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Dravidian Dictionary
  GRÓF SZÉCHENYI BÉLA (1837 1918)
Gabor Balint (1844-1913)
Dravidian Dictionary
Keletázsiai utjának tudományos eredménye
BUDAPEST, Kilian F., 1897
Pp 1 - 57

Links

http://books.google.com/books?
http://www.worldcat.org/title/grof-szechenyi-bela-keletazsiai-utjanak

PDF and Word files

Bela G. Dravidian Dictionary
Binder 1 Pp 1-57 Binder Pp 57-125 Binder Pp 126-199 Binder 4 Pp 200-269 Binder 5 Pp 270-341 Full Pp 1-341 OCR
15 MB 15 MB 15 MB 15 MB 15 MB  77 MB 40 MB

Introduction

The early investigation of the Sumerian literary legacy raised hypotheses that the modern agglutinative Türkic and Hungarian languages are genetically connected with Dravidian languages via a Sumerian hub. This link is still being investigated in search for linguistic connections. However, the Dravidian lexical dictionaries remain sequestered and unavailable for easy access. The offered 1897 publication provides a searchable copy and images of the original for the purposes of verification. The known historical path does not lend support the purely linguistic genetical hypotheses, excepting the very pertinent but still enigmatic and long dead Elamite language.

Proto-Dravidians separated into daughter branches as early as 3000 BC or 1100 BC. Probably, aridization in the third millennium BC scattered them far and wide. They may be the Uralics that populated Middle Asia river valleys and oases till aridization of the 2000 BC, which pushed some of them northeast and northwest (L.T. Yablonsky Ancient Chorasmia). With a recorded history and literature in four Dravidian languages starting from pre-CE to the eleventh century, reconstruction of the Proto-Dravidian culture is based on the comparative vocabulary. Proto-Dravidian immediate environment had tropical trees populated by tigers, monkeys, and cobras among others. Their environment greatly contrasted from that documented within the Türkic languages, which describe much more northern environment. Dravidians had domestic animals: cats, dog, rats, pigs, donkeys, cows, oxen, sheep/rams, goats, and buffalo, chicken and peacocks. The water fauna included crocodiles and alligators. They were aware of the horse, kutiray. They knew hot and cold, and did not know snow and ice. Like the Türkic people, they had a good knack for navigation. It is certain that they knew nearly all flora and fauna in the Indian subcontinent, and not much more. Proto-Dravidians had kings and chiefs (*kon-tu king), i.e. the rulers, lived in palaces and had forts and fortresses surrounded by deep moats filled with water. They were collecting taxes and tributes. They run wars and had armies. Their weaponry were swords, axes, and clubs, vs. Türkic archery. Proto-Dravidian kingdoms had extensive territorial provinces and districts, villages or towns were called ur, a hamlet palli. People built houses with different kinds of roofing, thatched grass, tiles, or terrace. Agriculture was known from the beginning of times, with dry and wet cultivation, quite ancient plough, and a yoked plough, harvesting cutting the crop, threshing, grain was measured and stored in large earthen pots. They grew rice and millet. Cattle of cows and buffaloes were kept in stalls. Atypical for Indians, Proto-Dravidian brew liquors. Atypical for Indians, they used milk, curdled buttermilk, and butter. Until much later, they did not know carts and wheels, a Sanskrit term is a Dravidian name for the cart. The Proto-Dravidian religion and religious rituals are practically unknown, they were supplanted by later layers. Proto-Dravidians did not have castes or caste names. Social organization was nothing like creolized, the terms go 2+ generations up and down, and strikingly resemble the Türkic terms. Dravidian languages present numerous eternal lexemes that may be classed as Turkisms in Dravidian or Dravidisms in Türkic; potentially, they may be ascribed to the 10-14 YKA blending of the pra-Türkic migrants and pra-Dravidian locals (e.g kar and kara for black, akka and aga for senior, kontu and kengu for king, and the like). The reconstructed ethnology strongly contrasts the sedentary Proto-Dravidian farmers with the nomadic life of Türkic horse pastoralists who despised farming.

Genetics tends to confirm the results of the linguistic reconstructions. The predominant Dravidian paternal haplogroup is H (aka H-M69), with clines emanating from south Indian continent, and notable presence in single digits in the Middle Asia. The paternal haplogroup R1a1a*(xM458) has maximal diversity among the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian speakers in India (coalescent time ~14 KYA, Underhill et al., 2010, 11.5 KYA Klesov et al.,, 2012). Since the Indo-Aryans migrated to the Indian Subcontinent as recently as 3500 KYA, it is clear that in India, the coalescence time of R1a1a ~14 KYA belongs to the indigenous population, since no recent migration could produce such high coalescence value. The R1a migrants, from their S.Siberian origin 20,000 KYA, travelled by a southern route via Mesopotamia and Anatolia to Europe, arriving peacefully 10,000 KYA in the Balkans; they were practically exterminated in the Central Europe in the 3rd mill. BC, and a fraction sought safety in the Eastern Europe, from where some of them 3500 KYA reached the Indian Subcontinent as Indo-Aryans. Inevitably, during their 16,000-year anabasis, they had to fracture and pass a long series of bottlenecks, and most of the diagnostic mutations accumulated along the migration route did not leave any trace, the few survivors producing a founder effect. Hence, between the two groups, the estimate of 14 KYA has to belong to the Dravidian community, while the Indo-Aryan migrant dating gives 4 KYA. The R1a cline's weakening from the north-west to the south-east accurately traces the dispersion of the Dravidian people from the river valleys in the western India. The date 14 KYA is also in good agreement with the R1a migrants from the Altai areas via southern path in the direction of India, where together with the local tribes they started the future Proto-Dravidian culture. The haplogroup R2, notable among Dravidian men, also corroborates that, since the R2 is a mutation of the haplogroup R, the parent haplogroup that had to be brought over in a mix with the R1a 14 KYA. Thus, Dravidian people exemplify that a blend of haplogroups H and R had produced 14/11 KYA an Indian agglutinative Sprachbund that is shared today by around 220 million people. The insignificant proportion of the R1b marker among the Dravidians is consistent with the historical record, where the waves of the Türkic dominance during the last two and a half millennia were limited to the northern and eastern portions of the subcontinent. A ratio of 39%/29%, minus the proportion of the clades younger than 4 KYA, gives a fair representation of the Dravidian genetical composition prior to the Indo-Aryan migration.

Dravidians are distinct in genetical composition from their neighbors
 
Both female mt DNA and male Y-DNA of Dravidians predominately have local haplogroups.
 
Table of Contents
 
Binder 1 Pp 1-57
 
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Klyosov A. Türkic DNA genealogy
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3/7/2013
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