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Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Gmyrya L. Caspian Huns

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Western Hun's Khan Dynasties
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
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Huns Dateline
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Kimak Dateline
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Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
The Huns and Kumyks

Kamil Aliev
Nominalia of Western Hun kings (Caucasus Hunnia)
Именник гуннских царей (Кавказская Гунния)
Yoldash/Times, 01-12-2006, Mahachkala



Posting Introduction

The offered Nominalia was created from an angle of Kumyks, a small nation in the NE Caucasus, it belongs to the series “Who am I, and where I came from”. In the highly checkered fates of the Caucasus, this is a tricky question, and the answer is beyond any in complexity. Long before the rise of the Khazar Kaganate, the Caucasian Huns played a leading role in the Caucasus and its fortunes. Like a rock at a juncture of the oceans, they stood while the oceans tided and ebbed during all known history. Up until the coming of the Soviet power and its Stalinism embodiment, there was no force that could overturn or sink it. In half a century Stalinism managed to accomplish what two millennia failed to do. From a leading ethnical group and a lingua franca of the north Caucasus, from arbitrators and benefactors for a diverse constellation of nations and hamlets, Kumyks turned into nearly invisible non-entity, dwarfed by luminosity of the small local nations and the shine of the stepmother Russia. Their history was shredded and restored, like a soft bathroom tissue made of recycled paper. Their culture was obliterated, their script sequentially twisted into two alien cacophonic versions, and a new culture was cobbled up like a molded utensil. The social engineering of the 20th century was a keystone for the past and a ground floor the new. The state apparatus, intimidating both a stream of puppet functionaries and the locals, and provoking local conflicts, made great strides dismantling intact nations. It majestically outdid the checkerboard of the past by creating an artful muddle of the ignorant present.

Neither a stream of the Kurgan nomadic tribes to the Middle East, nor their presence there had ever been interrupted. In the Assyrian records (23 c. BC) figure horse nomadic cattlemen Guties (Guzes), Turuks (Türk), Komans (Kumans), Kangars, Subars, and Lulu; the Greek records feature horse nomadic cattlemen Yiyrks (stands for “nomad”), Cimmerians, Ases/Scythians/Saka, Jilans/Gelons, Masguts/Massagets, Tokhars/Tuhsi/Dahae; toward the new era figure Jilans/Gelons/Kayi, Masguts/Massagets/Alans, Huns, Savirs/Subars; Ases/Saka become known as Azeris, Kayis become known as Kaitags (Mountain Kayi), and a blend of Huns, Agvans, Savirs, and Kayi became known under a politonym Kumyks. That is a transition to the New Era, with a new Shamkhalate confederation of impoverished nomads stripped of the most of their cattle livelihood and amalgamated with their sedentary mountain neighbors. The amalgamation was an endless process, without a beginning. A known page in the pre-historic anthropological amalgamation was the Koban Culture. The anthropology of the modern Caucasians is listed in Physical types of the Caucasus. A listing of Greek sources on the early Türkic Nomads is given in Türkic-lingual Period Of European History. All four above references should be taken with variable dozes of salt as far as the interpretations go.

Kamil Aliev's article found popularity on the Web, it fills the gap left by intentional evasions. The article is mirrored without constructive comments on dozens of websites. The list of Kamil Aliev is a good backbone, although somewhat tainted by uncritical reliance on naive interpretations of the sources or vile hostility. Posting notes try to correct to some degree misunderstandings and distortions. A homegrown distortion originated in Russification of the Caucasian history, where the Russian name of the Hun is Gun (Гун, pronounced Goon), thus a phantom term “Gunnug” that appears to be a play on Russian use of -g- for -h-, Huns > Guns (Гуны), Hunnia > Gunnia (Гунния), which makes it phonetically consonant with the Russian pronunciation of Kumyk and the native Kumuk. It would not hurt to add dates to each member of the listing.

yy as yi in “yip, yippie”, the first y as y in “key” (yylky, yyrams)

Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Posting notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue) in parentheses and in blue boxes, or highlighted by blue headers. Diacritics may need verification against the original.

Kamil Aliev
Nominalia of Western Hun kings
No Dates Names and Comments Sources
1   Tedrehon

Mentioned in the first decade of the 4th c. in Zenob Glack's “Taron's History” as “king Tedrehon of the North”.  He headed the Barsil Huns troops that invaded Agvania through the Caspian passage [1]. The name is likely a distortion of the Türkic Tengri-Khan. “History of Agvans” (7th c.) mentions it as a name of the Huns' Supreme Deity, also is cited a direct Persian parallel “Aspendiat”. That is a Persian form of the name Isfendiyar ( “holy, saint, divine”).[2] According to V. Ghoukassian “That Tengri-Khan this was one of the first Kagans or leaders of the Türks”[3], which is consistent with their worldview, according to which each Kagan or his successor were a symbol of God, his Viceroy on the Earth

[1] Abegian M. History of ancient Armenian literature. Yerevan. 1948. Vol. 1. Pp. 345, 349-350
[2] See: Justin G. Iranishe namebuh. Marburg. 1895. P. 308-309
[3] B. Ghoukassian Turkisms in “History of Agvans” of Moses the Utian//Structure and history of the Türkic languages. Moscow, 1971. Pp. 248-249
2   Hunugur

He is mentioned under the year 373 in “History of Agvans”. An Azeri historian Z. Buniyatov, a commentator of the Azerbaijani edition of the M. Kagankatvatsi work [1] does not see it as a proper name, and holds it to be the ethnonym Hunugur. In part, he's right. In our view, this is indeed a proper name from the ethnonym Hunug + er. This practice of naming existed at all Türks, including the Huns [2]. For example, M. Kashgari (11th c.) wrote: “Kumuk is the name of a tribe and a Bey from this tribe “[3]. Moses Kagankatvatsi, describing the Hunugur's single combat with the Persian mighty warrior of the Shah Shapur II (309-379), gives the following account of Gunnug-Undur chief-leader: “At that time stepped out a Hun from the Hunugurs Huns ....He was tall, of gigantic height and clad in chainmail, he wore a riveted helmet on his huge head. A copper plate protected his three-span forehead. The shaft of his huge spear was of sturdy cedar wood. His sword glistened with fire and terrified just by its look”[4].

[1] See: M. Kalankatuklu Agvania Tarihi. Baku, 1993, p. 212
[2] Nemeth G. Attila ve Hunlari. Ankara. 1982. p. 229)
[3] Divan-i Lugat 't-Türk. Ankara. 1940-1943. p. 392
[4] M. Kagankatvatsi M. History of Agvans/Transl. fr. Armenian K. Patkanyan. St. Pb , 1861. p. 66
3   Balamir

Belived to be a heir in 15th generation to Mete Kagan, the founder of the Eastern Hun Empire, and a founder of the European Hun Empire in 374[1].

[1] Ozdek R. Türkün gïzïl kitaby. Bakï. 1992. 1 kitab. p. 69
4   Bazuk and Kursih

According to Prisk Pannonian, headed the Huns who in 395 BC invaded Persian possessions in S. Caucasus. Both of them were “members of the Hunnic royal clan”[1]

[1] Artamonov M.I. History of the Khazars. Leningrad 1962. Pp. 43, 50.
5   Yulduz Khan

Became emperor in 400, after death of his father Balamir [1]

[1] R. Ozdek, op. cit., Pp. 71-72.
6   Karaton

Son of Yulduz Khan, he occupied the Hun throne until his death in 410.[1] Karaton had sons Ohtar, Rua, Aibars, Munchug.[2] [3]

[1] Ozdek R., op. cit., pp. 71-72.
[2] Ibid;
[3] Nemeth G. Attila ve Hunlari. Ankara. 1982, p. 191-192.
    Rua, 410 – 434  
7   Attila, son of Munchuk (Munchug)

Great Emperor of the Huns (fr. 434). He became an emperor at age 40, after a death of his uncle Rua, who ruled from 410 to 434. Under the rule of Attila in his empire were united 45 different tribes. The core were Türkic tribes. Under Attila reign, in 445-453 Huns conquered Germany, France, northern Italy, and imposed tribute on Roman Empire. “The Attila's name won a place in history... next to the names of Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar” - wrote A. Thierry. He had sons Irnek, Ilek, Dengizik [1], and Chaba [2].

The native Hunnic form of his name, documented in the Germanic epic ( “Song of the Nibelungs”)is  Atly.

After the death of Attila his younger sons (senior Ilek was killed) Irnek and Dengizik retreated with Huns from Danube eastward, to theAzov and Caspian Seas.[3] The Irnek's name is recoreded with different spellings: Ernah (Prisk) Hernak (Jordan), Ernek (Hungarian sources), Irnik ( “Nominalia of Bulgarian khans”), and in the Armenian sources he, in our opinion, appears under the name of the “king of the HunsHeran, which almost coincides with that of the Prisk Pannonian, Ernah. Not accidentally I. Marquart calls the Heran's Huns the “royal horde”[4]. We also believe that the form Ernah and especially Heran is a Türkic Eren. Hence comes the epic Alp Eren. The Armenian historian Yeghishe says about him: “... This Heran... annihilated in Agvania Persian forces (451) and in a raid reached the Greek country, and many prisoners and booty sent from Greece and Armenia, and from Iberia, and from Agvania”[5]. It is also know that Heran (Eren) was an Armenian ally in their fight against the Sassanid king Yezdegerd II, and in 451 helped them to defeat the troops of the Persian Shah. In 460, the Heran's Huns were on the side of the Shah Peroz against Agvan king Vache, who revolted against Sassanids.[6]

[1] Nemeth G. Attila ve Hunlari, Ankara. 1982. P. 191 -192
[2] Homant Balint. Szekly 'liler.//Bulleten, 20. Istambul p. 601
[3] Bernshtam Essays on the history of the Huns. Leningrad 1951. p. 164
[4] Artamonov M.I., op. cit., Pp. 60-61
[5] Yegishe. On Vardan and the Armenian War (translated from Old Armenian. Acad. I.A. Orbeli). Yerevan. 1971. Pp. 121.
[6] Kafesoglu I. Bulgarlarin kokeni. Ankara. 1985. P. 3


8   Hunn Ambazuk

According to Procopius, in 498-518 he controlled the Caspian Gates, according to other records, it was Darial pass. During his time, Huns skillfully “traded with Byzantium and Persia”[1]. The “Hun Ambazuk” was friends with the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius.[2] “Toward his death, this Hun was offering to Anastasius to buy a castle from him, but that refused, seeing no possibility to maintain there a Byzantine garrison. When Ambazuk died, Persian Shah Kavad seized that fortress [3], booting out Ambazuk's children from there”[4].

[1] Kovalevskaya V.B. Caucasus and Alans. Moscow, 1984. Pp. 109
[2] Ibid. Pp. 498-518
[3] Ibid. Pp. 488-496, 499-531
[4] Artamonov M.I. op. cit. p. 64
9   Bolah

King of the Caucasian Huns, mentioned by Procopius of Caesarea under year 520, but he lived prior to that time. From Boariks, he had two sons.

10   Boariks or Berihos

Queen of the Huns, attested by Procopius under year 520, a widow of the above Bolah. Under her authority in the “kingdom of Huns” (Caucasian Hunnia) were 100 thousand Huns. She was, as stated by Theophanes, “an ally and friend of king Justinian”[1]. The residence of the queen was the city Varachan, where now is located Ullu-Boynak (Ullubiyaul) (Aul of Great Prince).

In Latin transcription, the name of this queen  is distorted. In the language of the Huns it apparently sounded: “Berik”, “Berik-Kyz”. N.A. Baskakov ascends the etymology from berik ( “gift, donation, present”)+ Greek ending -os/-us.[2]

[1] Artamonov M.I. op. cit. p. 136
[2] Baskakov N. A. Türkizms in “Tale of the Igor's campaign”. Moscow, 1978. Pp. 44
11   Ziligd or Zilgibi

King of the Huns. Mentioned by Theophanes Confessor under 522. Most likely, he was a son of Ambazuk. He was a friend and ally of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian against Sassanids. He sent against them 26-thousand Hunnic army.[1] He fell in a war with Kavad.

Byzantine sources spell his name differently: Ziligd, Zilgivin, Zilgi, Zilgibi. It can be assume that the original name was Zilgi Biy (= Zilgi Prince). Note that a similar name in 9th c. had the king of the Itil Bulgars Silki. Zilgi/Silky apparently meant yylky/jylkyhorse, herd(aka Shilki, Jilki, Djilki).

[1] Theophanes Confessor. Chronography//Chichurov I.S. Byzantine historical writings. Moscow, 1980. p. 49, 50
12   Muager or Muageris

He became a king of Huns after a murder of his brother Gorda. Eventually converted to Christianity.

Perhaps Muager is one of the versions of his name. The Greek manuscripts list Muageris, Muager. According to Gy. Moravcsik, the name originates from the Hungarian Moderi [1], with a variation form Magyar [2] (Gy. Moravcsik manages to see the word Magyar everywhere. The terms Magyar and Kubar are synonyms, from Türkic kübar “noble, magnate, aristocrat, grandee, elite”, preserved in the Azeri dialects, and its Hungarian calque). Ju. Nemeth names Mogeri a king of the Kuban Hunno-Bulgars.[3]

[1] Chichurov. op. cit., p. 80
[2] Ibid.
[3] Nemeth Ju. Attila ve Hunlari. Ankara. 1982. p. 228
13   Gorda

About Gorda Theophanes Confessor reports the following: “In 527/528, to the emperor came the king of the Huns located near Bosphorus, called Gorda, he became a Christian and was enlightened. Emperor received him, and having given him many gifts, sent him back to his country to protect the Romean state and the city of Bosphorus”[1]. He was killed by his brother Muager .

The Greek manuscripts of “Chronography” give reading Gordas, Hordasd. The etymology of the name is unclear. Gy. Moravcsik offers a Türkic-Hungarian etymology from Ogurda “a friend of Ogurs” and the Türkic Kurt “wolf”. [2] We believe that this name had a purely Türkic etymology from Kardash “half-brother”.

[1] Chichurov. op. cit., p. 51
[2] Ibid. s. 79
14   Styrax

King of the Huns, ally of the Shah Kavad, in 520 with 12-thousand. army he campaigned on the side of the Shah, but on the way was intercepted by Boariks' troops and defeated in the area now called Manas (in Kumykia). Styrax was shackled and sent in chains to the king in Constantinople [1].

It is believed that the Styrax's possession was located in the territory of present Buinak district in Dagestan, where archaeologists excavated numerous early medieval settlements and forts [2] (Western Kumyks (Buinak; Buinaksk) are “mothballed” Agvanians, they live in the mountains, mountain life made them conservative and cautious. They are not numerous (only tens of thousands), but with a keen sense of pride. They may be descendents of the Masguts/Alans, who were noted for their pride by the Classical authors. The only position that could allow Styrax to engage in his own foreign policy was a head of a wing, either Western or Eastern, because the Center wing was headed by Boariks).

[1] Chronicle of Theophanes the Byzantine from Diocletian to the kings Michael and his son Theophylact//CHOIDR. 1885 book 2, p. 136
[2] Fedorov Ya.A., Fedorov G.S. Early Türks in the North Caucasus. Moscow, 1978, p. 184.
15   Glenys or Glonis

King of the Huns. Mentioned by Theophanes Confessor. Known for that together with Styrax, went on a campaign in support of Shah Kavad. He was killed in a clash with Boariks troops at Ulu-Boinak in 527 (probably the place of the battle moved historians to associate Styrax and Glenys with Buinak area).

16   Orhan

Patriarch Nicephorus tells of arrival to Constantinople at about 619 of the “Hun ruler Organa” and calls him the “ruler of the North Caucasus Bulgars”, “king of Gunnug-Undurs[1]. By his narrow ethnic affiliation Orhan belonged to the ruling clan Dulo [2]. Historians M.I. Artamonov, and L.N. Gumilev identufy Orhan of the Byzantine sources with Hunnic khan Mohodu-xey, Alp Bogatur [3]. The “History of Agvans” called Orhan by his title “Djebu Kagan”,and the Byzantine sources also called him “Ziebil”,i.e. “Viceroy”. E. Chavannes quite rightly identified Ziebil with Djebu-Kagan [4]. This view was also supported by the American Khazarologist D. Dunlop [5].

There is an opinion that Orhan was the original founder of the “Great Bulgaria[6], that extended its borders from Azov and Don to p. Sunzha (right tributary of r. Terek) [7]. In 619 in Constantinople, Orhan signed with Emperor Heraclius a treaty of friendship and alliance. The emperor gave Orhan a honorary title “patrikos”. To secure unbreakable friendship and trust, Orhan left in Constantinople as an amanat (hostage) his nephew, and by other sources, his son Kubrat (Kurbat).[8]

According to A. Kollauts and Kh. Miyakava, Orhan was a sovereign of the Gunnug-Undurs, who according to the Chinese historical work “Northern Türks” in 630 won a victory over the Kagan of the Western Türks, and died a year after his victory.[9] Probably Orhan had two sons, Kubrat (Kurbat) and Alp Ilitver. According to V.A. Kuznetsov, in the Ossetian Nart sagas Orhan is known as “Argan/Aurgen[10].

There is a problem with these numerous suppositions. According to the Türkic procedural tradition, mother's brother is supposed to serve as a regent for a minor successor. The reason is that Hatun's (Queen) brother belongs to the maternal dynastic line ineligible for succession, and can't be elected a legitimate Kagan. Secondly, Kurbat belonged to the Dulo male dynastic line, and Alp Ilitver belonged to the competing male dynastic line Ashina.

According to the Türkic procedural tradition, Orhan was a statutory Prime Minister and a Supreme Judge, he  could not be a sovereign of the state, but could be a head of the maternal dynastic tribe, i.e. a sovereign of the tribe. In that case, Orhan would head a tribe with a name other than an umbrella name Gunnug-Undurs.

A reference should be made to the Balkar Nart epos, as closer to the events, not to its Ossetic version.

[1] Ostrogorski G. Bizans Dovleti Tarihi. Ankara, 1991. p. 97
[2] S. Pletneva Ancient Bulgars in eastern steppes//Tatar archeology. Kazan, 1997, No 1, p. 35
[3] Artamonov M.I. op. cit., p. 162 et seq.
[4] Chichurov. op. cit., p. 101
[5] Ibid.
[6] Miftakhov Z.Z. Lectures on the history of the Tatar people. Kazan, 1998, p. 127
[7] Smirnov A.P. Volga Bulgars. Moscow, 1951, p. 9; Art. 1962, p. 167-168
[8] Turk Tarihi Ansiklopedisi. Ankara, 1991, p. 160
[9] Chichurov. op. cit., p. 175
[10] V.A. Kuznetsov Lower Arhiz - early feudal town of Alanya 10-12th centuries.//Genesis, milestones, and general features of the development path of feudalism among the peoples of the North Caucasus. Mahachkala, 1980, p. 105
Probably not exactly accurate graph, if it is supposed to represent linear descendance.
17   Alp Ilitver

King of Caucasian Hunnia. First appears in the “History of Agvans” under year 626. As is known, in that year Djebu Kagan, i.e. Orhan went on a campaign to Agvania. With him in that campaign participated a “bloodthirsty eaglet”,who in honor of his princely status was called Shad [1]. It is highly probable that the latter was the son of Orhan and his own name was Bulu, to which was added a title “shad” (Prince, son of Kagan). Bulu probably had this title to the death of Orhan in 631 and transfer of the Huns under the Khazar khans of Ashina clan. After that time, he is not mentioned under that name. Because among Huns was not proper to call kings by name, but only with a title, he entered history under a name “Alp Ilitver” formed from the title of “il + teber”. This title was given to the Khazars vassal princes and is analogous to the Chinese “above-Is-F” or “Hsieh-li-fa” in the sense of governor.[2]

Alp Ilitver is an illustrious statesman of the Huns, his fame resounded throughout Khazaria. In his reign the Caucasian Hunnia achieved economic and political power. She was respected by the Khazar Kagan, Agvanian kings, and Byzantine emperors. In the Hunic state various steppe groups formed a people that later became known under ethnonym “Kumuk” (from the endonym of the Huns - “Gunnug”).

M. Kagankatvatsi explicitly states that Alp Ilitver “was renowned in three countries” (Hunnia, Iran and Byzantium). He was a talented commander, a reformer sovereign who started a religious reformation at the Huns. The Grand Duke Alp Ilitver “lived to a honorable old age, and erected in many places churches and multiplied homage fgor the God's priests[3]. Obviously, the author Moses Kagankatvatsi of the “History of Agvans” was familiar with the Hunnic epics, “yyrams” glorifying “feats and courage (of Alp Ilitver) in Turkestan at the Kagan of Khazars[4].

It is quite possible that our ancestors built a monument to Alp Ilitver, the  baptizer of the Caucasian Hunnia, at his birthplace in Varachan. This is according to the Kumyk traditions recounting that near Karabudakhkent was erected a stone statue, depicting a rider in full armor on a stallion. The rider was holding three fingers of his right hand at his forehead, in a gesture of crossing himself. Kumyks were telling that the statue represents ermeli (here: Christian) who turned into stone when Muslims wanted to kill him”. [5]

The Caucasus Hunnia was undoubtedly a mighty state militarily, quite compatible with its Persian and Arab adversaries, but historically and geographically it was a minor principality, one in a line of equals with the Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Agvania, Caucasian Alania, etc. It was a giant on local scale. That it was a Great Power in the Armenian eyes does not make it any greater. It was a province in the Khazar Kaganate, and the Khazar Kaganate was a mere province of the Western Türkic Kaganate.

The same is applicable to the role of Alp Ilitver, further adorned into a mythical figure by the authors who made a secondary Ashina viceroy (Elteber) into a scion of Dulo line, blending unmixable components. The confusion of Organa with Djebu Kagan (Tun-Yabgu Kagan) of the Western Türkic Kaganate is crucial. Bulu-shad of the present listing is Bulan Shad, son and Crown Prince (Shad) of Tun-Yabgu Kagan, the Kagan of the Western Türkic Kaganate, 618–628, of the Ashina tribe, aka Orkhan, killed in 631.

Alp-Ilitver is Bulan Shad, misnamed Bulu Shad in the present listing, his position was Elteber in the Bulagr (future Khazar) province. In 631 Bulan Shad lost his status of Crown Prince. The rival Ashina prince, name unknown, assumed a title Kagan over the tribes under his rule north of river Sulak, and became known as Khazar Kagan, his possession between Itil and Sulak is known as Barsilia/Bersilia. Alp-Ilitver retained his position at the Caucasian Huns, proclaimed his independence, but soon has to submit to the rival Khazar Kagan, and remains known under his position title, Elteber/Ilitver, i.e. Alp-Ilitver, retaining his Hun “kingdom” described in the “History of Agvans”.

The listing omits the reasons for the Agvan campaign, and the overwhelming role of the Arab aggression that was a cause of the campaign, thus glorifying a fantasy and obscuring the situation. The Agvan operation was aimed at Arabs, not Agvans. Since 150 AD, Agvania was a member of the Hunnic confederation, at first led by Masguts who headed confederation. The Arab subjugation of the autonomous Agvania created an intolerable situation, when Agvans had to pay the imposed tribute to the “Tajiks” (Arabs), while maintaining their obligations toward confederation under a threat of retribution. As a result, the Huns took over Agvania in a compact signed by the Agvania's king Djuansher (aka Javanshir), the Arabs were kicked out of Albania (occupied 652-664), Djuansher married Alp Ilitver's daughter, this becoming a son-in-law and a statutory vassal of Alp Ilitver. Five years later Djuansher was killed, Albanian throne was taken by his brother Varaz-Trdat (669-699). That was a direct assault on the Alp Ilitver's family, daughter, and state. A second campaign, with a diplomatic entreaty, validated the previous treaty and family ties.

Notably, it was only in 684 that the newly formed Khazar Kaganate awarded the rank of Ilituership (Eltebership) to Alp Ilitver. In the interregnum, between 660 and 684, he found himself without a suzerain, i.e. a suzerain himself, allied with the Kurbat Bulgaria.

[1] Kagankatvatsi M. History of Agvans, p. 110, 119
[2] See: Donuk A. Eski Turk Devletlerinde Idari - askeri unvan ve terimler. Istambul, 1988. p. 21.22
[3] Kagankatvatsi M. History of Agvans, p. 148
[4] Kagankatvatsi M. History of Agvans, p. 127
[5] See: Dagestani tales//SMOMPK, vol. 2, p. 140
18   Khan Kubrat (Kurbat), son of Orhan

Patriarch Nicephorus calls him “sovereign of  Gunnug-Undurs”[1]. In 619 Kubrat (Kurbat) came with the Organ embassy to Constantinople and was left there as a hostage (amanat) and till the age of 19 was raised and educated with the children of the Emperor Heraclius, there he married a Byzantine aristocrat. Kubrat (Kurbat) was friends with Emperor Heraclius, and after his death showed his devotion to his heirs and wife Martina [2]. It is believed that Kubrat (Kurbat) is memorized in epic memory of the Balkars and Karachais under name Tuma-Marien-Khan [3].

Khan Kubrat (Kurbat) died about 650's - early 660s. His sons inherited him. According to Theophanes, Kubrat (Kurbat) left five sons, bequeathing them not to separate one from each other  in no case, and live together so that they would rule over all and not fall into slavery to another people.[4] An oral Bulgarian tradition tells that dying Kubrat (Kurbat) called in his sons, asked to bring a bunch of flexible twigs and ordered each son to break this bundle. Naturally, that was not possible, the twigs remained intact. A similar parable exists among the Kumyks. So, Kubrat (Kurbat) demonstrated that together Bulgars are invincible, separately each twig is broken easily, and each separate part can be easily defeated and conquered by the neighbors. This, of course, is a legend, but it is clear that immediately after Kubrat (Kurbat) death in the Great Bulgaria rose centrifugal tendencies that led to its disintegration.

Separatism arose much earlier, when Atilla's sons separated and were defeated one by one. Befor coming into the lead, Bulgars had to defeat Akathirsi and Savirs, who inspired to lead the Hunnic state. After being subjugated and divided between Avar and Türkic Kaganates, Bulgars separated from each one into a shor-lived independent Kaganate. The tale of a twig bundle pops up in many points in the Eurasia, predating and postdating Kurbat.

The only artifact bearing the name of Kurbat is inscribed with a runiform monogram reading Kbrt kingg.

Fig. 12. Ring of Bulgar king Kubrat
read up-down and right-to-left)

  Otherwise. we do not know the personal name of Kurbat, he entered history under his later title-name Kobrat (like is etched on the signet ring), Türkic “Gatherer”, which apparently was pronounced with a stop vowel still observed in Bulgarian: K'rbat, B'lgar, rendered in Slavic with a silent hard character ъ as Кърбат and Българ. Hence the Greek renditions Crubat and Crobat and Χουβράτης and the like, and the fossilized distortion Kubrat. The transposition of phonemes is not unusual within the same language, and much more so in the renditions of the foreign languages, which in this case includes the transition from the Ogur Bulgaric to the widespread Türkic Oguz of the latter times. In Türkic, kür is “brave, daring”, and it is a common title-name for princes, adopted in Türkic, Indian, Persian etc. nomenclature with allophonic forms Kür/Kur/Chur/Chor etc.; kür er stands for “brave man”; in the idiomatic expression, brave also implies “truthful”, one not mincing the words. Bat, a form of ata “father”, as a title for leaders is first attested among the Caucasian Huns, it may be a western borrowing from local Sarmats, later it was known among the Late Sarmatian and early Slavic tribes, and it retained its meaning to modernity among Türkic and Ukraine people. Kurbat as “”Brave Leader”, with its later allophonic “Gatherer”, appear to be most consistent with all documented forms.

Deducing Kurbat from his maternal uncle Orkhana is absurd. Deducing Kurbat, a prince from Dulo dynastic line, to originate from Ashina dynastic line is absurd. To suggest that Tun-Yabgu Kagan of the Western Türkic Kaganate would leave his son as a hostage at the Byzantine court is absurd. To suggest that Tun-Yabgu Kagan would come to Constantinople with an embassy is absurd. To suggest that Tun-Yabgu Kagan would come to Constantinople along with his Crown Prince Kurbat is absurd.

[1] Chichurov. op. cit., p. 161
[2] Artamonov M.I. op. cit., p. 161
[3] W. Bayramukov U.Z. Treasure of folk memory. Vladikavkaz, 1992, p. 24 et seq.
[4] Chichurov. op. cit., p. 61
19   Batbai or Batbaian, eldest son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat)

He headed the Caucasian Bulgaria after his father's death. After collapse of the state he remained in the Caucasus, “in the land of ancestors”,and submitted to the Khazars. In this regard, very informative is the genealogy of the Cherkassky princes. According to genealogies, their ancestor was Akabgu (Ak-Yabgu). This is a Türkic title figuratively denoting “western ruler, governor”. This Ak Yabgu in the nobility genealogical legends is also better known under another name Inal (Inal-Tegin, Inal Khan, Inal-Murza, etc.). It was established that the historical prototype of the Inal was a really existing representative of the Khazar administration acting as a Western Viceroy of the Kagan [1]. In addition, it is important to note that according to an oral tradition, the Inal activity falls on 7th-8th centuries. ( “150 years after Muhammad”). In the genealogies a father of Inal is called Hrufataiya or Hurpataiya with a khan's genealogy and linked with the Byzantine emperor. In that ancestor the Khan Kubrat (Kurbat) is easily recognizable.

Thus, there is every reason to believe that under the Inal of the Circassian genealogies is hidden an eldest son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat) - Bat-Bayan. As pointed out Theophane, who wrote his chronicle in 680, Bat-Bayan in his time, “keeping the covenant of his father,” remained “in the land of ancestors”,the Caucasus. At the same time, he was “a ruler of the first Bulgaria”,and he paid tribute to the Khazars.[2] In other words, his official status in the Khazar administrative hierarchy could be really defined with the term “ak-yabgu” meaning “vassal prince-viceroy” of the West Wing of the Khazar empire. In the Eastern Caucasus (Caucasian Hunniya) at that time a co-rruler of the Khazar Kagan was Alp Ilitver, who was Bat Bayan's relative (uncle) on the side of his father. About the noble origin of Inal also tells the title “tegin” applied to his name. As we know, among Bulgars it applied to the brothers or sons of the Khan [3]. Tegin (Prince), with the appointment as an army commander or viceroy in some part of the empire was given a title of “yabgu”. To the Bat Bai (Bat Boyan) can be applied the words of the Circassian legend: “He ruled for a long time, was known throughout the Caucasus and further beyond, and was successful in wars”. [4]

According to the genealogy cited by P.S. Pallas, Inal had two sons, named Komuk (according to Ju. Klaproth) and Qazi. From the first descended princes of the Lesser, and first the second of the Greater Kabarda [5].

In 660s Khazaria did not exist yet, it was a splinter of the Western Türkic Kaganate, from which Bulgaria split in 631. So, both for Bulgaria and the heir to the Western Türkic Kaganate that was a restoration of the former vassalage. Reference to Khazars in the literature is anachronic.

Yabgu is a Türkic title denoting “western ruler, governor”;for the eastern wing was appointed a successor to the Kagan throne, either a brother of the ruling Kagan, or a Shad (Crown Prince) in accordance with the Lateral Order of Succession. The other children from the Hatun (Queen) were called Tegins, and that title could extend to the children of secondary wives. Ak-Yabgu denotes a Prime, like in Prime Minister, in case when there are secondary yabgus, which would be called Kara-Yabgu. A post holder is titled after the name of his position.

Inal is a title and position of a head of tüba, and tüba corresponds to a province. Inal is a head of province which may house one or a few tribes, and can be from modest to humongous in size Whether it is an appointment, like Viceroy, Yabgu, or Elteber (Ilitver), or election, like Kagan or tribal Khan, is unclear, but likely it is an elected position, i.e. tribal chiefs appoint one of them to be an Inal. Inal and Elteber may be one and the same person, but Yabgu implies a royal dynastic clan.

 “150 years after Muhammad” means about 800, but Kurbat died in 660s, about 30 years after Muhammad. The Hrufataiya or Hurpataiya may descend from the Kurbat line, via Bat-Boyan, remote by 4-6 generations from Kurbat. The genealogy of the Cherkassky princes (Cherkesses aka Zikhi, Adyge, Shapsugs, Kosogs, aka Kabardians/Kabardinians) confirms that the Caucasian tribes were ruled by the princes of the Bulgarian royal clan.

[1] See: Gadlo A.V. Prince Inal of Adyge-Kabardian genealogies//From history of feudal Russia. Leningrad, 1978, pp. 25-33
[2] The Chronicle of Theophanes, p. 262, 263
[3] Donuk A. A.g.e., p. 48
[4] ABKIEA, p. 229, 230
[5] See: Pallas P.S. Journey through the southern provinces of the Russian Empire in 1793 and 1794.//Atalikov V.M. Pages of history. Nalchik, 1987, appendix pp. 170-171
20   Asparuk (Asparukh), third son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat)

Asparuk with his subjects in 668 migrated to the Balkans, in 679 founded a new state, the Danube Bulgaria. Asparuk Khan died at the turn of the century, in 701 and was succeeded by his son Tervel. So the clan Dulo entrenched on the Bulgarian throne. Under the rule of Tervel the young Bulgarian state achieved economic and political might. It was apprehend by the Byzantine Empire, and the neighboring Avar Türkic Khanate, and the raising in the eastern steppes N. Caucasus Khazar Khanate. In the Danube Bulgaria started forming a people nowadays known as “Bulgarians”. Such is the fate of the Gunnug-Undurs led from the Caucasus by the Asparuk.

Asparukh did not lead any Gunnug-Undurs from the Caucasus. Asparukh brought along numerous Bulgarian tribes from the Dnieper area and his Slavic charges. The migrants are estimated at 200,000+/-100,000 crowd of Slavic peasant foot migrants, 300,000-strong herds of horses and 10,000-20,000 carts (allowing for only 10,000 Bulgar families; most popular guestimates are 30-50,000 Bulgar people; the strength must be enough to decimate the Byzantine army led by the Emperor. The known tribes Bulgar were Dulo, Uokil, Ugain, and Ermy (Karmikhions).
21   Kotrag
According to Theophanes, the second son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat) “crossing the river Tanais, settled in acroos from the first brother”. He is considered the founder of the Volga Bulgar, in the depths of which happened to form the basis of modern Itil (Kazan) Tatars and Chuvashes.

Since Bat-Boyan resided in the N. Caucasus, across from from the N. Caucasus and Tanais (Don) lays the Right Bank of the Don and Sever Donets in the west, while Itil lays to the east. According to Theophanes, Kotrag went westwards into Suvar (Russ. Severyan) lands.
22   Altsek or Alchagyr, fifth son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat)

Under his leadership Bulgars came to Italy to the Lombard king Grimuald (662-671), who sent them to his son Romuald in the Benvent, where they settled in Sepin, Bovian and Inzerna [1]. Why there? Because still in the beginning of the 600s a part of Bulgars migrated to the Avar's Pannonia (Hungary). In the late 720s (should be 620s?) Bulgars participated in a struggle for power in Pannonia, but were defeated. Avars were victorious. Headed by Prince Alchagyr (Altsek), Bulgars fled to Bavaria (620s?). The Frankish king Dagobert first allowed them to settle there, but then ordered to annihilate Bulgars. Of the 9 thousand Bulgars survived only 700 men headed by Alchagyr. They fled to Italy and settled in the Benventin duchy (620s?).[2] In the 670s new countrymen joined them. According to Paul the Deacon, the author of the 9th c., “These Bulgarians spoke Latin, but still remembered their language”[3].

[1] See Chichurov. op. cit., p. 114
[2] Artamonov M.I. Essay on the ancient history of the Khazars. Moscow, 1937, p. 32
[3] ibid.
23   Cuver, fourth son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat)

He ruled the Szekely (Esegel) and Magyar tribes. He joined the Avar Kagan's tribal confederation and heading the Szekely, together with him ended up on the banks of Danube and Tisza [1]. In 680-685 Cuver raised a rebellion in Pannonia against Avars, and left with his tribe to Macedonia [2].

[1] Rasonyi L. Tuna kopruleri, p. 18
[2] See: A Brief History of Bulgaria. Moscow, 1987, p. 39
24   Er-Tegin

Possibly, he was a son of Alp Ilitver. Alp Ilitver sent him in 682 as an emissary to Armenia. Judging from the sources, they did not mention him by name, but by the title Tegin (Prince). Er-Tegin's possession was the the Khursan land, located near Chul (Chor, Sula) (Derbent), on the shores of the Caspian Sea.[1]

Khursan is probably an alternative spelling of Khurasan. Adjacent to Derbent from the north was Varachan - Varajan - Balanjar ~ Belenjer - Bülün Jar, 42.8°N 47.1°E (modern Buinaksk, native Shura, 42.6°N 47.9°E), the land of Kayi (Kaitag, Kaidag). That suggests that Kayi were called Khurasani and were refugees  or migrants from Khurasan (Tokharistan).
[1] Minorsky V.F. Hudud al-Alam "The regions of the World". A Persian geography 372 AH - 982 AD. London. 1937, p. 114, 115
25   B_l_dj_a (from Bulu Shat?)

Commander sent by Khazar Kagan to Kakhetia during the reign of the Georgian kings John and Juansher (718-786). Georgian sources call him “Bluchan”,and in Armenian “Bulch_an”. Most likely he was a descendant of Bulu Shad (Bulan Shad) - Alp Ilitver and a grandson of Orhan (Organa?).

26   K_sa son of B_l_dj_an
Ruler who in 901 led the “Khazar” campaign against Derbent.[1]
[1] Minorsky V.F., op. cit., p. 143
27   Adzar-Narsa (Correct: Atrnerseh)
According to Ibn Rusteh, king of Semender in 10th c. Apparently, he was at a religious crossroads and professed three religions at the same time (Christianity, Judaism, Islam). A Leningrad historian A.V. Gadlo believe that the Iranian in origin name of this Semender king, common in the 8th c-9th centuries among Christian rulers of Armenia and Georgia, definitely indicates its commitment to Christianity.[1] In all likelihood, Adzar-Nars was a son of K_sa the son of B_l_dj_an.

Following that logics, all Alexanders of the world should be Greek polytheists.

Semender was evacuated during Arab invasions, and largely destroyed. Every time it was re-populated after a period of desolation. 10th c. king belongs to the re-population period, anybody could have taken advantage of the empty space after a disaster.

The religious tolerance of the pre-Islamic Türkic states, and of the Khazar Kaganate in particular, was noted universally, and need not to be confused with any “religious crossroads” notions.

[1] Gadlo A.V. Ethnic history of the North Caucasus in 9th-13th centuries. Leningrad, 1996, p. 10
28   Sari Khan (Salifan)
A king of Semender. Masudi used the word “malik” (king) and at the same time reported that their family designation was “s_l_f_n.”.

He is mentioned for the first time at the beginning of 900s, namely in 916, when he “marched with the Khazar army in support of Abdul-Malik, the ruler of al-Bab[1]. Al-Istahri reports that at that time the Semender king professed Judaism and was a relative of the king of the Khazars.[2] Note that Ibn Rust, writing prior to Al-Istahri, pointed in contrast to the religious indifference of the Semender king.

According to Masudi, by 943 Salifan, a head of Semender, while remaining a vassal of the Khazar Kagan, not only accepted Islam, but even managed to gain a Muslim genealogy. Masudi tells about him: “... a Muslim king claims that he is an Arab from Qahtan. Currently, namely in 943, in his state are no other Muslims, except for him, his son, and family ...”[3]. The assertion of the Salifan's belonging to the Arab origin V.Minorsky considers to be “a pure invention of the Arabs based on simple consonance”.[4] It is possible that this king reigned in Samandar before the ravaging by the Rus Vikings of the kingdom's capital in 965

As for the title Selifan, V.F. Minorsky thought it was an ancient Türkic title transcribed in Chinese se-lli-fa (Pyn. Xielifa 苏李发).[5] However, in 1910 F. Müller asserted, and P. Pelliot in 1929 confirmed that the Chinese sie-li-fa (苏李发) corresponds to the ancient Türkic title Il-Teber (cf. the name of the Caucasian king of the Huns Alp Ilitver). So the witty etymology of Minorsky is out of place. The most convincing etymology and reconstruction of this term gave the American Turkologist O.Pritsak, interpreting it as a *slyq\'n ~ slyf\'n, i.e. *sariqan. In Türkic this is Saryg Kagan > Saryg Khan> Sarykan/Saryhan [6] and means “Yellow or White Kagan”. So titled themselves the rulers of the Huns. This explains why Masudi named s_l_f_n., i.e. Saryhan as a designation for all Semender kings.

Clearly, the Semender kings, the original Huns, called themselves Saryg Khan (“White Khan”), and the Khazar Kagans called their “local vassal rulers, charged with military and administrative power”[7] Il Teber as subordinated rulers. It is also known that the Semender kings had a rank of Iilteber.[8]

Actually, V.F. Minorsky only recited the opinions of F. Müller and P. Pelliot that the titele Sulifa/Selifa is an ancient Türkic title. Saryg Khan is a synonym of Ak-Khan and Kuu-Khan, all using the adjective “White” to express “Noble, Elevated, Great”.
[1] Islam Cografyacilarina gore Turkler ve Turk Ulkeleri. Ankara, 1985, p. 66
[2] Ibid. 154
[3] Minorsky V.F. op. cit., p. 202
[4] Ibid, p. 127
[5] Ibid, p. 127, prim.59
[6] Menges K. Oriental elements in “Tale of the Igor's campaign”. Leningrad, 1979
[7] Fedorov-Davydov K.F. Nomads of Eastern Europe under the rule of the Golden Horde khans. Moscow, 1966, p. 222
[8] Gadlo A.V. op. cit., p. 22
29   Saknan/Sakban (Sakbal?)

We believe that after demise or death of Salifan to the throne in Samandar rose his son, Masudi mentions him still in 943. Apparently,his name was Saknan or Sakban, and maybe Sakbal,[1], because already in 1065-67 there already figured a ruler Z_m_z_m binu Saknan (or Saknan), ostensibly with lakab (nickname) “al-Khaydaqi[2]. In respect of this lakab it should be noted that before the end of the 14th c. the name Kaitag or Khaidaq does not show up in the historical sources.[3] It remains to recognize that we are dealing here with the erroneously read term Dj_ndan, which is quite admissible with the peculiarities of the Arabic script.[4] It can be assumed that Saknan reigned in Semender at the end of 10th - early11th century, maybe before 1030, i.e. before the ravaging of Semender by the Ganja Emir Fadlun (985-1032). In that year, the emir Fadlun went on a robbing campaign against Kumyks and Khazars, for a second time ravaging their capital Semender. As a result, an enmity arose between the Kumyks and Shedadid Muslims.[5]

The designation al-Khaydaqi attests that in the 11th c., in spite of the repeated devastations caused by the Arab 150 years-long assaults,  Samandar remained a capital of the Mountain Kayis, i.e. the Kayi Huns, called Kaitags (Кайтаг, pl. Кайтагi, Кайтагцы) in the present Russian nomenclature and with pl. endonym Кhaidaklan (Хайдаклан). In respect to Mr. M. Khinalugsky assertion that the name Kaitag or Khaidaq does not show up in the historical sources, that is the type of the disinformation manufactured in the Former Soviet Union since the Stalin times. Just the opposite, the first Hunnic Türkic tribes noted in the sources were the Kayi Huns.

“Haidak Land” (Kaitak, Kaitag) in the Arab sources is first mentioned al-Kufi in connection with military campaign of Jarrah in the Caspian littoral in 722/723. After another Arab campaign in 733-738, Muslama appointed as a ruler (of Kaitak) a man named Hamza from among his people” (Derbend-name, Ш p 33). Hence the Arab appellation Hamzin.

7th c. map overlain on modern map
Haidak ~ modern Kaya Kent, 42.4°N 47.9°E,
probably the same as the Haidak at the conquest of 737, aka Hamzin/Hasin/Hashin/Haizan/Jidan/Jandan/Guznain/Haidan
[1] Gadlo A.V. op. cit., p. 220
[2] Ibid. p. 28,29
[3] Khinalugsky M. Events in Daghestan and Shirvan. Makhachkala, 1997, p. 102, 106, note.5
[4] Magomedov M.G. Khazars in the Caucasus. Makhachkala, 1994, p. 153-161
[5] Kirzioglu F. Kipcaklar. Ankara, 1992, p. 71
30   Z_m_z_m binu Sakian

A version of his name is B_rum. According to V. Minorsky, perhaps this name is “Firuz”. Sh Erelem read his name as “Zemzem[1]. This form of name displays a striking similarity with the name of the Khazar warlord Samsam, mentioned in “Akhty-name”, and with the name of one of the provinces of the Kipchak Khanate in the Eastern Caucasus of the time of the Timur campaigns, “Simsim”. This name is also close to the name of the Sultan Djumdjum, it is known that his tomb was located near Derbent.[2]

Zemzem in all likelihood reigned in Samandar in 1031-1070. As far as the sources allow to guess, apparently he managed to ally with the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan, whose ancestors are known to be in service of the Khazar Kagan for a long time. To consolidate his power in the Caucasus, Alp Arslan and later his son Malik Shah resettled a number of Türkic tribes in the Eastern Caucasus, and patronized the Semenderoans.[3] In 1064 3 thousand Khazar families (about 20 thousand people) returned their old capital Samandar [4], which was rebuilt again after pogrom perpetrated by Shedadid Muslims in 1030.[5]

[1] Erel S. Dagistan ve Dagistanlilar. Istambul, 1961, p. 77
[2] Bakikhanov A.-K. Gulistan-e Iram. Baku, 1991, p. 51
[3] Togan Z.V. Hazarlar.//IA, p. 199; Kuzgun S. Hazar ve Karay Turkleri. Ankara, 1993, p. 83
[4] Gmyrya L.B. Hun Country by the Caspian Gates. Makhachkala, 1995, p. 147, 148
[5] Minorsky V.F. op. cit., p. 75
31   Shau-Tegin or Sau-Tegin

It is known that after conquest of the Caucasus, Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan and his son Malik Shah, in order to consolidate their local power, practiced appointment of their viceroys, Shah Walis. Perhaps from that title in the Oguz epic (Kitab-i Dedem Korkud (Korkut)) is a distorted name “Shevkal-i Melik”, which the scientists (F. Kyrzyoglu) identified with the Kumyk Shavhal (Shavhal < Shahwan < Shahwali).

Shau-Tegin was appointed a viceroy of the “Derbent side” in 1075 during the reign of the Sultan Malik-Shah. To Shau-Tegin “was granted a border province... and his name was read in the khutba after the name of the Sultan from the mosque spulpits in the border area”.[1] This person is mysterious, with no biographical information. One matter is clear: Shau-Tekin or Sau-Tegin is not a proper name but a Türkic title meaning “Vice Khan” (i.e. Prince-Viceroys of the Khan)[2]. Among Bulgars, this term referred, for example, to the brothers or sons of the Khan.[3] Also is know that Tegins were appointed commanders and rulers of the border regions. Consequently, the likelihood is high that the Shau-Tekin descended from an aristocratic family. It can be presumed that he was a prince of the Semender royal house in the service of the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan and his son Malik Shah. Apparently, that explains why he was appointed a Viceroy of the “border region”. Usually those appointed were commanders that originated from the population of such areas. That is also attested by some historical facts cited by A. Kayaev, who possessed an unknown manuscript of the “Tarikh-i Dagestan”.[4][5]

According to the “History of Maz”, the Kumyk Shauhals were descendants of the Shamkhal “whom Emir Chuban (Shau-Tegin?) installed among them (having selecting him) from among his relatives (or courtiers) (!). Shauhals are a ” branch of Khan's-Kagan's line”. A.-K. Bakikhanov, who used now inaccessible sources, calls this Shauhal a “relative” of the Emir.

[1] Erel S. op. cit., p. 80
[2] Ghoukassian V.L. Turkism in Albanian (Agvanian?) sources.//Soviet Türkology. 1977, No 2, p. 53
[3] Donuk A. Eski Turk Dcvletlerinde Idari-askeri unvan ve terimler. Istambul, 1988, p. 48
[4] Kayaev A. Materials on history of varnishes//Manuscript Fund of IIYAL. F.1. List. 1, file 1642, l. 253
[5] Gajiyev V.G. Shamkhalate. History of emrgence and state administration.//States and state institutions in a pre-revolutionary Dagestan. Makhachkala, 1989, p. 27
32   “Shevkal-i Melik”

He is mentioned not by name, but by the prime title. He was a relative of Shau-Tegin (in the sources he appears under the names Emir of Chopan, Emir of Kalantar, Ghazi of Kalantar, Kovsar-Shah, Kaftar-Shah), who appointed him a ruler of the Kumyks. We call him “First Shauhal”. Like Sau-Tegin, he had a “Khan's-Kagan's genealogy”. Under Seljuks, he ruled  Kumyks in the second half of the 11th - beginning of the 12th c. A. Kayaev stated directly that this First Shauhal was a Türk “After him, the Shamkhalate was handed down by inheritance”.[1] Unfortunately, downstream generational connections are known.

[1] Kayaev A. op. cit., p. 140, 268
33   Shauhal Khan
So we conditionally call the anonymous Shauhal elected by the Kumyks upon their acceptance of the Mongol-Tatar rule in 1240 or 1258. According to A. Kayaev this Shauhal descended from Chingiz Khan.[1]
[1] Kayaev A. op. cit., p. 269
34   Emir Shauhal
Mentioned in 1396 during Timur raid against Kumyks. Died in battle with Timur hordes.
35   Chingiz Shauhal
He was elected a Shauhal by Kumyks in 1443 after their liberation from the Timurid power. Originally he was from Chingizids.[1] Therefore, we conditionally call him Chingiz Shauhal.
[1] Cevdet A. Kirim ve Kafkas Tarihcesi//Emel. 221.Temmuz-Agustos. 997, p. 28
36   Oge Khan

Descendant of Batbai (Batbaian), son of Khan Kubrat (Kurbat)[1], was a leader of the Kabar rebels in the end of 9th c.

[1] Oztuna Y., p. 106
37   Edil-Khas (Etelkoz)

Son Oge Khan and his son Almas (Hungarian - Almosh) were leaders of the Hungarians (Madjar) punched between the Don and the Dnieper. Almas was married to a noble Khazarian.[1]

[1] Baskakov N.A. Türkizms in “Tale of the Igor's campaign”. Moscow, 1985, p. 24
38   Arpad

Son of Almas, grandson of Edil-Has, he was appointed by the Khazar Kagan to head the tribal confederation of the Kabars, Sekels and Magyars, like his father, he was married to a noble Khazarian maiden.[1] Under the leadership of Arpad these tribes in 896 moved to the area between the Danube and Tisza and founded their own state, which exists to this day and is called Hungaria (Hungary). Arpad ruled in Hungary in 889-907, he established a dynasty of the Hungarian kings. The dynasty ruled in Hungary until 1301.[2]

[1] Baskakov N.A. op. cit., p. 24
[2] Ozdek R. Türkün gïzïl kitaby. Baku, 1992, p. 132
K. Aliev's publications (up to 2015)
1) 28.06.2005 Проблема происхождения кумыков в советской идеологии и историографии
2) 28.06.2005 Кумыки. История и современные проблемы
Расселение и численность. Территория
3) 28.06.2005 Еще раз об Анжи
4) 28.06.2005 "Тенглик": предпосылки возникновения и тенденции развития.
5) 28.06.2005 Сакинат-бийкебизни тувгъан гюнюнде
6) 28.06.2005 Таргъу шавхалланы (князьланы) герби.
Тарихден бир япракъ.
7) 28.06.2005 "Каталония атласы" не йимик маълуматлар бере?
8) 28.06.2005 Къумукъбийни оьлюмю.
Уллу тарихчи профессор, доктор Кырзыогълуну артындан
9) 28.06.2005 Нашему роду нету переводу
10) 28.06.2005 Тайны кумыкской этнонимики
Этнонимические этюды (камак, гюен, тюмен, кайы, окочан)
11) 28.06.2005 Кумыкский язык в России.
К истории изучения и преподавания
12) 28.06.2005 У истоков европейского кумыковедения.
О вкладе Ю. Немета в сохранение, изучение и пропаганду кумыкского культурного наследия в Европе.
13) 28.06.2005 Къумукъларда бусурманлыкъ.
Тарихи маълуматлагъа гёре.
14) 28.06.2005 Мусульманские святилища (пиры) Кумыкии
15) 28.06.2005 Ахмед Саиб Каплан
Общественно-политический деятель и интеллектуал XX века.
16) 15.07.2005 Таргу-наме. Лексикон.
Предисловие, составление, биографические справки, комментарии, редакция К. М. Алиева.
Махачкала, 2001.
17) 15.07.2005 Дорогою тысячилетий: кумыки и их этнородственные связи. (2004 г.)
Махачкала, 2004.
18) 06.08.2005 Культура национального самосознания
19) 09.09.2005 Кумыкские общины за рубежом: история и современность.
20) 27.10.2005 "Кумык Петра Великого" князь Гамза-бек Тарковский
21) 28.10.2005 Три фактора "И". Идейное наследие Абусуфьяна Акаева и современность
22) 29.10.2005 Тайны биографии Джелала Коркмасова
23) 26.11.2005 Имя и наследие Хайдара Баммата
24) 20.12.2005 Знаменитые хазары
Из истории Арабского Халифата
25) 02.01.2006 А.И. Тамай как видный ученый-историк
26) 02.01.2006 Чопан-шаухал Мухтешем (Великолепный)
27) 19.01.2006 Дагестанцы верны выбору.
28) 15.02.2006 Этногенетические связи кумыков с другими народами Кавказа в свете исторических легенд и преданий.
29) 16.02.2006 Российский федерализм: некоторые концептуальные подходы и проблемы.
30) 12.03.2006 Смена вех
Председателем Правительства РД назначен Шамиль Зайналов
31) 13.03.2006 Cудьба потомков Девлет-Мирзы Шейх-Али
32) 30.04.2006 Казак жил, Казак жив...
Неопровергнутые версии жизни и смерти «кумыкского пророка»
33) 06.06.2006 Той, "бузулуп" барагъан къумукъ той... Бельгияда
34) 09.06.2006 Религия, предшествовавшая исламу
35) 09.06.2006 Из предыстории кумыкской печати
О предтечах наших периодических изданий
36) 24.06.2006 Дагестан: нация и государство
37) 27.07.2006 Как Багиров заступился за кумыков
38) 27.07.2006 Яхья Аливов: Я рад, что моя "американская мечта" осуществилась!
39) 28.07.2006 Дорогой тысячелетий
От руники - к кириллице
40) 05.08.2006 Дагестан: государство и национальная печать
41) 30.08.2006 "Свидетельство о политической благонадежности"
Буйнакский был не "младотурком", а политически благонадежным подданным Российской империи.
42) 01.09.2006 Тайна гравюры Адама Олеария
43) 08.10.2006 "И если завтра мой язык исчезнет..."
постскриптум к одной незаконченной дискуссии.
44) 01.11.2006 Шаухалы Тарковские - кумыкская аристократия.
Страницы родословной и жизнеописания властителей
Махачкала. 2006.
45) 02.11.2006 Цари гуннов и их наследники
46) 02.11.2006 Именник гуннских царей
(Кавказская Гунния)
47) 03.12.2006 Шура: загадки топонимики
(Темир-Хан-Шура, Уллу-Шура, Шура-озенъ, Къакъа-Шура)
48) 04.12.2006 Неподдельный интеллект
49) 16.01.2007 Помнить и понимать свою историю
К 400-летию сражения на Караманском поле
50) 25.03.2007 "Душа болезненно тоскует по любимой, но отнятой у нас родине"
Письма Музафарбека Тарковского
51) 29.03.2007 Генеалогия как национальная идея
52) 30.03.2007 Первенец средств массовой информации на кумыкском языке
53) 11.04.2007 "Асхар-тау, нет горы, что выше тебя..."
("Асхар-тав, сенден бийик тав болмас...")
54) 02.08.2007 «Анжи-наме» как памятник кумыкской словесности
К семинару КНКО по проблемам «Анжи-наме»
55) 07.09.2007 Американцы открывают Америку
По следам предков
56) 27.09.2007 Вице-адмирал русского флота Авраамий Асланбеков
Кто он: азербайджанец, кабардинец или кумык?
57) 28.09.2007 Братья Горичи: два генерала из Кизляра.
Неизвестные страницы военной летописи
58) 04.11.2007 Завещан был нам Деде Коркутом
К истории варгана (хомуса)
59) 02.01.2008 Герей-шаухал Музаффар (Победоносец)
60) 31.01.2008 Сурхай III - "падишах Дагестанский"
Годы жизни: 1598-1668. Годы правления: 1641-1668.
61) 06.02.2008 Дагестанский Премьер
К юбилею
А.М. Мирзабекова
62) 18.03.2008 Герой "Романа на Кавказских водах" Шах-вали Тарковский
Неизвестные страницы дагестанской историко-литературной Пушкиниады
63) 23.04.2008 Шаухалы Тарковские. Страницы кумыкской родословной.
Махачкала. 2008.
64) 13.05.2008 Учёный, заложивший основы тюркского языкознания
К тысячелетнию Махмуда Кашгарского
65) 21.06.2008 Real politic от Путина
(к интервью Владимира Путина газете "Le Monde")
66) 09.07.2008 Кумыкская родня
(К идее культурной и языковой интеграции кипчаков)
67) 11.07.2008 Кто же оказывает "медвежью услугу" своему народу?
Об академических "завихрениях" в изучении происхождения народа
68) 14.09.2008 Князья Дадешкелиани - сородичи Тарковских
69) 25.12.2008 Родословная князей Кази-Кумукских
70) 27.12.2008 Тарковские в истории Ирана
71) 05.04.2009 Заур Дагир - первый оперный певец из Дагестана
72) 15.05.2009 О влиянии хазарских евреев на этнос и культуру кумыков
73) 16.06.2009 Генеалогические и семейно-родственные связи шаухалов Тарковских с другими народами Кавказа, Крыма и России
74) 21.06.2009 За службу России и храбрость
О героях-кумыках русской императорской армии
75) 29.08.2009 Забытые герои забытых войн России
Еще раз о кумыках - кавалерах Георгиевских наград
76) 10.09.2009 Кавалергарды Его Императорского Величества
77) 16.09.2009 Влияние Золотой Орды на этнос и культуру Кавказа
78) 30.11.2009 Немцы на кумыкской плоскости
79) 13.12.2009 И стали Тарковские казаками кубанскими
80) 23.12.2009 Кипчаки на Кавказе до и после нашей эры
81) 08.01.2010 К этнополитической истории кумыков в составе Золотой Орды (XIII- XV вв)
82) 21.02.2010 Чтобы "зов бытия" нашего зазвучал с новой силой
К Международному дню родного языка
83) 03.03.2010 Стать нацией, которая чего-то стоит. Дубль три
84) 10.03.2010 Год Йырчи Казака
85) 10.03.2010 Гюльзар - французская писательница кумыкского происхождения
86) 08.05.2010 Битва за историю продолжается
87) 16.05.2010 Потомок "Шевкальского царя", правивший Эриваном
88) 23.05.2010 К истории титула крым-шаухал
89) 29.06.2010 Кумыки по матери, грузины - по отцу
Из истории семьи Ивана и Кистаман Квинитадзе
90) 10.07.2010 Асы (ясы) и вопрос их происхождения в свете письменных источников периода Золотой Орды (XIII - XVI вв.)
91) 17.07.2010 Кумыки и их правители шаухалы в османских (турецких) источниках XVI - перв. пол. XVIII вв.
92) 21.09.2010 Юбилей вдали от родины
(к 70-летию Георгия Исмакова)
93) 29.09.2010 Кумыки в военной истории России (вторая половина XVI - начало XX вв.)
Краткий военно-исторический справочник
94) 17.10.2010 Брагунские ханы. Кто они?
95) 09.11.2010 О кумыках и уйгурах
96) 02.01.2011 Вспоминая прошедший 2010-й...
Пять событий года, моя версия
97) 18.01.2011 В благодарность за помощь татар в Грюнвальдской битве 1410 года
98) 23.01.2011 Судьба генерала
Князь Хасай Уцмиев: эпоха, жизнь, деятельность
99) 08.02.2011 Кумыкский генералитет Российской империи
100) 15.03.2011 Кумыки и их правители в свете сказаний об Огуз-хане
101) 16.03.2011 Законопроект о правовом статусе коренных народов РД, оказавшихся в положении меньшинств на своих этнических территориях
102) 25.03.2011 Как нам модернизировать национальную прессу
103) 19.04.2011 Загадочные «пятигоры» - кто они?
Исследования показывают, что в названии Пятигорска отложился гунно-булгарский этноним
104) 30.04.2011 Учиться у японцев...
105) 11.06.2011 Тамга-знаки Дагестана
По материалам кумыков и их предков
106) 20.06.2011 Мама Гиши Бек из Эндирея
Ученый-арабист, поэт и хронист
107) 28.06.2011 Пантюркизм... Почему бы и нет!
По поводу одного термина
108) 05.08.2011 Яловада янгыдан къучакълашдыкъ
109) 06.08.2011 Великий князь Алп-Илитвер
К эпической биографии правителя кавказских гуннов (гуннуг-ундуров)
110) 17.08.2011 Türk Dili ve Kültürünün Kafkaslardakı Tarihı rolü
111) 25.08.2011 Кумыки и их герои
112) 03.09.2011 Что скрывается за названием «Избирбаш»
К истории древнего топонимического памятника
113) 29.09.2011 Просвещение и патриотизм...
114) 14.10.2011 Кумыки: имя, история, идентитет
115) 27.10.2011 Преобразователь
26 октября Халиту Гамидовичу Магидову исполнилось бы 85 лет
116) 06.11.2011 Kumuk edebiyatını önde gelen isimlerinden
Anvar Haciyev (1914-1993)
117) 13.11.2011 Корни нашего родства
Кумыки, карачаевцы и балкарцы
118) 21.11.2011 Князья Туган-Барановские: кто они и откуда?
119) 29.11.2011 Любовь и смерть князя Абдул Халика
О трагической любви кумыкского князя и польской кинокоролевы
120) 30.11.2011 Kumuk Türklerini milli şairi Yırçı Kazak
121) 07.12.2011 Отверженные революцией
К истории семьи Абдуллаевых
122) 30.12.2011 Янгы йыл яхшы болсун!
123) 09.03.2012 Он умер несломленным, смертью героя-мученика
124) 09.03.2012 Кумыкские гуены и тюмены
(к этнической истории Засулакской Кумыкии позднезолотоордынского периода (XV-XVIII вв.)
125) 09.03.2012 К истории фиксации и происхождения этноойконима Бойнак
126) 09.03.2012 Вновь запрос на нацию
127) 09.03.2012 Крым-шаухалы в событиях XVI–XVIII вв.
128) 19.03.2012 Мы открылись... Турции!
(Об исторических связях между Дагестаном и Турцией, начавшихся более 500 лет назад)
129) 02.04.2012 Мы открылись... Турции! - 2
(Об исторических связях между Дагестаном и Турцией, начавшихся более 500 лет назад)
130) 09.04.2012 Вместе со своим народом
«Ёлдаш» - 95 лет
131) 09.04.2012 Аталарыбызны ёлу булан
132) 17.04.2012 Первоклассный источник по генеалогии кумыкских князей и шавхалов Тарковских
(о родословной 1758 г.)
133) 26.04.2012 К истории государственной символики кумыков
(предварительные заметки)
134) 30.04.2012 Профессор Фахреттин Кырзыоглу - в нашей памяти
135) 08.05.2012 К генеалогии аристократии «Кавказской Тюмени»
136) 13.05.2012 «Yoldaş» – 95 yıldır kendi halkıyla
137) 01.06.2012 За четырнадцать веков до юбилея
Почему мы не любим своей истории, не гордимся деяниями своих предков?
138) 29.06.2012 Пока культура не займет достойное место в нашей жизни...
Камал Абуков – газете «Ёлдаш»
139) 16.07.2012 Выдержать экзамен на интеллектуальную созидательность!
140) 05.08.2012 О Войцехе Потоцком и его повести «Аслан Темиров»
141) 23.08.2012 Ушедшие в легенду закубанские кумыки
142) 28.08.2012 Basın yayın dili olarak Kumuk Türkçesi
(Кумыкский как язык медиа в прошлом и настоящем)
143) 01.09.2012 О кумыках, участниках Отечественной войны 1812 года
144) 29.09.2012 Город «Башкент» «Книги побед» историков Тимура
145) 06.10.2012 М.И. Артамонов и хазароведение в Дагестане
146) 22.10.2012 Отемиш – «земля обетованная»?
147) 03.11.2012 Продолжение темы: Заур Дагир
148) 05.11.2012 Признанный миром, он всё ещё неизвестен на родине предков
К 300-летию со дня рождения Али Кули Хана Валиха Дагестани
149) 09.11.2012 Как турки в 1918 г. освобождали Порт-Петровск
(по турецким источникам и воспоминаниям очевидцев)
150) 18.12.2012 Кумыки и их предки в истории Грузии - I
(К истории кумыкско-грузинских связей)
151) 12.01.2013 Биринчи номерибизни ёллай туруп...
152) 23.01.2013 Кумыки и их предки в истории Грузии - II
153) 07.02.2013 Кумыки и их предки в истории Грузии - III
Грузинские фамилии хазаро-кумыкского происхождения
154) 12.02.2013 Сражение при факелах
(8 мая 1583 г., 430 лет назад)
155) 26.02.2013 Камил Алиев: «Къысматына ес болгъан миллет яшай»
156) 06.04.2013 Кумыки в войнах за иранский престол
(к тайнам Исфаханского Шахского Дома)
157) 11.04.2013 Первенец общетюркской газеты
130 лет назад в Бахчисарае вышел первый номер газеты «Терджиман»
158) 20.05.2013 Бекир Чобанзаде о происхождении, роли и значении кумыков и кумыкского языка на Кавказе
159) 08.06.2013 К истории мехтулинских ханов
160) 02.08.2013 Книга по истории рода Токаевых
161) 04.09.2014
Участники сражения 1840 года на реке Валерик
162) 23.10.2014 КТО ВЫ БУДЕТЕ, КУМЫКИ?
Из какого рода и племени?
163) 29.01.2015 Кумыки на европейских средневековых географических картах
Кумыки во второй половине XVI – начале XVII вв.
165) 02.03.2015 Лауреаты 6-ой премии ТЮРКСОЙ среди СМИ тюркского мира 2015 года
166) 22.04.2015 Одна из финальных битв Первой Мировой войны в Дагестане.
Неизвестные и малоизвестные страницы освобождения Анжикалы (Порт-Петровска) в 1918 году
(Страницы седой древности и славного прошлого)
168) 02.07.2015 Караман был нашим Куликовым полем
In Russian
Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans

Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Gmyrya L. Caspian Huns

Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Western Hun's Khan Dynasties
Western Hun's Khan Lineage
Bulgarian Khans List
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Рейтинг@Mail.ru  “  “” “” “”θδğŋɣčşāáäēəð ï öōüūû “” Türkic Türkic –