In Russian
Codex of Inscriptions - Index
Alphabet - Index
Hunnic Writing
Turanian Writing
Paleography of 8 Türkic Alphabets
Türkic and Kharosthi Table
(Kharosthi) Script
Karosthi-Aramaic Script
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline

Conclusion and Bibliography

Almaty, "Mektep", 2003

Kyzlasov Alphabet Table Book Contents Amanjolov Alphabet Table


The original bibliography of the A.Amanjolov monograph includes a large quantity of references transcribed in quasy-Cyrillic alphabet cooked individually by Russians for each Türkic administrative subdivision, after their sequential state prohibition and expulsion from the Türkic culture, of first the Arabic, and then the Latin alphabet. All the efforts were made in the translation to re-transcribe them back to a common Türkic alphabet, but because the same grapheme may be used differently in various Türkic Soviet and post-Soviet alphabets, the accuracy of each word transcription is unknown, though for a Türkic-fluent person the meaning should be clear in all cases. My apologies for any inconveniences. The translation retained a Cyrillic alphabetical sequence of the original, a little different from the customary Latin, to ease the cross-reference with the Russian-lingual original. The Latin-based part of the Bibliography retained as in the original.

The Conclusion of the book summarizes the main theses in so few and clear sentences which could be composed only by a great master with an intricate knowledge and a clear perception of the subject.




1. The Ancient Türkic runic script (Türkic runes) is closely connected with the history of ancient Türkic-speaking tribes social and cultural development in Tian-Shan, Sayan-Altai and Khangay mountains. The distribution area and chronological frameworks of Türkic runes correlate with the Ancient Türkic statehood of the 6th-10th centuries. At the same time, the sources of this process go much deeper. The linguistic particularities of Ancient Türkic runic monuments reflect a period of development of all live Türkic languages. The language of the Türkic runes, being a written literary language, developed on the basis of close dialects of the ancient tribes now composing the ethnic mix of many Türkic peoples.

The Türkic runes furnish valuable material about ideology of the ancient hunter-animal husbandry tribes of the Central Asia. The early beliefs of the Türkic-speaking tribes found reflection in closely bound cults of nature and patron ancestors, zoolatry and totemism. In second half of the 1st millennium AD the ancient Türks experienced strong influence of Buddhism, Manichaeism, and Christianity of Nestorian variety (i.e. Tengrianism, called Nestorianism by Christian clergy), which frequently resulted in change of religious views and, as a rule, change of writing. Finally, in the Western and Eastern Turkestan at the turn of the 1st - 2nd millennia AD diffused Islam ideology and Arabic alphabet.

2. The graphics of Talas, Yenisei and Orkhon inscriptions shows that the Türkic runic alphabet was well adapted to the sound system of Ancient Türkic language. The vowel phonemes and ä, ï and i, o and u, ö and ü were symbolized by four polyphonic letters, the use of which was frequently facultative (depending on a position of a vowel phoneme in a word). The consonant phonemes b, p, d, t, z, s, ş, č, m, n, l, r, j, g, k, η (and partly their variations) were symbolized by thirty one letter.

Under influence of vowel harmony of syllable and word, the Türkic runic script developed a graphical opposition of hard and soft variations of consonant phonemes b, d, t, s, ş, n, l, r, j, g (γ~g'), k (q~k'). Nevertheless, the "paired" consonants quite often were subjected to neutralization, i.e. were partially interchangeable. An exception was a "paired" letters for sound versions of the consonant phoneme k (q~k'), which sometimes had additional graphical differentiation for labial syllable-forming vowel (the consonant q with non-labial narrow vowel also could receive a special designation). The consonant phonemes p, z, č, m, η were symbolized by "unary" consonants, i.e. irrespective of positional voiced variations.

Thus, in the Türkic runic (Orkhon-YEnisean) alphabet were 35 letters, represented by different graphical variations. In addition, special signs were for combinations of consonants lt, rt, nt, nč. Some Türkic runic characters brought new interpretations.

3. The graphics of Talas, Yenisei and Orkhon runic inscriptions was mostly studied by us from originals (and the Orkhon inscriptions partly from pictures), which allowed to verify tracings, transcription, and translation of some of them. The monograph includes verified epigraphic materials, and partly studies of the Talas, Yenisei and Orkhon runes. For example, are reviewed in detail three Yenisei inscriptions published by the author (on a Chinese bronze coin of 759, on a heart-shaped pebble, and on a stele found by A.N.Lipsky), offered a decoding of a runic inscription on a Talas stick, corrected the reading of some Talas (and Chu's) runic inscriptions, given new reading for three large Orkhon inscriptions (monument in honor of Kül-Tegin, Ongin monument, Tonükuk monument).

4. New epigraphic finds in the territory of Kazakhstan (Irtysh, Ili, Syr-Darya, Yaik) allow to reveal most ancient monuments of written culture of the Türkic-speaking peoples' remote ancestors. On a bone circle with an image of a flying deer from a kurgan of the 5th - 4th centuries BC in the r. Irtysh valley was found and read a most ancient Türkic (proto-Türkic) runic inscription "White Deer". Apparently, this sacral inscription was devoted to a zoomorphic solar deity of the ancient "Scythians" in the Central Asia. This inscription is one of two earliest documentarily confirmed inscriptions in the history of the Türkic runic alphabet. The second proto-Türkic inscription is runic-like inscription on a silver cup from Issyk kurgan of the 5th - 4th centuries BC in the valley of the r. Ili. In time they are probably close to the runic inscriptions on the rocks in the r. Ili valley, an inscription on a clay seal from Seyhun (Syr-Darya), an inscription on a Bronze mirror from the r. Yaik, some Talas inscriptions (especially a runic inscription on a wooden stick) and some Yenisei inscriptions on the so-called deer stones.

Most of the Türkic runic inscriptions from Yenisei, Irtysh, Ili, Seyhun (Syr-Darya) and Talas, and the inscriptions from Mongolia, are made in the second half of the 1st millennium AD.

5. As the epigraphic finds show, in the valley of r. Ili, in the 1st millennium AD the ancient Türkic tribes in Tian-Shan used not only the Türkic runic, but also the ancient Greek alphabet (direction of writing from right to left). Apparently, the ancient Greek alphabet was inherited by the ancient Türks from Sakas and Tochars-Buddhists. The presence among the ancient Türks of the typical for the middle of the 1st millennium BC ancient Greek alphabet, along with the Türkic runic alphabet, which apparently arose not later then the middle of the 1st millennium BC, unequivocally points to an amazing concurrence of the historical fates of these closely related alphabets in the r. Ili valley, and testifies to the most ancient written tradition of Türkic-speaking tribes.

6. For the history of writing, in our opinion, important role play pictograms, ideograms and other early written signs of Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia, which belong to the Neolith, Bronze and Early Iron (4th - 1st millennia BC) epochs. The early types of writing (pictography, ideography), attested in the territory of Kazakhstan, reflect stages of the proto-Türkic civilization development under indispensable organizing role of language and writing.

The most ancient Kazakhstan rock symbols in the Late Bronze and Early Iron epochs, engraved with dot techniques, in some instances border on the initial graphics of some Ancient Türkic runes.

Exposed through a prism of most ancient language contracts, the mysterious "Sumer"-Türkic lexical congruencies and graphical logograms find a convincing confirmation from the positions of historical phonetics of Türkic languages.

7. The paleographic analysis of the Ancient Türkic runes, in turn, leads to a conclusion about very early forming date for the Türkic runic alphabet in Southern Siberia and Jeti-Su, not later than the middle of the 1st millennium BC. This alphabet reveals a close genetic linkage, first, with the early types of the ancient Greek alphabet (especially with Anatolian and Italic), and secondly, with the Northern Semitic-Phoenician (including the early Aramean) and S.Semitic alphabets.

At the same time, the Türkic runic alphabet represents a very rich and expressly developed independently graphic system. The close genetic linkage of the Türkic runic characters with the early Semitic, ancient Greek, Italic and Anatolian letters demonstrate that the Türkic runic alphabet underwent a long path of development, and apparently it ascends to the most ancient common source of alphabetic writing. A conjectured primary source was an original logographic (ideographic) or alphabetic script of the 3rd - 2nd millennia BC.

It is very probable that some prototypes of Ancient Türkic runes descend from primeval Türkic graphic logograms, the signs for the words. For a solution of the problem of the Türkic runic alphabet origin, a great importance acquires the hypothesis about a most ancient genetic unity of Türkic languages with the Indo-European languages.

The paleographical and phonological relations of the Türkic runic characters (graphemes) attest to extended evolution of the Türkic runic alphabet, which reflected the original process of becoming a sound system for the ancient Türkic language. Consequently, the problem of the origin (genesis) of the Türkic runic alphabet is closely bound not only with the questions of Ancient Türkic ethnogenesis and the history of culture of Ancient Türkic tribes, but also with the problems of historical phonetics of the Türkic languages.


Translated Section (Cyrillic and quasi-Cyrillic to English)

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In Russian
Codex of Inscriptions - Index
Alphabet - Index
Hunnic Writing
Turanian Writing
Paleography of 8 Türkic Alphabets
Türkic and Kharosthi Table
(Kharosthi) Script
Karosthi-Aramaic Script
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
.. 2003
3/31/06 TürkicWorld