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Scythian-Iranian theory Abaev's Scythian Word List Scythian Word List from the Sources Abaev on Scythian language
Muzafar Kudaev
Reading of Zelenchuk Inscription
in Malkar (Balkar) language

( "
)
"Kommunizmge Djol", 14 February 1965, page 3,
Cherkessk, Karachay-Cherkess Republic

Addendum to L. Zgusta work
"Old Ossetic Inscription from the River Zelenchuk"

Contents of section Zelenchuk Inscription
Scytho-Iranian hypothesis
V.I.Abaev's Zelenchuk Inscription (bi-lingual)
L.Zgusta Old Ossetic Inscription from River Zelenchuk (Review) (English)
Ya.S.Vagapov's Zelenchuk Inscription Vainakh Reading (in L.Zgusta p. 42 on)
A.Z.Kafoev's Zelenchuk Inscription Adyg Reading (in L.Zgusta p. 46 on)
M.Kudaev's Zelenchuk Inscription Balkar Reading (in Balkar)
M.Kudaev's Zelenchuk Inscription Balkar Reading (in English and Russian)
Miziev's Türkic reading (in L.Zgusta p. 58 on)
Fattakhov Türkic reading (in L.Zgusta p. 58 on)
T. Dzokaev An Ossetic view

Links

Review of the Ladislav Zgusta study of "Ossetic school of thought"
http://www.balkaria.info/library/k/kudaev/zelenchukdzhazyu/zelenchukdzhazyu.htm - Faximile of M.Kudaev's article in Balkar
http://karachays.com/publ/61-1-0-355 - Russian translation of M.Kudaev's article

Introduction

The review presented in this posting allows an open-minded reader to have a look at the major cornerstone of Scytho-Iranian hypothesis that switched traditional ethnic affiliation of the Scythians from Turkic to Iranian. The PhD in Mathematics, late M. Kudaev read the famous infamous inscription in his native Balkar (Malkar) language, and published his reading in 1965 in a Balkarian-language newspaper. The whole article takes less than 1,400 words, it explains the adjustments that had to be done to render a Caucasian Türkic language with the apparatus of the Greek alphabet, and the semantics of the expressions. The brief article formatted for a newspaper does not delve into philological nuances, and limits to the reading obvious to a native speaker with a basic knowledge of the Greek alphabet, which happened to be much like the Cyrillic alphabet of Russia. We can only speculate that the very fact of that publication was a daring gambit at the time, less than a decade after the surviving Balkar people were "allowed" to return from "deportation" to a fraction of their native lands that were already occupied and controlled by "resettled" immigrant populations, and were still remaining under a special supervision of the USSR ideological proscribers. At the time, the Iranism of the Eastern Europe pre-historic populace was asserted by official science led by USSR Academy of Sciences operating with an iron hand as an enforcement department of the ruling Communist Party. Publication of the Türkic reading could only pass below the censorship radar under an innocuous pretense and using either cooperation or an ignorance of the censor. Both M. Kudaev, and the editors of the state-run local newspaper must be given credit for the brave publication of a heretical article in the newspaper with a screaming name "Path of Communism".

We can only speculate why L.Zgusta elected not to make a single phone call to the newspaper to obtain a copy of the M. Kudaev article. Instead, L.Zgusta elected to completely skip an analysis of a contender, meekly explaining that he did "not succeeded in obtaining a copy of the article; nor had seen any detailed report about it, or analysis or criticism of it". It is hard to imagine that in mid 1980es, after the disintegration of the former USSR and its Eatern European satellites, when the winds of liberation were blowing everywhere, L.Zgusta was concerned with bringing about undesired consequences upon his head. We can only mourn the taint inflicted on his scholar and his human reputation.

* * *

Posting comments: The Latin transcription was made with English alphabet, replacing one letter at a time using the following special conventions:

ch for ""
sh for ""
ch for "x" in Christ and its derivatives
e for "" and "", except for special cases
j for ""
kh for "x" in all other cases
y for "" and "", and ya for "",
['] (apostrophe) for "" to indicate palatalized preceding consonant
["] (quotation mark) for "" to indicate glottal stop

For general considerations about Cyrillic and Roman transliteration please see L.Zgusta note 28.

Russian and Greek fonts are windows-1251. Small images are thumbnails, and can be enlarged by double-clicking. Accuracy of M. Kudaev transliteration and transcription can be checked against text of the original article posted below, and the image copy of the article.

The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in parentheses in (blue italics)

Maps and pictures

Maps from Google Planet Earth show general area and river course. Pictures show present state of the town Arkhyn called "aul"= "summer village" by natives, ruins of the "old church", and riverside environment in the vicinity of the alleged location of the stele. To see the pictures, go to L.Zgusta page here.
Ladislav Zgusta's study Table of Contents
1 The discovery of the stone 5
2. The readings 16
3. The interpretations 20
3.1. The main "schools of thought" 20
3.2. The Ossetic interpretations 20
3.3. The non-Ossetic interpretations 41
3.3.1. Vagapov's Vainakh (Nakh, Chechen-Ingush) interpretation 41
3.3.2. Kafoev's Circassian (Adyg, Kabarda) interpretation 46
3.3.3 Kudaev's Balkar (Türkic) interpretation (Kudaev's text this page) 57
3.3.3 Additions to section 3.3.3. -
3.3.3.1 Miziev's Türkic reading -
3.3.3.2 Fattakhov Türkic reading -
4. Final readings and interpretations 59
M. Kudaev
Reading of Zelenchuk Inscription in Malkar (Balkar) language
Latinized text Original text in Cyrillic

"ZELENCHUK DJAZYUNU" MALKAR TILNI MURDORUNDA OK"UB KRÜU
"Kommunizmge Djol", 14 February 1965, page 3,
Cherkessk, Karachay-Cherkess Republic

Malk"ar, k"arachay milletleni ozg"an emürlede istoriyalaryny bir k"auum belgnsiz djerlerin achyk"larg"a ong' berlik (bizni ak"ylybyzg"a kere) bir shag"atlyk" 1888 djylda K"arachayda busag"atdag"y Arkhyz (Yrkhyz) lden uzak" barmay tabylg"andy. Ilmuda ol "Zelenchuk tash" deb belgileiedi. Bu bir shyrkhy tashdan tilgen syndy. Tashny üsüne djazyu kertilib, grek kharfla bla tilgendi. Alay grekcha ok"ub kergende bir da mag"ana chyg"aralmag"andyla. Andan sora akademik V. F. Miller 1893 djylda tashny djazyuun dügercha (osetincha) ok"urg"a küreshgendi. Alay ol ok"uu da doündu derge k"yyyndy. Miller-ni sk"ug"anyn, ndilede (sovet zamanda) prof. V. I. Abaev, prof. B. A. Alborov m dotseit G.F. Turchaninov bir biri yzyndan igilendirib kergendile. Bolsa da, djazyudan k"uru da adam atladan bashkha khazna zat chyg"aralmag"andyla. Any da djazyuda bolmag"an kharflany k"osha, djazyuda bolg"an kharflany ua djartysyn ata ketgenden sora bolduralg"andyla. Bu bashda aytylg"an alimleni ok"ug"anlaryn sharayyblary m k"olaysyzlyk"lary A. J. Kafoevnu 1963 djylda Nal'chikde chyk"g"an "Adygskie pamyatniki" degen kitabynda tolu tokhtashdyrylady. Andan ary any üsünden ayta turmay, ok"uuchunu ol kitabkha djiberebiz.

A. J. Kafoev bu aty aytylg"an kitabynda ol djazyunu k"abarty tilde ok"urg"a küreshedi. Bolsa da any ok"uuunu sharayyblary, ters djerleri "Zelenchuk tashny" djazyuun andan alg"a ok"ug"anlany sharayyblaryndan az tüyüldüle. Bylayda aladan djangyz bek chüyre kelgen bir-ki shartny aytyb chekleneyik. Djüz djylla bla khristian syn tashlada ΙΣΧΣ degen ki k"yskhartylyb djazylg"an sez Iisus Christos (Issa fayg"ambar) deb ok"ulub kelgendi.

Kafoev'a alany "ischhesch" deb ok"uydu (bu seznü mag"anasyn ol "any bashy" deb beredi). ΟΑΓΣ degen seznü bla 7-chi tizginde I kharfny mag"analaryn'a zatkha da keltiralmay k"oyady. Ma dag"y da any ok"ug"anynda bir seznü mag"anasyny üsünden. aytayyk". Ol sez tashny 19-chu m 20-chy tizginlerinde kharfladan k"uralady: ΚΑΝΗΤΗΡ. Ol seznü A. J. Kafoev "k"antazyr" deb ok"uydu. Bu kharfladan byllay sez chyk"maydy, ol biri. kinchisi ua, "k"an" türk, "tazyr" a arab sezledile. Bu ki sez adyg tilleden birinde V emürde (ndigi tergeu bla) tabyllyk" bolurmu dile? Anda da, "k"antazyr" degen seznü mag"anasyn bir da kelishdiralmaydy. Bashkha djerlerinde da djetishim'syzlikle m achyk" terslikle kebdüle.

Men Zelenchukda tabylg"an tashny djazyuun malk"ar-k"arachay tilde ok"ub kereme. Bylayda k"yskha, any bla baylamly oümladan bir k"auumun aytama. Anga kere, ok"uuchu kesi Zelenchukdag"y syn tashda djazyu, malk"ar tilni Cherek auzunda (Malk"ar auuzu) busag"atdag"y tilini murdorunda tilgenin kerlükdü. Alay mynda sezleni busag"atda tas bolg"an ne da türlenngen syfatlary da bardy. Bolsa da, anda malk"arly ne da k"arachayly sezleni aslamyn bek tynch angylarchady.

 

Djazyuda bolg"an kharflany m belgileni men bylay chyg"arama:

ΙΣ ΧΣ ΟΑΓΣ KOAOΣ ΣΑΧΗΡΝ ΦΟΙΧΟΒΣΗ ΟΡΣΗΦΟΣΡΤΑ ΚΑΘΑΡΑ ΚΑΟΑΦΟΡΤ ΑΝ ΑΑΝΑΑ ANFOΓTAKA ΝΗΤΗΡ OE. OO Σ.

Djazyunu sezlege bylay beleme (men myndan bashkha türlü da belüb kergenme): djazyunu sezlege bir djeti türlü belüb kergende, birde djazyu azyrak", birde ua aslam türlenib ok"ulady: bylayda bu aytylg"an djeti türlüden birin keltirebiz:

ΙΣ ΧΣ ΟΑΓΣ KOAOΣ ΣΑΧ F ΟΙ ΧΟΒΣΗ ΟΡΣΗΦ ΟΣΡΤ ΑΚΑΘΑΡ A KAOAF OTA A ΑΝΑ AAΝF OTAKA ΝΗΤΗΡΘΕ. OO ΣΑ.

Grekcha ol zamanda kharflany bla tauushlany kelishiulerini, üsünden djangyz bir nencha sez bla cheklenebiz (bashkha djerde tyngyly stat'yada mynda aytylg"anlany barynda da isheklikge djer k"oymay, tyngyly begimlerme).

Vizantiyany tilinde δ tauush bolmag"andy. Any sebebli kharf δ tauushnu da belgisidi. Any Miller bla Abaev da aytadyla, ua tauushnu belgisidi. Tüz anga ushash, Σ bla N, bla Y tauushnu da belgileydile. Ok"ug"anda djazyunu 9-chu tizgini bek k"yynaydy (suratkha k"arasa ol belgili kerünedi). shta, anda djazyunu tgen O-nu yzyndan R-ny djazaryg"yn unutub Σ ni djazyb tebregendi.

R-ua O-nu bla Σ-ni arasynda k"alg"an mardadan az djerchikge syyynyrg"a, andan da k"yyyn'a, tashny ol djerini ki djanynda O-nu bla Σ-ni djazg"an zamanda, girdakhlanigan keseklerin. k"obarmay, djazarg"a ong k"almag"anchady.

Ol zamanda djazyunu tgenige, tüz bu 9-chu tizgindecha, R-ny Σ-ni yzyndan djazyb, sora yzlyk"la bla R-ny O-nu bla Σ ni arasynda ok"ulurg"a kerekdi deb kergüzgenden tab ak"yl tabyllyk" bolmaz di. Alay se ua 9-chu tizginni ΟΡΣΗΦ deb ok"urg"a kerekdi.

Bek aldag"y ΙΣXΣ degen ki k"yskhartylg"an seznü Iisus Christos deb ok"uybuz. Tüz anycha, 21-chn tizginde ΘΕ degenni da, k"yskhartylg"an sezge tergeb, djazyunu k"alg"anyny mag"anasyna kere, bu djol TYR deb ok"uybuz.

Grekliledecha tergesek, 21-chi tizginde 79 degen sanny kergüztedi. (Andan bashkha san kelishmeydi). . Akhyrda, djazyuda tübegen ki diftongnu üsünden: OA-ny e-cha ok"uybuz, ΟΣ-ni ua orus ü-cha ne da yu-cha.

ndi djazyunu tüz bolg"anynlay (shendügü tilge kechürmey busag"atdag"y malk"ar alfavit bla berebiz. ( uzun -ni belgisidi):

"Iisus Christos. gs Ykolaos. Tsakh rif οy khovs. Orsyf Osrt bak'atar ba. K'ataif Ürtan Bal Ana balanyf. Ürtlaka ntr Tyri? 79 zl".

Bu djazyunu bylaylay ok"una k"yynalmay keb taulu, artyg"yrak" da cherek auuzchu malk"arlyla, angylayallyk"dyla. Alay shendügü literatura tilge kelishmegen djerleri ua kebdü. Anga seyir terge kerek bolmaz. Nek deseng, bu djazyug"a ming djylg"a djuuuk" bolady. (Any üsünden artdarak"da antyryk"byz). Andan beri ua tilde türleniule bek keb bolg"andyla. Busag"atda Malk"arda, K"arachayda üyge "oy" deb aytmayla. Burun'a, shtada, Kavkaz-da türk tilli khalk"lada alay aytkhan adet bolg"an bolur. Anga iynanyr üchün Moskvada 1963 djylda chyk"g"an "Türkologicheskie issledovaniya" degen kitabpy 143-chü betin achyb . R. Tenishevnu stat'yasyna k"arayyk". Anda aytkhannga kere, bügünlede K"ytaydag"y uy-gurlany (türk tilli khalk") yarkendcha seleshgen k"auumu "oy" deb üyge aytady.

Busag"atda taulula yurt "ürt" demeydile, "djurt" deydile. Alg"ynigy djolun'a Zelenchuknu tashynda djazyu angylatady. Andan sora da any üsünden shendügü tilden ki ülgü skerteyim: "at yer" "atdjer" m "bu iyyl" "byyyl" deb, "at djer" (djer-ier) m "bu djyl" (djyl-yyl) degen bla birge, bir mag"anany berirge, sge kelgenicha, birin birinden igige sanamay djürütebiz.

Suu Ana, Jel Ana d. a. k. (rtede iynanyulag"a kere) suunu, djelni d. a. k. zatlany iesi, onouchusu bardy degen mag"anada djürügen khaparlany kim shtmegendi? Bu tashda ua "Bal Anany" aty k"abyryna tash salynigan kishi djylny k"aysy keziuünde elgenin belgilerge aytylady. "Bal Ana ballanyf" degen sez "malla erge etgen zamanda" deunü iegeridi. "Bla" degen sezübüz bla birge ne da any ornuna "ba" degen, busag"atdag"y türk tilleni bir k'auumunda djürütülgen, sez bu tashny djazg"anlany tillerinde da bolur di.

Atlany üsünden bir kesek ayt-khandan sora, süzüle turg"an djazyunu k"alg"any shendügü tilde belgilenir.

 

Iisus-Christos bla Teyr kechürülür kerekli tüyüldüle.

gs güz synny iesini kristan din bergen Ykolaos degen aty bla teng djürütülüb bolg"an kesini milletini terelerindecha atalg"an atydy.

Osrt s'nny iesi bla k"achan se da urushkhan bag"atyrny atydy. Bu türk tilli milletlede djürügen atladan bolmag"annga ushaydy.

"Bak"atar" degen seznü ne nchi atkha ne da duk"um atkha sanarg"a bolluk"du. Any üchün djazyunu mag"anasy az türlenedi. Tatark"anny djyrynda ol sez bardy: "Bag"atyr ulu Tatark"an, boynunga saldyig at ark"an...".

" " ʨ
" ", 14 1965, page 3,
, -
, ' ( ) - 1888 () . . . , . . . . 1893 () . . - , ( ) . . . , . . . .. . , . , . . . 1963 . , .

. . . , . - . ΙΣ ΧΣ ( ) .

' ( ).  7- I ' . . . 19- 20- : ΚΑΝΗΤΗΡ. . . . , . , , . V ( ) ? , . ' .

- . , . , , ( ) . . , .

:

ΙΣ ΧΣ ΟΑΓΣ Σ ΣΑΧΗΡΝ ΦΟΙΧΟΒΣΗ ΟΡΣΗΦΟΣΡΤΠΑ ΚΑΘΑΡΠΑ ΚΑΟΑΦΟΡΤ ΑΝ ΠΑΑΝΑΠΑ NΓ ΝΗΤΗΡ . Σ.

( ): , , : :

ΙΣ ΧΣ ΟΑΓΣ OOΣ ΣΑΧ ΟΙ ΧΟΒΣΗ ΟΡΣΗΦ ΟΣΡΤ ΠΑΚΑΘΑΡ ΑΝΑ Ν ΝΗΤΗΡ ΘΕ. ΣΑ.

, ( , ).

δ . Π δ . , . , Σ , . 9- ( ).

, - - Σ . - - Σ- , ', - Σ- , . , . , 9- , - Σ- , - - Σ . 9- ΟΡΣΗΦ .

ΙΣ XΣ . , 21- ΘΕ , , , .

, 21- 79 . ( ). . , : - - , ΟΣ- - -.

( . ( - ):

. . ο . . . ? 79 .

, , . . . , . ( ). . , . ', , - . 1963 143- . . . , - ( ) .

, . ' . : , (-) (-) , , , .

, . . . ( ) , . . . , ? . . , , .

- , .

- .

.

. .

. . : , ....

Miller's doctored reproduction of Strukov's copy
Muzafar Kudaev apparently does not suspect that Miller doctored the "evidence"
Copy from original Miller's publication

ndi djazyunu Malk"arny m K"arachayny bügünngü tillerinde djazayyk" (Chegemni tilinde):

"Iisus Christos. güs Ykolaos. Chak" rib üy k"oyubsa. Urushub Osrt bag"atyr bla. K"atayyb djurtdan Bal Ana ballanyb. Jurtlag"a ne ter Teyri? 79 djyl".

Keziu bu syn tash k"aysy zamanda salynnganyn süzerge djetgendi. Kesigiz suratda kergencha, bu tashny üsünde djoru bardy. Tashny yam djazyunu bashkha syn tashla bla m djazyula bla tengleshdirib kerüb, akademik V. F. Miller Zelenchuk tash 1013 djylda (biz djazg"annga tokhtashdyrg"andy).

 

Biz da alyk"a ol oümdabyz. Alaydy da, tashkha 951 djyl bolady.

Bashda aytylg"andan bu zat tokhtashdyrylady. Zelenchukda tabylg"an bu bashda tilgen djazyu malk"ar-k"arachay tilde ok"ulady m da malk"ar-k"arachay khalk"lany burunngu telüleri tgen djazyudu derchady. Tili artyg"yrak" da cherek auuzlu malk"arlylany tillerine djuuuk"du. Alay se, malk"arlyla bla k"arachaylyla shendü djerlerinde (keble ndige deri sanag"ancha XIIIXIV emürden beri ug"ay) ne azdan tergegende da XI emürnü bashyndan beri djashaydyla. Ala XI emürde kristian dinni tutkhandyla, any bla birge grek alfavitni murdorunda keslerine alfavit k"urab, ok"uulu - djazyulu bolg"andyla. Bu djazyuda grek alfavitde bolmag"an ki kharf bardy: bla I. Bu ki kharf bolgarly Kirill (Konstantin) tokhtashdyrg"an sgi slavyan alfavitde bardyla.

ndi sea istoriklenidi. Bu shartlag"a tyyana, Shimal Kavkazny khalk"laryny istoriyasyn djangydan tab djarashdyryrg"a ong chyg"ady.

K"arachay-Cherkes oblastny djerinde türk tilde tilgen djazyu bolub Zelenchuk djazyu djangyz tüyüldü. Arkheolog V. A. Kuznetsov 1960 m 1962 djyllada Cherkessk degen shakhadan uzak" bolmag"an Khumara (K"um-Ara) degen ski k"alany tashlaryny ichinde onnga djuuuk" djazyulu tash tabkhandy. Alany djazyulary da isheksiz türk tilde tilgendi, kharflary ua ski türk alfavit-dendile (orokhon - enisey alfavit). Bu djazyulany IXX emürlede burunngulu bolgarla tgennge sanarchady deydi ol ("Sovetskaya arkheologiya" jurnal, 1-chi nomeri, 1963 djyl). Zelenchuk djazyucha, bu djazyula da malk"ar-k"arachay khalk"lany rtdegiliklerini bir betidile.

Zelenchukdag"y tashny djazyuunu ("Zelenchuk" degen sez malk"archa "Zylanchyk"" degen sezdü. Any oruscha aytkhanda buzub, "Zelenchuk" degendile) 1963 djylda malk"archa ok"ub, any üsünden 1964 djylny 23 oktyabrynda K"abarty-Malk"ar ilmu-izlem institutnu malk"ar til m arkheologiya sektorlaryny birge djyyylyularynda aytkhan dim.

M. KUDAEV.
fizika-matematika ilmulany
kandidaty.

Suratda: Zelenchuk synda djazyunu 1888 djylda D. M. Strukov tgen suraty. Any 1893 djylda V. Miller kitabda chyg"arg"andy.

Surat reproduktsiya A. Gornostaevnudu.

Paragraphs 35
Lines 95
Words 1371
Characters 8451: lower case 7099
Characters with spaces

( ):

. . . . . ? 79 .

. , . , . . 1013 ( ).

. , 951 .

. - - .   . , ( XIIIXIV ) XI . XI , , - . : . () .

. , .

( . , ) 1963 , 1964 23 - - .

. .
-
.

: 1888 . . . 1893 . .

. .

Paragraphs 35
Lines 95
Words 1371
Characters 8451
Characters with spaces 9792

Frequency of Cyrillic letters in Balkar sample text
A 1064 14.16%
55 3.39%
31 0.41%
280 3.73%
108 1.44%
390 5.19%
507 6.75%
73 0.97%
5 0.07%
162 2.16%
402 5.36%
125 1.66%
302 4.02%
506 6.73%
131 1.74%
596 7.93%
166 2.21%
10 0.13%
395 5.26%
203 2.70%
299 3.100%
338 4.50%
34 0.45%
62 0.83%
3 0.04%
96 1.28%
80 1.06%
7 0.09%
416 5.54%
243 3.23%
66 0.88%
140 1.86%
20 0.27%
Total 7515 100.00%

 

Scythian-Iranian theory Abaev's Scythian Word List Scythian Word List from the Sources Abaev on Scythian language
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