, my people Yüz Kömül I separated (i.e. I have died)" (line 4) [Vasiliev, 1983, p. 30-31, Scherbak, 1964, p. 141-143]. The hero of an inscription from district Köjeelig-Hovu (right bank of the river Ejim, tributary of Ulug-Hem, E 45) had a boy's (oγlan ) name Chubuch-Ynal and (church, i.e. baptismal) name Kömül-Ogya (line 1). In the seventh line he informs "From you, my Light (Ürüng) and my Darkness (Qara), [I separated]”. Kömül-Ogya continues "[Before] I did not have Yüz Kömül people... I found a multitude of Kömüls. I, Kömül, made a trivial great" (line 9-10) [Vasiliev, 1983, p. 31, Scherbak, 1964, p. 143-145]. About parting with (people) Yüz Kömül exclaims a memoriant of the inscription from El Baji place (E 68) [Kormushin, 1997, p. 202].
The term kömül is found only in these inscriptions and bears an
openly Manichaean character. It is possible that it corresponds with
the name of the city Kamul/Kumul (modern Khami
in the NW part of the Khami - Turfan province on the southern slopes of
the Tian shan eastern boundary in the Uigur Autonomous Province of the Chinese People's Republic). Komul
(in form Qomul) was mentioned in the text in a fragment of a Manichaean
prayer. An indigene from it was considered to be an exemplary
Manichean [Toru Haneda, 1932, p. 3]. Apparently, the
term Kömül suffered the same fate as the Talas Chigil: this
name began to designate Türkic tribes that had their own name, but who accepted Manichaeism
(Like the new ethnonym for Christian Tatars, called Kryashens,
meaning Christian, but applied to ethnic Tatars; the ethnonym Tatars is lost for them).
About connection that existed some time ago between the “descendants of Li Lin" (Kyrgyzes) with Komul, testifies for example such important and noted in written sources fact that still in 982, a report about Sung embassy to Gaochan wrote about existence, in vicinity of Komul, of a slab inscription made by Li Lin [Toto, ch. 490, p. 5680, f. 96]. The work of Yuan Dahua "Sintszian tu chji" [Description of Sintszian with maps, ch. 88, f. 1b] says: “This place must be east from Hami, near a settlement Teerbantszin and village Ikeshu”. The "Itunchji" says that now (19th century) the inscription is not visible [Malyavkin, 1974, p. 88, 166].
The word yüz means "hundred", "centurion". The combination yüz kömül can reflect a Manichaean religious consortium, like yüz er "hundred men" of the Manichaean schoolmaster (mar), who have their residence "house" (toruγ "rest stop") of the Kyrgyz Sudja inscription (line 7). "Oh, my oglans, among men (er) be like my instructor-mar!" appeal the hero of the inscription. In the last line he calls his son with the name Arslan "Lion" [Klyashtorny, 1959, 1991].
About the house (eb) also says an inscription from the Kökton enclave on the left bank
of the river Uük. (E 2) [Vasiliev, 1983, p. 14, Kormushin, 1997, p. 258]. As to a word ev/eb "house" should be recollect
the Manichaean monastery in Samarkand, called the house.
Manichaean monks live in it together, the believers live a community. The source says: “Men and women live together, each surname consist of thousand (hundred?) or from five
hundred people, together they have one house, one bed, one bedcover" [Du Yu, ch. 200, f. 9b]. Probably, the "house" in
general was a predominant name for Manichaean chapels, monastery "schools", or all
of it combined. A "house" (eb) of Manichaean schoolmaster (qara mar) existed in Talas [Djumagulov, 1963, p.
38-39]. The Arab author Abu Dulaf wrote about houses-chapels, and
their audible measured voices during prayer reading among Kyrgyzes [Ronrsauer, 1939, p. 212].
The Supreme ruler of Kyrgyzes had a title Ynal [Yakhontov, 1970], a title equivalent to the title Kagan. Chubuch-Ynal, who received a church (baptismal) name Kömül-ogya (Türkic-Manichaean. ögä "wise", "wise man"), “gathers" Kömüls, “makes minor great”, gives Manichaeism a state status. A second name of the Enisei Kyrgyzes' state became Ñ2109, 7416 Tszüy-u (< kio-miuət < körnül) - Kömül [Ouyang Xiu , ch. 217b, p. 1530, f. 10b, Tsen Chünmian, 1958, p. 725, 729, Schlegel, 1896, p. 81: Kubut].
On the general background of the Kyrgyz Manichaeism, new resonance and interpretation also gain other Chinese news about Enisei Kyrgyzes, connected with the visit of Alp-sol to Changan. In the response letter to Kagan the (Chinese) emperor wrote: “you burned a yurt..., you established the Net!" ("set”, Cyrillic “ñåòü" in Yu.Zuev's original - Translator's Note) [Li Deui, 1936, book 4, ch. 1, p. 285]. Out of numerous stories about foreigners, the Net concept does not show up any more. The war of Kyrgyzes with Uigurs for the possession of the Trade Road lines was at the same time a struggle of coreligionists-Manichaeans, in which each side saw the opponent in an image of Darkness and Evil, a king of which was a Dragon with a body of gold. Even before the events of 840 the Kyrgyz Ynal was threatening the Uigur Kagan: “Soon I shall take your golden yurt!”, and subsequently he personally set it on fire [Ouyang Xiu , ch. 217b, p. 1531, f. 13à]. But the Net remains a main subject. In the Manichaeism, the Net is a Soul Alive, a weapon of the first Catcher, the light-bearing Primogenitor, the emissary of Light and will of the undivided light forces and deities, called Greatness. A Coptic Manichaean treatise says about it: “First Catcher is Primogenitor, sent from Greatness, he fell upon the five dwellings of Darkness, caught and captured the enemy with his strong Net”.
The Chinese designation for the religion of Light was Min-tszyao, and
Mani in a Chinese Manichaean treatise is caled Min-shi "Emisary of Light" [Chavannes, Pelliot, 1911, p. 509, 617].
The testimony of Chubuch-Ynal inscription about giving Manichaeism a status of a (Enisei Kyrgyz - Translator's Note) state religion are backed by the Chinese documents of 845 Chubuch-Ynal(?) is called "Kagan of Light": Tszun-insün - u-chen Min Kehan “Hereditary hero, militant and sincere Kagan of Light" [Ouyang Xiu , ch. 217b, p. 1531, f. 12b, compare Sun MinTsiu, 1959, ch. 128, p. 692]. Chubuch-Ynal successor in 847 had a similar title: In-u-chen Min kehan "Oustanding, militant and sincere Kagan of Light" [Ouyang Xiu , ch. 217b, p. 1532, f. 13à]. The statement about the feats of Kagan of Light does not allow to doubt that he was thought of as a terrestrial embodiment of a divine warrior Primogenitor, who was a first deity that descended to the domain of the Darkness to struggle against its forces.
Under direction of professor L.R.Kyzlasov in the Khakas territory for 16 years were conducted
archeological research which resulted in locating a complex of
monasteries special in their sacral Manichaean symbolism beforehand not
known in science [Kyzlasov, 1998, 1999à]. A thoroughly studied
archeological and accompanying material lead L.R.Kyzlasov to a conclusion about
a state status of the Manichaeism in ancient Khakassia. Its center became
a Khakasso-Minusinsk depression, and then the steppes and mountains of all Sayano-Altai mountains.
Along the valleys of Irtysh, Ob and Enisei Manichaeism penetrated to
multi-lingual natives of Western and Eastern Siberia. The Siberian
Manichaeism was draped not in Buddhist clothes, but in shaman
suit. "Ancient Sayan-Altai Türks and their neighbors in
the 8-19th centuries did not "remain traditional shamanists", as thought many
scientists. Accepting the "general universal religion of Mani" as state
religion, they became "Siberian Manichaeans", because there, in the north, the Central Asian Manichaeism was following its nature of syncretic development and adaptation, absorbed and
transformed the local Southern Siberian shamanistic cults”.
The monuments mentioned confederated with Kyrgyzes Chik people (Chik bodun). In 708 the Eastern Türks fought with Chiks in the Orpen district (BK, 26), identified with the modern Urbün (Republic of Tyva, Russian Federation, 51° 37' North, 92° 27' East - Translator's Note) . Half-century later they suffered a defeat from the army of Uigur Eletmish-Kagan, and became Uigur vassals. The Chiks (Ch. Ñ14480 chi < ts iäk) are mentioned in the list of tribes delivering horses for the Tang dynasty [Wan Pu, ch. 72, p. 1508]. As part of a personal name (Chiki gülai, cika gulai) they were recorded in a Khotan document [Bailey, 1939, p. 87]. Chiks were Manichaeans [Müller, 1913, p. 26, Chyq]. Chigats within Altaians are viewed as their descendants [Potapov, 1969, p. 82-84].
The motives of the Enisei Kyrgyzes' Manichaeism survived in the heroic epos of the modern Kyrgyzes. The native land of its main hero Manas was the blessed and spacious Talas. Manas was a lion (arystan) not only spiritually, but also physically. Through a sacramental manduction of a dragon heart (ajydaar), his mother became herself a dragon of unusual height. The Manas cohort was called kyrk-chor "forty heroes”. They were descendants of a dragon (ajida-ar zaada). Their possible predecessors were divine boys with their community kyrk-bala, who were assisting Manas in younger years.
Baiar (i.e. God Baiar)
Chigils and Shato
The word Chigil (< compare Persian chihil "forty") in the beginning
was a term for a Manichaean “school" consortium in the Argu
country. Subsequently it became a designation for the Türkic tribes
who accepted Manichaeism. First of them were Chigils from the
river Kunges in the valley in western part of the modern Uigur Autonomous
Province of the Chinese People's Republic. Later from the Chigils (Ch.
Chuüe) separated a group named Ñ9188, 3538 Chju-se/sya/e
(reading of the second hieroglyph varies). An another
(or the same) group was called Ñ6836, 12026 Shato (< sa-da < shada).
The term Shada was noted as Manichaean [Haneda, 1932, p. 3, 7]. In the
Uigur documents it is known as sada, it ascends to the Persian sada/sata "hundred". Shato (Shada) was
an official name, but the Shato-emperors of the short-lived state Later Tang (923-936) thought that their tribe
was called Ñ9188, 3538 Chjuse [Se Tszüychjen, ch. 4, p. 20, f. 1à]. Both terms are equivalent, and
reading of the second name ascends to the Türkic language: Chju-se < t'siu-zia <
yüz "hundred". This reconstruction is independently confirmed by the foreign, proto-Mongolian Kidanian designation of this dynasty jaut
"hundred" (Ch. Chjaodin).
Designation yüz er "hundred men" (E 10) can be thought of as a next and highest form of Manichaean consortium between the Türks, reflecting a durability and wide diffusion of religion into society. A general name for Kyrgyzes among whom the Manichaean teaching received a state status, was Kömül. The author of an inscription from a right bank of the river Ejim (tributary of the river Ulug-Hem, E, 45) (aka Ulug-Hem = Upper Yenisei, Kazakhstan, 49° 8' North, 83° 38' East - Translator's Note) heads a consortium yüz kömül "hundred Kömüls”, gethers all Kömüls, makes small great.
The author of the Old Edition of the "History of Five Dynasties" informs that that the ancestor of the Chigils-Shato was Ñ10104, 5095 Ba-e (< b'wat-iai < barya~Baiar). The transcription metathesis in this case is easily established because the same hieroglyphs write down the name of the Oguz tribe Baiar-ku. "Baiar is a name of God in the language of Uigurs and in the Turkestan", wrote Abu Hayyan [Caferoglu, 1931, Pelliot, 1949, p. 188]. The hieroglyphic record of Chuüe (Chigil) contains information: “abode of the Moon [god]”. About the tribe Yagma, also called Qirq Yagma [Brockelmann, 1928] or Qara Yagma [Mahmud Kashgari, 3, p. 41] is known that this name ascends to the "real name of the fourth son of the mythical Moon-ruler Ay-Khan [Shukürova, 1987, p. 65, 109]. In the manuscripts of Rashid ad-Din “Djami at-tavarih" in the Petersburg Public library, British museum, and Teheran museum, his other name was Baiarly [Rashid ad-Din, 1965, p. 120].
The following description helps to narrow down the image of this deity. On
the boundary of the 4th-5th centuries, northwest from Juan-Juan (Avars)
who were located in the middle part of the Great Khingan, existed a “remaining branch of the Sünnu". It was
a rich and strong possession (go). The name of its leader, a personified name of the "branch", was Ñ2393, 10104, 12440, 2593 Jibae-tsi. He attacked Avars and
defeated their army [Li Yanshou, ch. 98, p. 1301, f. 2b, Bichurin, 1, p. 187].
The last hieroglyph of the transcription Ñ2593 tsi (kiei) "to bow head in a bow", "to bow", is probably not a part of the name and means "worshipping", "revering”. The signs Ji-bae (< nziet-b'wat-ia < *Yer Barya-Yer Baiar) reflect the initial name Yer-Baiar, and all combination can be read as “revering the God Baiar lands”, But it could be that the last hieroglyph, with the same meaning, is a part of the name. Then its general reading should be Yer-Baiar-Qi. This would be a first written information about the Oguz tribe Baiarku (compare Tibetian Ba óàr-bgo, Ch. Baegu <b'wat-ia-kuo). That type of constructions are known: yabagu <*yaba/yama qu "revering god Yama" bökligü, kibirgü and such. The term Baiarku is alloethnonym given by their neighbors, like the "Buddhists", "Moslems", "Christians". The ethnic endoethnonym of this tribe is not known. The expression repeating *yer Baiar/*yer Baiarqy of the Chinese annals is found in the runiform text: yyrγaru yer Baiarqu yerinde tegi süledim “I lead the army down to the country revering the god of the land Baiar" (KTm, 4). There is no exact data about localization of Baiarku. It is thought that in the middle of the1st millennia AD the limits of its possession can be delineated by the middle watercourse of Selenga (in Mongolia, 49° N, 104° E - Translator's Note) . Judging by archeological data, it included the Eastern Sayan (Russian Federation, 52° N, 102° E - Translator's Note) and Hamar-Daban (Russian Federation, 51° N, 103° E - Translator's Note) ranges. In the west they bordered Türks, and in the east they bordered Shivei-Tatars, i.e. in the west they reached the lake Khubsugul (in Dornogovi, Mongolia, 43° 36' N, 109° 38' E - Translator's Note) , In the east - up to Khentei (Mongolia, 48° N, 108° E - Translator's Note) and headwaters of Shilka and Argun rivers (in CPR, 50° N, 117° E - Translator's Note) [Khudyakov, 1989, p. 29].
Alongside with Baiarku-Oguzes, are also known Baiarku-Türks (Khotan-Saka Ttrüka Baiarkata). In beginning of the 10th century they were an important political force in the Uiguro-Manichaean Ganchjou state. A Khotan document tells that at their insistence on the Han throne was installed a helpless boy [Bailey, 1949, p. 47].
Mahmud Kashgari wrote that in language of the inhabitants of the Manichaean
country Argu the name of the God Almighty was Baiat [Mahmud Kashgari, 3, p.
186: Ulug tangrining nomi]. The reviewed material allowed to
demonstrate a figure of his anti-similarity, the god of the land Baiar. Their functions and a place in
the Manichaean pantheon will be clarified, if it would be possible to prove that they both are
emanations of the forces of Light and Darkness accordingly.
* * *
During ancient Türkic time in the orbit of Manichaean confessional connections were involved a majority of the Türkic tribes. First of all western Türks, Türgeshes and a Kara-Türgeshes consisting of tribes As and Tuhs, Chigils, Chumuls, Karluks, Kimeks, Baiarku, Kara-Yagma and a Kara-Igil. Then they are the tribes of the Türkic Kaganate and Second Uigur Kaganate, Shada, Chahat-Djalairs and Chagan-Tatars. Kypchaks traditionally worshipped a Milky Way deity. In the eastern Manichaeism the Milky Way is a column of Light, on which angels raise to the Moon the souls of righteous men for purification from terrestrial pollutants.
The Türgesh-Manichaean symbology found reflection in
the Kypchak onomastics, preserved in the Rus annals:
Even the beautiful annalistic story of 1201 about a smell of evshan grass, that induced a young Kypchak prince to return from Georgia to the Steppe, can remind of the Manichaeans' special relation to vegetation.
Manichaeism is one of the world religions, occupying a large place in the historical and cultural life of many peoples from Egypt to Korea in the 3-14th centuries. Being life-affirming and democratic in its base, the Mani teaching everywhere where it was brought to by its missionary activities, oriented on traditional and most influential local beliefs and cults in the country. The inclusion of the local gods into the pantheon was a prominent feature of Manichaeism. Unbending in the observance of the principles and punctilious organization, Manichaeism included their fruitful and rational beginning in its doctrine. Manichaeism "dressed in a shaman suit”. Therefore it also appeared attractive for the Türkic nomads of the Central Asia, especially because in the steppe conditions the Manichaean church - chapel could be anchored in a nomadic yurt next to the court of the leader. "A pray addressed to the God does not require a temple”, tought Mani [Alfaric, 1918, p. 121]. On another occasion a similar trait described Euseus Hieronim in 403 (St. Hieronim, aka St. Jerome, ca. 347 – 420 - Translator's Note) : ”... The army of the Gets (Goths' - Translator's Note) carries with them the tents of the churches" [Hieronim, 1949, p. 229]. Therefore the definition of Manichaeism as a "religion of merchants and city-dwellers" [Ögel, 1992, p. 70] is not totally fair, though the "houses" - manistans (Mani + stan) really existed in the cities and were the centers of the Manichaean movement.
Despite of the long spatial remoteness one from another of the
Manichaean points, and concomitance of Manichaeism and shamanism, the teaching remained whole, and the image of Manichaean manistan
in Bezeklik [Gründwedel, 1920, p. 167, fig. 56] is similar with
unrecognized by researchers image on a red rock Khaya-Baji
(E 24/9) on the right bank of the Hemchik river 8 km above the Iyme settlement [Kyzlasov, 1994, p. 194, fig. 26].
The Manichaean church encouraged trade and viewed it a highly noble and useful vacation. In turn, the trade substantially nurtured Manichaeism and stimulated its spread. Quite often a merchant and a cleric were combined in a single person, as was with the Sogdian Maniach, a “close man" of the Türkic Kagan in Talas. The ancient principle "throne supports a church altar, and the altar supports a throne" already fully worked at the dawn of the ancient Türkic state history: at a diplomatic level Maniach represented Kagan himself and his state. Sogdians were the main functionaries along the whole extent of the East - West trade road ("Silk Road" is a latter days moniker - Translator's Note) . Along the lines of the Road and its numerous indefinitely distant branches were settling trade and craft Sogdian colonies, frequently headed by the Türks. Together with them was coming a Manichaean teaching. Objectively, this was one of the channels for involving the peoples of the huge region in the orbit of active political-economical and cultural ties on the scale of a continent. The Türkic gate on it was Talas.
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In Russian => PDF
Yu. A. Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu. A. Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu. A. Zuev Tamgas of vassal princedoms
Yu. A. Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
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