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|Türks in India|
The Turks and the World: The Secret Story
ÀÑÒ, Moscow, 2004, ISBN 5-17-024789-3 (2004), 978-5-17-050082-6 (2008)
© Adji Murad 2004
History preserved for us bits and pieces of traces that once were a driving force for the changes called progress. Demographically speaking, Hindustan is teeming with these traces, indelible and unfalsifiable, the number of people who trace their descent from the Saka, Ases and Tokhars, White and non-White Huns, and Temurids reaches hundreds of millions, just the number of Ordu (aka Urdu) speakers is in the range of 70 millions. As of yet, the picture can't be drawn with all the details, but the outline, sketched in the offered chapter, provides just enough evidence to make the point. The events beyond the literary tradition are completely unknown, the literary tradition starts in the 6th c. BC, and runs uninterrupted to the Modernity. The perspective gained with the knowledge of history is helpful in discerning causes of the modern events.
It is possible to see that around 1,500 BC a group of farming emigres from the kurganized European Beaker Culture crossed the Central Asian steppes, likely following water courses, and installed themselves as religious, and therefore political leaders, of the Hindustan Dravidians. The symbiosis of the local illiterate farming Dravidians and the illiterate farming Arians seems to last undisturbed for a long thousand years, culminating in an amalgamated and stratified society. At some time, that society picked up the art of writing, allowing us to learn that their language was Prakrit, and their script was a Kharosthi form of the Semitic syllable alphabet. Prior to the 6th c. BC, their compact was disturbed by the nomadic cavalry, who interjected themselves in their society and took over both the political control, and the religious control of the minds. They were good in technical innovations, bringing the blessings of iron, and all uses of iron for economical and military usage. The first nomads are known as Sakas, they installed themselves as royal and religious power, and they started a sequence of nomadic waves that viewed each local society as a monoethnic farming group in need of their royal power. Each period had its own forms of aggression and resistance, allowing us to learn about their society and their fights. After two and a half millennium of the nomadic rule, the scene was entered by the kurganized Brits, to destroy what they have found, and to create a new balanced society that would perpetuate their dominance. After that failed, the history entered a period of political turmoil that lasts to this day. The sequence outlined by M.Adji may only scratch the surface, but any skeptic should start with credible explanation how the river flowing into the Indian ocean, and the modern capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Middle Age capitals of the Kipchak Khanates bear the same name Sarai, Sarajevo, Sarai-Berke, Saraichik etc. meaning in plain Türkic palace, capital, horde headquarters, serai, and how the Urdu language is called the language of horde. With the DNA genealogy on hand, we are on the verge of ascertaining the biological and historical flows.
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The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes.
The Turks and the World: The Secret Story
No, not with empty hands the Turks began the Great Migration, the apex of which was a belief in Heavenly God. They called the Almighty Tengri, in their language that meant Eternal Blue Sky. “The good and evil, wellbeing and misery are given only by Tengri”, - the Altaians taught themselves . He is a judge, He is the highest wisdom addressed to the people.
With faith in Him also lived those whom the Greeks later called “Hanifians”.
THE HINDUSTAN PENINSULA AND ITS INHABITANTS
Rumors of omnipotent Tengri who helped people were circulating all over the world.
About two and half or three thousand years ago the Türks reached Hindustan, and Indian pages of the Türkic history were opened; the wave of the Great Migration of the Nations s touched the north of that exotic country. Those times haven’t been forgotten; legends of the Nagas created at that time still exist. According to the beliefs of the Indians, Nagas are the newcomers from the north, white people – demigods with human faces and serpent bodies, they could turn either into people or into serpents as they wished. They loved poetry and music; their women were famous for singular beauty… Why serpents? Because according to the Eastern legends, human beings originated from serpents.
A serpent, or a dragon is the sign of ancestors not only for the Türks; it is also the good genius, the keeper of home. It was a sin to kill a snake. The image of the serpent was formed long ago, and it is unlikely that it was an Altaic “invention”; that light image contained a link between the past and present for many eastern nations. The unity which is inseparable and has no author.
It seems that cult was absent in the Hindustan since the Indians turned their attention to it and retained it in their myths. A serpent was not revered there before.
And besides, according to the Altaic legends, a serpent is connected with fire and water – it could soar up in the clouds and simultaneously touch the bottom–holes, caves, bedrock of rivers – where it hid its treasures. It gave people iron ore, gold and other riches from the depths. All metals were hidden in its pantries.
An ancient Altaic legend asserts that once a serpent had born a man “in a shirt” or with a “wolfskin”, which was a good omen. At will, he could turn into a wolf, panther, bear or any other animal. He just needed to dap in order to do it… Hence one important consequence: a totemic symbol – a protecting spirit – appeared in Altaic families with that man “in a shirt”. Most commonly it was a serpent, panther, bird, or wolf that protected the family. Thus vermins became symbols of aristocratic families. They were painted on flags and “blazons”, offerings were made to them and, of course, they could never be offended.
Hence the arts expressed another Altaic tradition – animal style. It was the peculiarity of Türkic ornaments and stories. A drawing on a bone or a statuette made by an ancient craftsman expressed the life – the struggle of the families. A panther clawed a bull, a wolf bayed a boar… Plastic arts of images are amazing and original.
It just needs to be seen once and it will remain with you as the mark of the Türkic culture for the rest of your life. It will be the face of Altai. Only then – in ancient times – people knew arts like that.
Images of living world had been widely used in Altai before Geser the Prophet came, i.e. before Altai inhabitants accepted the belief in Tengri. But the totemic sign did not disappear after a new tradition was established. Pervious sacrifices disappeared… But it should be mentioned that much is known of those distant times. Maybe even more than of times not so remote. And that is another paradox of history – as a rule the closer events are subject to censure.
In India is “Mahabharata” manuscript, or “The Great Story of Descendants of Bharata” – the chronicle of ancient Hindustan. Some pages are dedicated to the Naga there.
Their native land, as it is seen from the legends, is to the north where are hidden teeming treasures and an iron cross. But another most interesting happened: after the arrival of the Türks the man “in a shirt” born in Altai by a serpent became known in Hindustan. The Indians gave him a name of Bhima. “Mahabharata” makes one think so – it says that a newcomer has “the wolf's belly”, i.e. that he is a man with wolfskin. If we keep the origin of that image in mind, such assertion doesn’t seem incredible; Altaic subjects are revealed in the text one after another. Even more so, because the Nagas formed a royal dynasty, which early in the I millennium left a real trace in the Northern India.
“Mahabharata” consists of eighteen books. According to Orientalists it is the most comprehensive history in the world that reflects the course of events in the I millennium BC. The legends that formed the basis of those rare books were formed two and half thousand years ago and even earlier, they are connected with the newcomers from the North, which is perhaps stated in each of one hundred thousand distichs of the text.
It describes a culture absolutely different from culture that had existed in the Hindustan before. Serious monographs and research of many generations of scientists are dedicated to it. Having thoroughly analyzed the ancient text, scientists determined that the epos was written about one and a half thousand years ago and not much has been changed in it since then.
But who were those newcomers – heroes of ancient legends? Where is their native land? And are there answers to these questions? A great variety of opinions exists – this is the beginning of politics! Some send them to Ural, others – to Tibet. But not to the Altai! That’s how The communal mentality of the western science is manifested in a strange way. As though treading invisible orders, it does not associate anything on the continent with the Türks. Like a taboo… Well, let it be so.
But… Researches, including those from the West, turned their attention to the fact that the ancient Indian eposes (“Mahabharata”, “Ramayana”) and Vedic literature often describe natural phenomena which the native Indians were not able to see. Even theoretically. For instance, staionary Pole Star and the Big Bear. An in addition – snow, ice and frosty nights lasting for months. A long day with a midnight sun, and the northern constellations which could be seen “high in the sky” only in the regions lying not further south than fifty fifth degree of northern latitude.
In India, the Big Bear is hidden beyond the horizon, it cannot be seen there.
Nevertheless, to it were dedicated poetical compositions… Isn't that strange? And who, apart from the natives of Ancient Altai that lies on those very latitudes, could see the northern sky? It cannot be seen from the peaks of Tibet. The “Uralic” version is even less feasible, it could only be suggested by people who have never visited the Polar Ural and know nothing of its nature and archeological details.
Those natural phenomena can be met only in the Altai! Alas, geography meddles with the history here, and it cannot be suppressed by censorship. Maybe that’s why the Earth is still round? It is nice that at least that remains unchanged.
In the epos of ancient India the “geographical discoveries” are everywhere. Take another example, perhaps the most important one, characterizing the native land of newcomers. Mount Meru. That’s not a mountain, that is a mountain chain stretching from East to West; the Meru is called Golden Mountain in the epos. That is the God's abode where “the souls of all creatures is located”. It turns out that there is a day in a year when the radiant sun, encircling Meru, returns to its bottom.
That is how the sun rotates. Thus appeared the pradaksina – the rite of circumambulating in a clockwise direction an image, relic, shrine or another sacred object.
The ceremony which showed respect to relics. Even the sun does it.
That sacred mountain is situated in the Altai – in Ondugai Region; it is called Sumer. That is the heart of Altai – the most sacred place for the Türks. It can be compared only with Kailas.
There are hundreds of ancient kurgans there, solitude and prayers. It is a real temple in the open, thousands of years old. For thousands of years people were visiting it.
Sumer is the altar of Altai, where one shouldn’t shout, and hunting is not allowed. In summer there is a day when the sun rises from one side of the mountain and sets upon the other. That could never be invented. The same with the fact that the top of the mountain is covered with snow, and each snowflake is somebody's soul, its material state. It is dazzling in the sunshine, which is the explanation of the following line in Indian Vedas: “That wonderful mountain shone with flights of wondrous birds” – that’s how they used to talk about Meru, the eternal snowfield, the source of a sacred river, pure and the most transparent in the world.
Souls of sinners are cleansed here, in the furnace of ordeals.
“Su” means “water” in the Türkic; that explains the meaning of the name “Sumer”. The “Heavenly Ganges” of Indian Vedas has its source there – in the spring of the world spirituality… Later, two adjacent peaks made the Altaians speak of Uch-Sumer (Three Sumers) as of unity of the world. It is its a philosophy which is as hard to understand by an uninitiated as to cognize Time… What is Time, indeed? And the Altyn-Kel (Golden Lake) ([Russ.] Lake Telets or [Turk.] Milk Sea) was also known in India; they knew of its “life-giving water” and banks covered with groves and forests, glades redolent of flowers, and they also knew that in winter only half of the lake freezes over and even that not every year, although it is located “on the northern hillside of Mount Meru”. That’s right. Even the milky water during the winter is described in the Indian legend. That is frazil, acicular (needle-shaped) ice; it is as white as snow, and it covers the surface. One cannot walk on it… This is a natural phenomenon of Altai – no censorship can change it. The unique phenomenon is created by hot underground sources flowing into the lake.
● The “White Milk Lake” is also described in a Khakas legend where the same geographical coordinates connected with Sumer mountain are given. In the legend, it has “golden banks reminding of a horse's eyes”… “Mahabharata” is amazing because that it describes Altai from the point of view of an eyewitness, it describes it as a country of bliss, the sacred abode, it pays more attention not to nature, but to the people for whom the divine justice is frequent. It emphasizes the worship of Heavenly God!.. Such words can be written only about the native land that one had left; they come from the heart, not from the mind.
These are religious rites of “white men”, the “laws of connoisseurs and righteous men”, “marked with all good signs, shining like the moon”, they penetrate “eternal God”. That was Altai, that was the belief of its inhabitants. That was for real! The first book of “Mahabharata” should be really interesting for Turkologists, since it contains information of Nagas and their way of life. As a matter of fact, that is the ancient history of Altai, the history of the Türks which is absent in most other sources. The falk epos of India is a unique storage of memory. Legends inadvertently confirm not only the Great Migration of Nations, but also its consequences.
Indian scientists are absolutely sure that the Nagas are real historical tribes who came to the Hindustan's north. Twenty five centuries passed after their coming – a long time – and archeology confirmed the coming of the Nagas.
As a matter of fact, “Mahabharata” is not a collection of fairy tales; it is a historical book consisting of many legends – that was the cultural tradition of India, where scientists regard historical legends as reliable documents of the epoch. In contrast to Russia, ancient texts are sacred there; it didn’t even occur to anyone to correct or rewrite them… Can the past be changed? Certainly not.
The Indians don’t hide that they took “Prajnaparamita”, which has become the base of the Hindustan diversified culture, from the Türks. It has become a kind of Indian Bible or Koran. Itt is a primordial collection of wisdom. Only outstanding enlighteners – people with crystal souls – were allowed to read it, since not every man of mould could perceive high thoughts and sooths contained in it.
It is striking that it contains phrases and even whole plots that have later become part of the Bible and Koran. That’s how the Indians did the honor to the world culture – they retained the unique relics of Altai. They retained for the humankind something that the Türks themselves have disgracefully lost… The legends of native lands of newcomers are transformed into the legends of Shambala. Shambala – their faraway land – had geographical coordinates; it started from the bottom of Sambyl-Taskhyl mountain in the basin of the Khan-Tengri river. It turns out that this information is also reliable. The Tengri (Tengeri) river is in Altai. Khan-Tengri peak is well-known; it is situated where the modern boundaries of the Türkic states of Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan meat. According to the legend, there are hidden – behind the icy haze – towns, monasteries and tabernacles. Maybe they still are, even in ruins, but no our contemporary has ever searched for them.
● There are different versions of spelling the name: Shambhala, Shambkhala, Shambala. It seems it ascends to the phrase qam baluq (qma baluq – kambaluk – chambaluk – shambaluk - shambala) consisting of two ancient Türkic words: qam (clergyman) and baluq (town, fortress). Translation – Town (Fortress) of a Clergyman, which accurately reflects the legends about Shambala of the ancient northern Buddhists. In Tibet, the head of a monastery is called shamo.
The Aksu river flows in Altai. The founder of the Sun Dynasty of Indian kings was born on its banks, as it is written in history of that country. Mysterious Shambala was well-known in the Hindustan; it was regarded as the seat of the monks with a sacred knowledge, or the house of human intellectual elite. Who knows, maybe that’s how it really was? By the way, Altai is the native land of the legendary Arians. About that was much written in India, it is fairly easy to locate the materials.
● See detailed information in: Bongard-Levin G.M., Grantovskiy E.A. From Scythia to India. Ancient Arians: Myths and History. Verbitskiy V.I., Altaic Foreigners.
Many people searched for the mythical Shambala, but nobody managed to find it. They think it is hidden in an inaccessible valley of Tibet where mortal life adjoins the sense of heavens. Such opinion was expressed by leading Orientalists that (alas!) did not know geography of the Türkic world, and certain people such as N.M. Prjevalskiy, the traveler and ethnographer, N.K. Rerikh, the philosopher, E.P. Blavatskaya, the enlightener and other researches who used to search for the mysterious country agreed with it because of their unawareness.
Maybe there were some reasons for the “Tibetan” theme, but… Another “but”.
The scientists were really mistaken and thus they failed to fund anything. They were searching in a wrong place! Their first step was a mistake – the idea of an expedition to Tibet. Not having the map of the Time, not knowing the roots of the Great Migration of the Nations, it was impossible to read the ancient legend and perceive hidden information. A person with a blindfold will inevitably fall down and sooner or later stop going.
It is important to understand here that our planet was being inhabited not spontaneously, not at somebody's will, but according to the demographic laws. That is a system of knowledge – science – called social geography. Any migration has its peculiarities and interrelations: in process, transport, everyday life. And each element in migration has its own role in the territorial expansion. Nothing happens (and can never happen!) by chance, there are no accidental acts; the Time gives rise to events and puts everything in its right place. Life is a price of a mistake.
Only a prepared nation is able to move to new lands and live there. Only the Türks could do it two and a half thousand years ago, after a scientific and technological revolution in the Altai. And we should remember that. Nobody in the world would use iron items to the same extent as the Türks did. Nobody had that flawless animal transportation, construction technologies, and architecture.
In the XIX century, when the talk about Shambala started, scientists knew nothing about Altai, its unique nature, facilities and culture. It was a blank page. Not much was known until archeologists came there. For some reasons Rerikh didn’t notice it either. Why didn’t his heart stand still? Because it was empty… He didn’t have enough knowledge! Having concealed the history of the Altaic Türks, the Russian authorities thus jammed the world science, and even reputable scientists were making mistakes – they had a bad “compass” for their guidance – they didn’t know that the belief in Heavenly God came to Tibet and Hindustan from the Altai – it originated and had its deep roots there.
Without being sufficiently familiarized with the events, scientists overlooked some important facts. For instance, the fact that native Tibetans and Indians called themselves “non-Arians”, thus emphasizing that they did not came from the North. This a a fact, it was written in the legend! Another also disregarded fact is: the word “Arian” is consonant with the ancient Türkic word “aryg” (pure, sacred, noble)… The Indian legends mention that manyfold, but the Turkologists and Orientalists have always ignored these facts; they were not interested.
Lamaism, northern branch of Buddhism, remained in Tibet. That is another reserve of the eastern culture! It appeared much later. Its foundations were laid by the Altaic Türks in the 1st century (78 AD) at the (2nd) 4th Buddhist Council, the king Kanishka (r. 127-151 AD) was given a honor to approve the new faith, we will return to him again later. Not only the Altai, but also Mongolia, Buryatia, Kalmykia, Tuva – loyal adherents of that religion – still remember him (Reverence notwithstanding, in 78 AD Kanishka was not a king, his father Vima Kadphises r. 90-100 AD was not a king, his grandfather Vima Taktu r. 80-90 AD was not a king, so it must have been his grand-grandfather Kujula Kadphises r. 30-80 AD who presided at the Council).
That wasn’t by chance that Buddhist pilgrims came there – to Altai, to the Central Asia – on order to “make progress in faith and obtain sacred texts” – that’s how pilgrims from China determined their goals in 260 AD. The word “obtain” should be noted – it meant to get paper – kagit – as it was called then.
For a Turkologist, Lamaism is of interest because that it retained customs deriving from Altaic ceremonies. It also knows the immortal name of Tengri. It is obvious that eastern religion is a unique relict of spiritual culture of humankind. It is the branch of “Hanif belief”, it is notable for its Monotheism but with a different understanding of the highest image that remains within the framework of Buddhism (Hanifism is a fundamentalist religion that claims to follow the tenets of the Abraham beliefs in most simple and purist form: monotheism with no images and absolute submission to God. It survived in Islam, Judaism, Arianism, and Nestorian Christianity as a weird branch, is known under the modern name Jehovah's Witnesses, and is inconsistent with the ritualistic Buddhism and its offshoots, with the non-Nestorian Christian denominations, and any other distinctive faith that conflicts with the principles of monotheism, absence of idolatry, and interpretation of fundamentalist tenets other then most literal, like observing Sabbath on Friday or Sunday).
● In Lamaism there is no God, Creator or Supreme Being. As far as we know, the cult of Buddha and bodhisattvas was formed there (I.e. within the concept of Tengriism). Maytreya (Maydar, Maydari) plays a special part there – the only bodhisattva acknowledged by all schools of Buddhism. As the Türks mighrated, the worship of Maytreya (under the name of Mitra, Mikhra, Mhera) appeared in the cultures of various people, forming independent religious molds. And that is indicative! These are the signs of the symbiosis of cultures that started after the Great Migration of the Nations.
One would think – everything is in plain sight – here is Altai, and here is Lamaism. But unfortunately not surprising any more, that was also disregarded: Lamaism followed the Türkic religion. Since 1970 the collusion of politicians and Western clergy delegitimized the term “Lamaism” from the European scientific lingo. It was clandestinely banned. The West also sentenced that religion to oblivion… There is nothing to add.
There is another fact to swallow like a bitter medicine and wince.
… The Altai, like the image of Tengri, was not forgotten in India for a long time – until the western colonizers came. Is that by chance that Buddha is still depicted with blue eyes (“Arian”, as the Indians would say)? Isn't it a backsplash of forgotten events? For instance, events connected with the unknown people that came from the North. Because the Indians called those people not only the Nagas and Arians; the participants of the second and third migration wave bore the names of Saks, Shakas, Shakies. They also were blue-eyed Altaians: with red hair and fair skin, they also rode horses and wore the same clothes, they had the same traditions and culture… Is it another coincidence? Certainly not, the Great Migration of the Nations had its face. Even in clothes. That is the culture of the nation, its unique traces cannot be mistaken. The roads of the ancient world led not to Rome but to Altai… Archeologists registered the presence of the Saks in Pamir and Hindu Kush from the beginning of the 5th century BC. They also traced their routs. Much of scientific literature is dedicated to the Saka culture – should be noted the classical works of S.V. Kiselev and S.I. Rudenko. The work of K.A. Akishev, an outstanding archeologist who has made a unique discovery, is salient. He published ancient Türkic inscriptions he found in the Saka grave – those were runiform writings that opened the language of the Saks to the world and allowed to assert that the Saks were one of the Türkic peoples.
At least they spoke the Türkic language, wore Türkic clothes and rode horses.
It should be mentioned that the Akishev's discovery is very important. Because the scientists dealing with the Great Migration of the Nations didn’t use the word “Türks”, they used the terms “Sakas”, “Scythians” etc. Their caution had political reasons: both the West and Soviet Union were jointly struggling against “Pan-Turkism” and unmercifully extirpated everything Türkic in Europe and their colonies. In such conditions even honest scientists had to compromise with their conscience to avoid persecution and continue with their work.
And what else could they do? (In Russia and its sattelites) they worked under surveillance and, as required censorship, they loyally made the Saks and Scythians to be speaking an Iranian language. They were making special efforts not to go into details on the term “Iranian language”… And in those times were made a lot of discoveries. As a matter of fact – everything that we know today.
Akishev's work was a breakthrough in science – in it triumphed the oppressed truth.
In this connection we cannot fail to refer to the conclusion made by professor Rudenko after his fascinating expeditions to Altai: ”Archeological excavations in the Altai Mountains showed that in the 1st millennium BC there existed an original and outstanding culture…”. He was not allowed to state any more; the politicians were protecting their dark secrets, but even this brief phrase was a victory of the truth – it was the result of a long work. The artifacts of the Türkic culture found in excavations spoke louder than thousands of words.
Unfortunately, many facts uncovered by the studies of the Great Migration of the Nations were concealed only because of politicians. The “blank pages” are found everywhere. And many findings are ambiguous, for instance, why were not all newcomers to Hindustan the followers of Monotheism? It seems that after the new religion came to Altai, grew hot a spiritual dispute, which divided the nation – probably that’s what had happened. One part of the Altaians accepted the belief in Tengri – the Heavenly God and His protection, and their opponents have lost the dispute and left the native lands?.. Or maybe not? These kinds of very interesting questions are waiting for their researcher.
What if in the Altaian consciousness actually were different conceptions of the world? Isn't that the cause for appearance, after every new wave of the Great Migration of the Nations, of religions and religious schools in the East? That observation is fascinating. Because Buddhism arose in Hindustan after the Türks had come there. Seeking the meaning of life, a certain man now known as Siddhartha Gautama (Young prince of the Sakya people in what is now modern Nepal, born in the sixth century BC (ascribed 563–483 BC ), known as the Buddha) came to the conclusion that Monotheism is impossible (apparently in a continuation of the spiritual dispute that originated in the Altai at that time). The suggested philosophy expressed thoughts that perplexed his compatriots.
● There are Altaic legends of Tengri-Tedygech (predictor) that “wrote the teaching of the faith and argued with people in his own way, asserting that they shouldn’t pray as they used to, and that the real faith is the faith he wrote about”.
That wise Türk thought that our world is not permanent, but the essence of the existence is in its impermanence. Any moment of life is not like the previous one. Everything around us and we ourselves are permanently moving, every moment something is born and something dies.
Consequently, a man doesn’t have his permanent “self”, since he is not permanent either, since he is moving… And in this case how can exist the eternal soul ? And eternal God? the life is a succession of moments, every single one of which gives place to the next by its disappearance… This thought is simpler than a drop of water, but it reflects the essence of existence.
Because that genius insight cannot be expressed with the words, Siddhartha Gautama was called Buddha, which meant “Clarified”. His philosophy gave a rise to a new religious teaching.
Today, the Buddhism is one of the most popular religions in the world, but then, in the days of Buddha, it was practiced only by the inhabitants of the Northern India – by those who came from Altai.
● As D. Kosambi noted, “in its native land – in India – Buddhism didn’t hold its ground; today the remainders of Buddhism remain to some extent only north-east of the country. Such decline of Buddhism in the country where it was born strangely contradicts with its success outside India. Even today a majority of educated Indians would be indignant if someone tells them that the Buddhism, which they regard as a temporary aberration, is a most important contribution their country made to world the culture”.
And another fact is even more fascinating: the legends of the Nagas have become a part of the Buddhist mythology – according to the legend, the Sakya Buddha preached to the Nagas. They became the keepers of the most important Buddhist text - Prajnaparamitahrdaya-sutra. And before becoming Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama himself regenerated into a Naga several times.
Another aspect is also interesting – the native Indians called Buddha Shakyamuni, which literally means “Türkic god”. And the Türks called him Tanghri Burkhan, i.e. Tengri's Messenger. That’s why he is still drawn with blue eyes, the same as all other Türks. There, in India and Nepal, they don’t know a different Altaic appearance. In Nepal, near Rummindei, there is a column where the name of the founder of Buddhism is carved – the name of a human being from Shakya family who came from the North.
The column was raised in the 3rd century BC. It marks the place where Buddha Shakyamuni, “the sage from Shakya family” or the “Türkic God” was born.
The king Kanishka complemented the Buddha's image on coins with the inscription “Sakamano Boddho” and “Bogo Boddho”. The first inscription emphasized the belonging of Buddha to the Türks, and the second is translated as “God Buddha”. That is to say that starting from the 1st century AD Buddha was identified with Tengri, which was logical for the Northern Hindustan and Middle East, which were absorbing the Altaic culture.
Much is in common between the belief in Tengri and the belief in Buddha, but at the same time there are many differences. It is natural and not accidental.
Buddha's ash was buried under a kurgan (dagoba) (aka stupa, from Sanskrit for “heap”, i.e. kurgan, a mound-like structure) on a crossroad, according to the last will of the Master and a Türkic tradition. So that any stranger could pay him a tribute and have an opportunity to be born in heavens in the next life. (By the way, the word “dagoba” is translated from Sanskrit as “earthen kurgan”). In the kurgan was a camera to store relics. The kurgan was encircled by a road for a solemn clockwise walk (posolon)… These facts speak for themselves. And they also give rise to certain thoughts.
Why aren’t there any Buddhists in India – the native land of Buddhism? This state is unexpected, and without knowing a changeable and sometimes contentious Türkic temper is unexplainable. The decline of Buddhism in India started in the Middle Ages, when the sultan Makhmud Gaznevi came to the Hindustan and reinforced there Islam – millions of people became Moslems, returning again to the classic Monotheism. The rest turned to Hinduism, bringing into it the Buddhist traditions – thus they were called “Hindu Buddhists”.
However, there were those who remembered the faith of their ancestors – Tengri. Not less than fifty million people live with that “old new” belief in Heavenly God in India. They are neither Buddhists, nor Moslems, nor Christians. They have other ceremonies, other symbols, they recognize Tengri's equilateral cross and not Christ's cross. Are they Hanifins (Hanifinians)? The Western Church calls them “Christians of St. Thomas”, “Arians”, “Nestorians”; since the 14th century it desperately tried to convert them. In 1775, for instance, in Rome they published “Catholicized” service books of the “Christians of St. Thomas” – that forgery was primarily for the Indians. But they failed.
The colonial seizure of Hindustan did not help break the spirit of the people. The colonizers, with approval of inquisition, buried Indian clergymen and ancient sacral books. They killed parishioners. Later, the Catholics were replaced by Anglican clergymen – they also did a splenid job. As a result, much has been lost from the ancient history of the Hanifins (Hanifinians) and their rites. But not everything was lost.
Is it possible that Hindustan is the only place on the face of the Earth where the fragments of the Altaic faith remained? Who knows… We know that nothing disappears without a trace. Unfortunately, Turkologists never visited the place. And the traces of the past usually show up unexpectedly, when nobody is looking for them. It was noted that the reasons for great victories, like the sources of great rivers, are barely perceptible. But they do exist! All that needs to be done to find them is to know where to seek and what is being sought.
Iron is another example – its history in Hindustan is expressive and detailed; it also shows that the truth cannot be proscribed.
The Western researches still want to make India a native land of iron, due to its multiple ancient traces. However, a carbon analysis of artifacts put everything in its right place; no censorship can do anything here. A mass spread of iron commenced in the 6th – 3rd centuries BC. And that coincides with the arrival of the Altaians. That’s when the iron became a common material in India, of which the weapons, agricultural equipment, and tools were produced. The Türks taught the Indians to plow with iron ploughs, harvest with iron sickles, that is noted in the legends and confirmed by archeological reports.
How can this be objected to?.. The words are the shadows of deeds, as people say in the West.
Even the ploughs found during excavations in Altai, and the history of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh unite the disjoined facts linked the “Indian” Türks.
● In the North of India iron was occasionally found during excavations of the 12th–11th centuries BC layers of “Painted Gray-Pottery Culture” of. They are connected with arrival of the tribe of “steppe circle” (Arians). But such finds are rare. In the South, the appearance of the iron is also explained only by external influences, pointing to a specific character of burials in those times, burials with horses, and finds connected with horse breeding.
The famous Indian cavalry also appeared with the arrival of the Altaians. This is another fact that cannot be disregarded. Archeologists' findings convince better than any words: bridles, saddles, saddlecloth look like they were extracted from the Altai kurgans. The ornaments and forms are practically undistinguishable – they look absolutely identical. And the same goes with the remains of the horses.
Judging by the ancient remains, the Altaic horses were excellent stallions. With 150 cm and even more in height, they “were at least as good as the best horses of the world, if not excelling them”, as the notable scientist professor S.I. Rudenko wrote about his 1953 finds in the Altai. Those stallions were closer to the Akhaltekin “Turkmen” horses and, of course, they did not resemble the steppe horses.
Traces of centuries-old selection are more than just noticeable in them. That applies both to India and Altai. Everybody can appreciate what that means (See horse genetics in Bjørnstad, G., Nilsen, N. Ø. and Røed, K. H., 2003, “Genetic relationship between Mongolian and Norwegian horses?”//Animal Genetics Journal, Vol 34, Issue 1, pp. 55-58).
I think only one detail should be added – the Türkic language has more than forty epithets indicating horse hues. Just the colors! None of the world languages is so rich in “horse” terminology… It turns out that in Altai the horse breeding was really known not from the rumors. No wonder, the children there first were taught to ride a horse, and then to walk.
Researches agree that cavalry distinguished only the northern army, and that it was connected with the Sakas (Arians), these born horse breeders who entrusted their fate to a horse both in battles and in times of peace. In multifaceted India the reverence to the horse was recognized only for them – the northerners. Other peoples were getting by without horses – their interests were with breeding elephants, buffalos and camels.
● Calls for attention the ceremonies of horse sacrifice – the Türks retained them for thousands of years. In ancient Indian mythology it was called “ashvamedkha”. “A selected horse was purposely set free, but the king (or an appointed commander) followed it with an army. The rulers of the regions through which that horse have passed either had to submit to the king – the owner of the horse – or fight with him. In a year the horse was brought back to the capital, and sacrificed in the presence of conquered inhabitants” – that’s how historians described that ceremony. That was not a murder of an animal. It served its function. The sacrifice was accompanied by three ritual hearths and a large altar oriented to the East… In Altai, this ceremony survived for as long as to the 19th century. In India it was forgotten earlier – after the country was colonized by the English.
It is interesting that the Türks had a saying: “Where the horse hoof steps, it is our land”.
A horse was everything in the North of Hindustan. It was treated like a family member. And it couldn’t be otherwise – that was a tradition. According to the legend, the twin brothers Nasatya (Ashvas) (Ases?) appeared from the nose of a mare (purely Altaic storyline!). In “Rigveda”, 54 hymns are dedicated to their story. They were the youngest gods in the divine pantheon of Hindustan – they banished the darkness and thus in the morning people would pray only to them. Worship of brothers began and continued during the Vedic epoch, and after that it entered Hinduism, becoming a part of the Hinduist ritual.
The Indians translate the Arian name Nasatya as “born by a horse”, without understanding that its stem is an ancient Türkic expression “anasy at” (literally: “their mother - horse”).
It is indicative that in Altai were preserved legends of twins–heroes born by a horse. In this connection is very interesting an ancient Khakas epos “Ai-Huuchin” – its heroes are a virgin and her twin brother who became her horse. The plot is so similar to the Vedic story that it is hard to say where that ancient legend first appeared – in Altai or in India? In Hindustan, the Türks were held as guests not for a long time. Their children became its citizens, for whom the peninsula was turning into a native land.
A very expressive transformation – it was typical for the Great Migration of the Nations times. The newcomers were turning into natives.
A rough estimate gives that the family trees of perhaps every fifth Indian or Pakistani starts with Türkic roots. However, in effect it could be even more. It comes to hundreds of millions of people. Their faces are recognizable even today; their blood contains the genes of Altaic ancestors, which can perplex even sophisticated biologists and geneticists. But even the most unbelievable reality, as far as we know, is just a continuation of the past – that’s what Buddhism teaches.
Of course such resemblance cannot be at once seen in the faces, since not every wedding in India was performed in accordance with the Türkic rules. There also were mixed marriages. The daughters of the Türks married local men for the peace-making, which is also confirmed by the legends of the Nagas and Arians. Their women became beloved wives of the rulers and heroes… What else can be said? That inequity was required by life.
In the Hindustan for many centuries ruled a Sun Dynasty – one of two royal clans. The Dynasty was founded by Ikshvaku; according to his family genealogy he came with his people from Altai in the 5th century BC, in Altai he lived in the valley of the Aksu river. His grandfather's name was Adja. On ascending the throne, Ikshvaku founded the city Ayodkhya (Ajodakha) – the capital of Koshala (aka Kosal) state (from the ancient Türkic expression “kosh al”- “annex and subdue”). The city still stands – there is a Museum of the Sun Dynasty with plenty of information about Altai and its people. It seems that it is the only museum dedicated to the Türks in the world. There is even a list of kings composed from generation to generation.
Ayodkhya, as any other town, had its ups and downs. For some time it was called the capital of the Northern Hindustan because of influence of Koshal that included the territory of modern Pakistan. After that the town declined and fell into desolation, followed with another rise.
With the arrival of the Altaians, the life in the Hindustan became disquiet. Pakistan and India still fail to sort out their relationship. So many centuries, so many wars. And no perspectives.
Because the Türks are fighting on both sides – the Türks that have forgotten their origin and their customs. They shall never surrender. They will keep on fighting to the bitter end. The reason of their dispute was Kashmir and its temples, which were the places of the Altaians' pilgrimages.
Should the sacred Kashmir be Indian or Pakistani? This question does not allow any tranquility. It was skillfully set up by the colonizers who found it important have the newly free nations to fight, to make Kashmir a kernel of permanent tension. Not of peace, not of tranquility, but of wars.
And nobody told the Indians and Pakistani that it is improper to fight where our common ancestors prohibited even to speak loudly.
The river on which Ayodkhya stands is called Saraya – this is another example of the Türkic toponymy in the Hindustan. The name points to the palace that stood on its bank. And that is true – that was the capital with palaces, temples, beautiful houses. The King's palace gave the name to the river.
In 1996 professor E.M. Murzaev, a well-known expert in toponymy, wrote this: “It is generally admitted that the Central Asia was the native land of the ancient Türks. It is likely that Türkic toponymy also originated there. Place names were spreading from there together with people… to the Tibet, India, Karakoram Range, North Africa. And of course the age of the Türkic toponymy varies: the farther from the center, the younger it is… in the Central Asia it is about three thousand years old”.
The toponyms on the map are not silent!
Take, for instance, “Hindustan”… How did this word appear? Isn't it connected with Tatarstan, Kazakhstan, Dagestan? In the Türkic language “stan” means “country”, “habitat”.
And the Türks were moving to Hindustan by families; their migration lasted for centuries.
They were becoming local elite and thus were entitled to name this or that region as they wanted. Their high position in society is shown in family trees of certain aristocratic families, for example, maharajas Udaypura, Djodhpura, Djaypura – all of them originate far from India – in the Altai. The Indians called these people the Rajasthans, Rajputas, and they called their ancestors Sakas, Huns, Türks (in Sanskrit “rajah putra” means “son of the king”).
They were the rulers of Indian rajaships… That is written in Indian books. There is nothing new in it.
A special book should be written about the Urdu language – the official language of Pakistan and certain northern states of India. It is widespread and it is coyly called a dialect of Hindi. However, it is not clear why it is full of Türkic words and expressions. And the phrase morphology is also Türkic. Why very few Indians understand Urdu while any Azeri can easily speak it several days after coming? It appears that Urdu is the ancient dialect of the Türkic language – Oguz dialect. But it is practically impossible to convince linguists of it. And how can it be done since they find in Urdu plenty of Arab, Persian words and… not a single Türkic one? It is an envious myopia (The Urdu in Urdu stands for Türkic Ordu ~ English horde, so at least one Türkic word exists in the Urdu lexicon).
It is pertinent to note in this connection that in the 15th century Vasco da Gama, having “discovered” India for the Europeans for the second time, had no difficulty talking to maharajas. They spoke close dialects of the same language, and understood each other. That was the Türkic language which at that time was spoken both in Europe and the Northern India, and left its inerasable trace in the “Vulgar Latin” of the West, and in Urdu of Pakistan and India.
To deny that would take unearthly arguments. Or a straightforward lie.
By the way, as every educated person of that time, Columbus also knew the Türkic language. Setting a historical sail he took the letter to the Great Khan of India. The letter, of course, was written in Türkic. The discoverer of America, meeting the Indians of the New World, exclaimed in surprise: “They don’t understand Türkic!”. And a shadow of doubt touched his high forehead – he understood that what he discovered was not India.
● The Vulgate Latin, called Vulgate as being peculiar to the West during the Middle Ages, is addressed later.
Marco Polo has also written a lot about khanates of the Türks in the Hindustan and in Iran; almost one third of his “Book” is dedicated to them – on certain pages the words “Great Khan” and “the Tartars” appear perhaps in every line. In the XIV century those were the rulers of the West – they ruled as they wanted and lived as they could. Servants of the Pope hadn’t befuddled them yet.
The famous Venetian traveler also described the “Karans” – a Moslem nation that used to roam mountain steppes – those were the aborigines headed by the Türks who preferred to ride horses. The modern Pakistan and were provinces where the Türkic speech was common in towns and villages. The other children of Altai were called Pushtuns - they had more Türkic spirit than can be found in the Russian Tartar villages: they were divided into the same tukhums (families), they had the same folk traditions and ceremonies… Everything is alike, everything is Türkic, and everything is being carried on and on.
In truth, after Marco Polo the Western ethnographers don't call Türks the Türks. It is not conventional. For them were invented other names… But that is already politics. By the way, the hero of the Pakistani epos bears the Altaic name Adamkhan. The olden times remain in clothing of the nomadic nation (shalwars, felt kalpaks, epancha) (shalwars, felt bonnet hats, sleeveless overcoats) and in food (sour milk, dry cheese, mutton broth, kebabs). They don’t have feasts without horse-races, weddings without jesters with their noisy entourage.
Decorated with “Altaic” ornament felt is a must-have attribute of every Türkic family, any home. What else do ethnographers need?
Language, way of life, history – everything is ubiquitous. No recognition is accorded,
because the Church prohibited to call the white a white.
● The number of tribes inhabiting modern Afghanistan is estimated to reach four hundred. The taimens (sub-ethnic groups: Kypchak, Durzai, Khazara-Taimen, Kakar), Firuzkukhs, Djemshids, Gilzais (That's Karzai), Mogols, Teimurs, Charaimaks and dozens of others – are apparent descendants from the Altai; the “Türkic elements” participated in their ethnogenesis even according to the official handbooks. Thus, their militancy and invincibility is explainable – they have deep roots. These people, the real Türks, a fear is unknown.
Archeologists were routinely finding in Afghanistan numerous objects testifying to their Altaic origin. But the excavations in the north of Afghanistan (town Tillia-Tepe) provided researchers with unique materials. There were found six two thousand year-old royal burials. The burial ceremony, clothing, implements, objects of art, buried horses, and decorations – everything pointed to the connections with Altai, but nobody has ever openly said that. It went not further than “Türkic elements”. And the subject should be inordinate culture! And the Great Migration of the Nations.
… Hindustan and Altai lived as a united country – they were connected by roads afterward called the Biya and later the Nerch tracks. And the first road to India was the “Hanging Pass” – the mysterious road of ancient times – today of it remind only the legends and hanging bridges, built in Pamir and Tibet since then . The Altaic riders crossed the mountain rivers and bottomless gorges by “hanging” bridges.
They rode astride above the clouds. Like the celestials! Those were different times with different people; a higher purpose drove them – they carried faith.
The Tien Shan mountains, the first obstacle on the way to Hindustan, were called Tengritag – Tengri Mountain. Only to the people who crossed were open roads to the south. For centuries along that road walked pilgrims. They were making pilgrimage to the Kailas mountain – the sacred mountain.
For the inhabitants of the East to see the Kailas mountain was a great joy – it is a jewel of the world. They thought that anyone who saw it would be happy for the rest of their life. The Kailas mountain was a resting place of Tengri. In essence, the mountain is the temple created by the Almighty, the legend says that all man-built buildings are only copying it.
The next stop for the pilgrims was Kashmir, with its Golden Temple, for which people are fighting today.
Back to Archeology
Ogur and Oguz
Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
|© 2004 Adji Murad|