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Besenyo - Kangar - Croat Genetics

D Marjanovic
PHYLOGENY OF Y-CHROMOSOME HAPLOGROUPS
AND THEIR FREQUENCIES IN CROATS, SERBS, AND BOSNIACS

2005

Introduction

How to take a peek at people that dissolved 800 years ago? One way is to follow the genes. Bajanaks-Besenyos-Kangars left us few traces of their former glory, one of them is the "Bosnia" country-name, and "Bosniacs" people. The other country-name and ethnonym is Croat, self-name Harvat ("Charvat" with Greek flavor), that happened to be phonetically identical with the Besenyo tribal name Charaboi mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in "De Administrando Imperio" (ca 950). The other component of the union known as Besenyos were three tribes of Kangars, undoubtedly initially genetically different from their Besenyo marital partners due to incest law, but eventually blended together. And one parameter that can be looked at is, considering a millennia of joint life and extensive leveling of the differences between these migrant populations, what are the differences that tell apart these ethnic conglomerates of native Illyrians, and migrant Slavs and Türks? Genetically, these are the distinct markers that were contributed to the genetic pool of the neighboring people, the markers that find a highest expression in one group and are diluted in others. The study allows a peek into distinct genetic make-up that unites and distinguishes Bosnian Croats, Bosnian Serbs, Bosniacs, Ukrainians, Croats, and Hungarians from Czechs and other Slavic populations.

Links

The Peopling of Modern Bosnia-Herzegovina- Y-chromosome ... ( http://vetinari.sitesled.com/bosnia.pdf)
D Marjanovic
PHYLOGENY OF Y-CHROMOSOME HAPLOGROUPS
AND THEIR FREQUENCIES IN CROATS, SERBS, AND BOSNIACS

2005

These are papas
Figure 2. Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroups and their frequencies
in Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks of modern Bosnia-Herzegovina

Figure 3. PC analysis performed using the frequencies of the Y-chromosome haplogroups
E-M35, J1, J2, G, I* , I-P37* , I-M26, I-M223, I-M253, R-M17 and R-M269
in the three Bosnian groups (present paper), and in other European populations.

The data from the additional European populations (Alb = Albanians, And = Andalusians, F-Bas = French Basques,
SBas = Spanish Basques, Cat = Catalans, Cr = Croats of Croatia, Cz & Sl = Czechoslovaks, Du = Dutch,
Fr = French, Hu = Hungarians, Geo = Georgians, Gr = Greeks, Mac (Gr) = Macedonian Greeks, Iq = Iraqis,
N-It = North Italians, Pl = Poles, Sar = Sardinians, Slo = Slovenians, Sm = Saami, Tk = Turks, Uk = Ukrainians) (Knowing that Charaboi - Charvat - Harvat - Croat are descendents of Central Asian Kangars and  Besenyo, the selection of reference populations is way peculiar, with no Central Asian people compared)
are from Semino et al.(2000), Rootsi et al. (2004), and unpublished data. On the whole, 41% of the total variance is represented: 22% by the first PC and 19% by the second PC.

For detail affiliation of various haplogroups, and the author's interpretation of the results, please refer to the source article.

 
Observations

Haplogroups G, I1a, J1, J2f, J2f1, and R1a1, between these three groups, show a decline from Bosnians to Serbs and Croats, allowing a hypothesis that these were the haplogroups the Badjanaks-Besenyos brought initially from the Ural steppes and shared with their neighbors. There must have been papas that were different in their sperm, and they endowed on Bosnians their J component. The presence of mtDNA haplogroup F and Y-chromosomal haplogroup P* specifically signify descent from the Asian populations.

Haplogroups I1b and I appear to be prevailing haplogroups between Charaboi-Harvats that show decline from Croats to Serbs and Bosnians. According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the Bajanak tribe of Charaboi initially brought these genes from the Ural steppes, and eventually shared with their neighbors.

The diversity statistics shows that Charaboi-Harvats contributed most to the composition of the Croat people, while Besenyos were much more admixed and diluted. Possibly, the diversity values may help to establish a ballpark estimate for the initial statistical values of their distinct haplogroups, and help to find parallels among the current (i.e. ca. 1500 AD) populations of the Besenyos original areal. That areal, dating from the previous era, was roughly established as "a nomadic possession 2000 li, or about 900 km from Fergana (Ch. Davan) valley. Kangar was located in the hilly East Kazakhstan steppe, between lake Balkhash and Irtysh. Kangar was separated from Middle Asia, or Turan, by the barren Bet-Pak-Dala steppe and Münkum sands. In the east Kangar adjoined the Tarbagatai Mts. West of Kangar were the Alans (Ch. Yancai). After the conquest by the Chinese of the Western Turkic Kaganate, the Chinese maps of the "Western territory" show Kangar borders: eastern at lake Alakul (4610N 8135E), southern at Kirgiz Ala Tau ridges (4130N 7700E), with the Talas river valley being a Kangar periphery, western by the Sarysu River (4500N 6600E), and northwestern at Lake Tengiz (5030N 6900E), where Kangar bordered with the Uigurs (Ch. Ui-Bei-Go - Northern Ui)". The Besenyos, a conjugal tribe or tribal confederation for Kangars, must have been located within the same territory. Examples of available studies are shown below.

Y DNA
Altaians (ca. 1500 AD) Croats (modern) Kazakhs (ca. 1500 AD) Kazan Tatars (modern) Kyrgyzes (modern) Uzbeks (ca. 1500 AD)

Somewhat misleading conceptual Eurasian map of R1a gives a feel of the modern distribution, though in somewhat misleading format; for example the clines in the land of Etruscans around Tuscany clearly show that Etruscans were R1a. The R1a in Anatolia is about half of that of the Uigurs, which makes a good sense.

Tracing of the R1a and R1b alleles allowed to determine their origin in the South Siberia/Northern Central Asia, and their circuitous route into present distribution, see Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy

Unfortunately, nothing can yet be discerned about those haplogroups that Badjanaks-Besenyos shared with the peoples with whom they cohabited on their way from the Ural steppes to the Central European steppes and Balkans, among them Khazars-Bulgars, Slavs, Hungarians, Illyrians and Greeks. From the pattern of the Türkic social organization we can anticipate that Badjanaks was a nickname for a specific dynastic tribe that was a traditional conjugal tribe in a conjugal union, and they had their own kyshtym dependent tribes, with whom they started their trek westward. On the way they coalesced together, and obtained other kyshtyms, who may outnumber them 4-5/1, and the final union spoke Slavic. In that scenario, only 10-20% of the modern genes may ascend to the Middle Age Badjanaks.

On the other hand, how could these scientists ignore the genetical make-up of Kangly, a major component of the Kazakhstan Senior Juz? Is a scientist a somebody who is blind to the facts of life? Can we do homework for Dr. Marjanovich to get meaningful results from his telling study? Dr. Marjanovich, the ball is in your court, and nobody doubts your scientific aptitude.

* * *
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10/06/2008
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