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Celtic and Türkic
Beket Karashin
King Arthur's Round Table

Informational and Analytic Center; Moscow State University, Faculty of Humanities, 2008
©2008 Beket Karashin



Posting Introduction

Anyone who would follow Wikipedia (2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celts and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtic_languages would walk away with an impression that the Celts were born Indo-European, spoke Indo-European from the day they were born, and were Christianized centuries before the Virgin Mary first discussed processing her progeny with a double-winged messenger. Any reader of the following article would be puzzled, how come that in Wikipedia the most substantial information is superseded by plenty of rhetorical fluff interspersed with minutia. Anyone familiar with the Türkic ethnology would recognize the unique well-known traits that follow the Türkic tribes like an aroma of a rotten fish. Beket Karashin is not a Turkologist, nor a historian,  but his trained eye of a littérateur, his innate knowledge of the Kazakh language of the Kipchak branch of the Türkic linguistic family, and his personal knowledge of the Steppe customs and traditions allowed him to compose a primer digest on the Celtic origins. The ethnological and linguistic observations corroborate the genetic conclusions. We can be merciful to the accidental flights of the fantasy that crack the gates to the murky layers of our past, the extensions of the insights that may never be verified, they are dwarfed by the mounds of material that can be traced and attested. The outline of some migrations is given below:

Anatole A. Klyosov http://aklyosov.home.comcast.net (http://www.lulu.com/items/volume_71/10723000/10723072/2/print/10723072.pdf)
HISTORY OF R1b HAPLOGROUP from Central Asia to Europe.
Starting on page 1131:

After haplogroup R1 arose about 23,000 years ago, and its downstream R1b arose in Central Asia 16,000 ago, the latter had migrated across North Kazakhstan (including the later Botai archaeological culture, 6500-5500 ybp), through the territory of the present-day Bashkirs (13-11-8 thousand ybp), establish Seroglazovo archaeological culture (13-11 thousand ybp) and then Middle Volga Basin archaeological cultures (Srednevolga culture 8-7 thousand ybp; Samar culture 7 thousand ybp; Srednestog culture 7500-5500 ybp; Khvalyn culture 7- thousand ybp, Kama culture 7-5 thousand ybp), that is the cultures which were (tentatively) named “Pre-Kurgan cultures”; R1b1a2-M269 subclade arose around 7,000 ybp, and then R1b1a2-L23, around 6,500 ybp. Both of them came to the Caucasus region around 6,500-6,000 ybp, and possibly earlier. Those R1b1b spoke non-Indo-European language(s), which can be vaguely traced now under various names. Some call them Proto-Turkic language, some Sino-Caucasia language, some Paleo-Eurasian language, some call them the Erbin language (because of R1b haplogroup of their bearers), some call them Western Caucasia or North-Western Caucasian languages, some call them the Basque language and find some similarities between the Caucasian and Basque languages, etc In fact, those similarities do exist, albeit in a rather weak form because thousand of years passed since then. Still now most of R1b1a2 haplotypes in the Caucasus (in Armenia, Dagestan, Georgia) belong to the ancient L23 subclade (with common ancestor in the Caucasus of around 6,000 ybp), and have a characteristic DYS393=12 allele, unlike DYS393=13 in most of European R1b1b2 haplotypes.

From the Caucasus, R1b1a2-L23 and R1b1a2-M269 bearers went South over the mountains, to Anatolia (a common ancestor of 6,000 ybp), and then split into three major routes. One went further South, to Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and became the Sumers. Many present-day Assyrians, descendants of ancient Sumers, still have their R1b1a2 haplotypes. Another went westward, across Asia Minor, and came to Europe, to the Balkans and Mediterranean Sea region around 4500 ybp. The third group went across Northern Africa and Egypt (and incidentally, might have left some R1b1b2 Pharaohs there) to the Atlantic and went across Gibraltar to the Iberian Peninsula around 4800 ybp. They became the Bell Beakers, and moved up North into the continental Europe. The Bell Beaker culture in Europe had lasted between about 4400 and 3800 ybp.

R1b1a2 bearers came to the Pyrenees, apparently, as mainly L51/M412 and/or L11/L151/P310 subclades, and soon split there into U106 and P312 downstream subclades, which went to the continental Europe as said Bell Beakers with downstream subclades such as U198, U152, L2, L20, L4, L21, M222, L226 SRY2627, etc. They left the Basques behind, which still maintain the ancient Erbin (R1b) language, similar in kind with some Caucasian languages, and with the Sumer language, and having some elements of Proto-Turkic languages back to Asia and further to Siberia.

Until the beginning of the 1st millennium BC the R1b1a2 language in Europe was predominantly (or only) non-Indo-European (non-IE). There is not a single solid evidence of otherwise, that R1b1a2 in Europe spoke a IE language before the 1st millennium BC. Celtic language, as well as “Proto-Celtic” language, for instance is placed by linguists not earlier than 800-900 BC, and all more earlier placements are typically groundless. At the same time, we know that it were R1a1 bearer who brought their IE language to India around 3500 ybp, and it is being dated in Europe to at least 6,000 ybp. There were no R1b1a2 in Europe those times. It must have been R1a1 bearers who spoke proto-IE language(s) in Europe 6000 ybp and some earlier.

So far, not all migrations were detected and identified, and some archeological cultures appear to be misidentified; the Celtic presence in Europe is dated from as far as 8000 ybp to 2900-2800 ybp. Right there falls the archeological Tumulus Culture, distinguished by the practice of burying the dead in the kurgan (tumuli) cemeteries; its distinction points to the migration of the Kurgan Culture people ca. 3600 to 3200 ybp. Those nomadic migrants may had created the image of the Celts that is now extended to a larger body of peoples from separate migration waves. The kindred to the prior migrants people reached Central Europe likely came from numerous directions and at various times, and may have recognized their kinship only in a fraction of encounters, separated by wide timespans, incompatible routes, and linguistic changes. The very name Celt is a conditional name, attributed fairly recently to a specific families of peoples. The implications of this work are huge, they involve genetics and biology at large, archeology, linguistics, history, art, culture, technology, and who knows what else would grow out of this seed.

Besides the findings of the DNA-genealogy and numerous ethnological parallels with the modern descendents of the Central Asian nomads, two traits attract attention. The Celts are known for their light-hair, a rare trait in the history of humanity. That genetic trait belongs to two easily discriminated populations, the “northern Eurasians” i.e. the Finns of the Y-DNA haplogroup NO-type with a unique mutation, and Papuans/Melanesians of the Y-DNA haplogroup D with a unique ASPM mutation; it is transmitted to the future generations in the directional and restricted genetic exchange, the presence of fair hair and light eyes requires quite specific ancestors. Apparently, the genes for the light hair and eyes accumulated among the northern Türkic people who coexisted and admixed with Fennic people. The second curious trait is the specific textile shared by the Celtic people with the ancient Tarim population (currently mislabeled “Tocharian”). The Caucasoid remains found in the Altai royal kurgans and in the Tarim basin were all found to be consistent with the modern Uigur or South Siberian Türkic population, and annalistic records depict the Türkic tribes of Tele, Dinlins, Usuns, Saklans, and Kirgiz as fair hair and light eyed. With the Saklans, Saka, and Scythians, the Scots share the anlaut S'k, possibly with the Türkic plural affix “ty”.

The etymology of the names is always a contentious issue. Unless the meaning and the original language of a name are absolutely transparent (Brown means brown), the etymologies of the names are and should be questioned.  Unlike the infamous etymologies of the V.I. Abaev's Scytho-Iranian Theory, the author does not analyze Celtic names on purely random phonetical resemblance, but from a historically documented underlying concept that seeks to find corroborating affirmation. The author's analogies do not wonder across unrestricted width of the "IE" languages, but are specifically limited to the Türkic languages of the Eurasian steppes. Notably, numerous Celtic names do not have a credible IE etymology, while the Türkic etymology appears straight-forward, feasible, and credible. In places, the Türkic etymology is the only one suggested, with no alternatives. It should be clearly understood that the suggested Türkic etymologies are the suggested Türkic etymologies, and not a detailed linguistic analysis that considers all alternatives and possibly endorses one version against the others. The Türkic etymologies expand and complement the search field, and in places allow to derive the purportedly IE etymology from the Türkic substrate: land, man, son, alms, arch, and many more. In the paradigm of the IE pra-language, the Celtic languages as reconstruction models are prominently absent, for obvious historical reasons nobody tries to reach the PIE *proto-word from the Breton language, although the canonical PIE diagram squarely puts the Celtic languages equidistant with the popular among western linguists Romance and Germanic languages
(http://www.breizh.net/icdbl/saozg/Celtic_Languages.pdf, click to enlarge). More than that, a reconstruction of the PIE from the Celtic languages would give you a *language that has little in common with the accepted *reconstruction of the *PIE *language.

A lamentable impression is that the Celtic history suffers the same disease that inflicted in particular Russian, and in general the Slavic history, a malady of falsification, when the present evidence is ignored, inconsistencies whitewashed, blind eye is turned, and history is written not by scholars, but by partisans impersonating scholars. So far, it appears that the Celtic history was robbed and deprived of its rich past, the Celtic people were mislead about their colorful genealogy, and the Celtic dynasts were denuded of their glorious ancestors. The genetic evidence might shed some light on the missing pages, but with the archeological, literary, and historical evidence in place, it have taken a collective blind eye and effort to keep these pages missing.

Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page. The subheadings in bold blue, highlighting, the posting's notes and explanations added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in parentheses in (blue italics), in blue boxes, or under blue headings. The article's translation was made from the Russian version, translation unavoidably creates some semantical shifts and at times, to reflect the original logic, non-conformant spelling. The article is definitely a work in progress, in a draft form; this posting carries minor spelling corrections, but largely preserves the draft's polygraphic format. OTD = “Old Türkic Dictionary”, 1969, Leningrad, Science.

Beket Karashin
King Arthur's Round Table
Of all the medieval Europe legends, the most salient are the myths, fictions, and guesses about the King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Was Arthur a real person or is he a fruit of myth-makers' imagination? We would hardly ever know. About him remains only very spotty, and at that semi-historical evidence. Everything else is fiction, legend, or fantasy. Whoever did not write about that mysterious man! Spenser, Milton, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Tennyson, Swinburne, Blake, Twain, Ariosto, Petrarch, Dante, Brant, Cervantes, Goethe, Schiller, too many to name. The modern literature and art ipredominantly are a genre of fantasy: imaginative pictures and texts, in a word, fiction and fantasy. Our task on this topic and the purpose of this essay is not to create another fiction, but postulation of hypotheses derived from the legends and stories to place the famous personality into a context of the European history through the eyes, thoughts, and concepts of an Orientalist.

1. European Canonic Legend

Once the High King of Britain Uther Pendragon, kindled by a passion for the wife Igreyne of the Cornwall Duke Gorlua, insidiously sneaked into her bedroom in the Tintagel castle. From that amorous adventure was born Arthur, whose fate was entrusted to a magician Merlin, for him to take care of the heir to the throne.

According to a canonic Türkic regency tradition, the maternal uncle is a head of the maternal tribe, a Prime Minister (Tr. Yabgu), and a Supreme Judge, in times of need he becomes a regent (Tr. “kushtan, ilchibek”), like Bu-Ürgan (Gr. Organa) for Kurbat, and a guardian of his sister's family. The same rules apply across the society at all levels, tribal, clan, or family. A maternal grandfather is a traditional tutor of his grandsons, they are raised in his household to maturity. Raising his grandsons is an unalienable right and an inescapable obligation of a maternal grandfather.

In the context of the Türkic family law, Merlin was a father-in-law of  the Cornwall Duke Gorlua. According to a canonic Türkic seniority law, Gorlua married Igreyne and accepted Merlin as his father-in-law, which made him a subordinate of Merlin and a high member of the Merlin clan.

 The wise druid forecasted Arthur a great future, for education he turned to the glorious knight Ector. Ector reared and taught Arthur like his own son named Kai. The king did not have other children. From the marriage with the deceased Gorlua, Igreyne had three daughters, the youngest of whom (Fata [fairy] Morgana), having mastered the art of magic, played a fateful role in the fate of her half-brother. After the death of Pendragon, Merlin disclosed to the sixteen years old Arthur the secret of his birth.

And when the young man grew strong enough to pull the sword from an anvil, that could be done only by a "true-born king of Britain", he ascended the throne of his father. Soon, Arthur received a magical sword Excalibur as a gift from a Lady of the Lake, married to a lovely lady Guenever, and lived happily in the Camelot castle.

Arthur has gathered at his court the brave and loyal knights of his kingdom, he would sit them around the Round Table, so that no one was the first and no one was the last. The druid Merlin taught the Knights to not do any evil, to avoid betrayals, lies, and dishonor, to grant clemency to the lower people, and to provide protection to the ladies. Then the paladins of the Round Table went roaming to perform exploits, defeating dragons, giants and wizards, and saving princesses. But the main purpose of their peregrination was a search for the Holy Grail, the Cup from which Jesus drank at the Last Supper, and where was then poured his blood. For years, knights roamed Britain in search of the relic, all in vain. In the end, the Grail fell to Sir Percival (according to another version, it was found by the young Sir Galahad, a Lancelot's son). A disastrous for Arthur chain of events was started his greatest knight, Sir Lancelot du Lac ("Lake"). He fell in love with Lady Guenever and was unable to suppress his treacherous and criminal passion for the wife of his suzerain. The illegitimate son (bastard) Arthur Mordred (by another version his nephew, a son of the Fata [Fairy] Morgana) exposed the lovers and forced Arthur to condemn his wife to death. Lancelot rescued the Queen and fled with her to France (There was no France ca. 600 AD). Before setting out after them on a pursuit with his army, Arthur left behind Mordred as a regent. The nephew, taking advantage of the absence of his uncle, staged a coup. Arthur returned home and met Mordred at the Battle of Camlann, where he pierced the traitor with a spear, but as Mordred was dying, he managed to mortally wound the king. The Excalibur sword was thrown into the water, where it was picked up by the hand of the Virgin of the Lake, and the loyal Arthur comrades laid the dying into a boat, which took him by the sea to the magical island Avalon. To comfort the knights, the King promised to return when Britain would face a great danger. This is the canonical Legend.

2. Britt or Sarmatian?

Based on the classic legends and historiy, most of the later myths and European writers unanimously assert that Arthur was a leader of the Celtic tribe of Britons, that he fought Anglo-Saxons for the liberation of what is now Wales. This version is temporarily accepted here as a working hypothesis. If Britons were one of the Celts' components, who were the Celts? And the Celts once were Asians. Plutarch (ca. 46 – 120 AD) in his accounts of the history correctly calls "Celtoskythians". For the ancient Europe with thin population, the Celts were newcomers, and their mass completely redrew the demographic situation of the continent, provoking endless wars for land and a place in the sun in Europe. The most terrible clashes the Celts had with Rome. Before the invasion of the Huns and Goths Celts threatened the very existence of the "eternal city". The war continued with varying success. Rome was trying to escape from that misfortune by recruiting Celtic troops, to play off different tribes against each other (as they have done with Carthage, and later with the Huns and Goths).

The Celts flooded Europe with horses, which always were a rare and expensive commodity. They spread the culture of steppe kurgan burials, heraldry, clan tamgas, widespread production and use of iron, the Scythian weaponry. For example, Europe was in awe from the large bows of the Celts, their iron swords, their protective armor. The Scotchmen still keep their genealogy, that is in our (Türkic) terms shejire - genealogy, the family coat of arms, the clan flags ...

The Celtic ethnonyms are amazing. They are "Türkic-lingual": kelt - is an abbreviated form of the (Türkic) word keldi (even in the modern Kazakh language we say kelt instead of keldi), i.e. appeared, came, wondered over (OTD keldügi arrival, p. 296). That is a most precise definition of the historical destiny of this great nation!

Some parts of this mysterious ethnicity were forced to migrate to the islands of the Foggy Albion, the territory of the modern Great Britain. Not a small part of them remained on the continent. They became known as Gauls, Galatians (Kalds, Kalads). Again, that word is read only in Türkic: gald (kald, kaldi, kaladi) is stayed behind, left behind, would remain, remaining, settled down, settled in. Here again we have a name matching the destiny, history. It is this part of the Celts that remained in what is now northern Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and some parts of Germany. For example, the very same "Spanish" Basques are the descendants of the same Gauls. Again, the word bask (baska) is translated from the Türkic as "foreign", "alien", "aliens".

Another interesting word is constant (permanent value). From the Türkic (konstandi) it is translated as "remaining behind", "settled permanently". Hence the names of Constantine, Constantinople, etc. Without saying, the Celtic wandering singers and musicians (bards), this word (bard, bardi) also translates from the Türkic as "went", "wandered about", "traveled", "roamer", "tramp".

What is presented now is not a fruit of fantasy. It is corroborated with the examples of our history. The name of the Kazakh tribe Kete is "Departed" (they came out and departed from the Altai), the tribal name Kalmak (Kalmyk) means "left behind" (the Dzungars who settled in the southern Russian steppes). This means that specifically the nomads defined and used ethnic names on the distinction of migration and settling: departed -settled in, moved - remained, moved - settled down. So the momentous historical names were becoming ethnic names.

So, the Celts are not autochthons of the Europe, but the steppe people that migrated from the N.Pontic and the Caspian area, the same Scythians or Cimmerians (who, by the way, are the same Scythians), and not some mysterious people that fell from the sky on the heads of the Europeans. The descendants of the Celts still keep the legends of their Asian origins. These are ancestors of the Scots, Irish, Welsh (Walloons), and others that were nomads who conquered and populated the European continent. They were distinguished by such peculiar feature of the steppe people as a passion for travel, roaming, chivalrous adventures, exploits, campaigns, conquest of new lands and peoples. The Celts were the first knights of Europe that introduced into the European culture the code of steppe knightly honor, and their King Arthur is a typical hero of the steppe legends, a wandering knight who won the hearts by his nobility, and his ability to rule to such a degree that he was raised to the throne, most likely not by the right of his birth, but for his services to the motherland.

It is no accident that his genetic roots some Europeans are seeking in the steppe vastness. For example, Howard Reid in his book "Arthur the Dragon King" claimed that Arthur was ... a member of the nomadic Sarmatian tribes, who lived in the Steppes, and whom the Romans brought to Britain. This writer, analyzing the ancient legend according to which King Arthur would rise from the grave when enemies attack England, thought that the origin of this and other legends about Arthur and his knights are the legends of the Sarmatians.

Leaving aside for a moment this wonderful and even a stunning version, can be ascertained in what century lived this hero? The answer is in the historical retrospective. By the 1st c. BC the Britons fully settled the island, which became known as Britania, and then the Great Britain. By the 3rd century the island was partially conquered by the Romans, was established an imperial province with a mixed Briton-Roman population, which in the 3rd-4th centuries became Christian. But the Romans could not conquer the ancestors of the Irish and the Scots, so they fenced themselves off from their raids with a stone wall, the ruins of which still exist. In 407, because of the threat to Rome from the Goths, the Roman legions abandoned Britain, dooming it to an independent existence.

There began a brief Celtic revival and rejection of the Roman customs. But by the 450s the island was invaded from the sea by the pagan (here and later: "pagan" is anyone not of your religious denomination) Germanic tribes, Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, who have seized the beachhead lands. In early 500s the Britons and the descendants of the Romans joined and began fighting the invaders. By the mid-century, they were able to inflict a series of defeats on the invaders, but in the 560-570s the invasion continued, and by the 600 the conquest of the main part of the island was completed. But the Britons, not taking it, continued on with a guerrilla and national liberation war, one of the leaders of which was the famous Arthur, who can be considered not only a legendary, but a real person.

Its reality is confirmed by some records. The first to write about Arthur was a Wales monk Nennius. The "History of the Britons" (its exact dating is unclear, somewhere from 796 to 826), he mentions a certain great warrior called Arthur. The last reference comes from an unknown Walloon, who in 956 compiled a historical chronology "Kambrian annals", which stated:
"516  - Battle of Mount Badon (Mons Badonicus), where Arthur carried on his shoulders the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ for three days and three nights, and the Britons were victorious...
537 - Battle of Camlann, during which Arthur and Medraut killed each other, and the pestilence came to Britain and Ireland".
It turns out that Arthur lived and died in the 6th century AD. In any case, the ethnic origin of Arthur, whether be it Breton or Sarmatian, indicates that he was a steppe man. Therefore, in the European historical annals, legends, and sagas, should be sought other indicators of his Eastern origins, whatever howl on this occasion would be raised by the Eurocentrists.

3. Mystery of the Round Table of Arthur

In this respect, the Round Table of King arouses a prodigious hypothesis. As stated in the legends, King Arthur was a wise and democratic ruler. That is, he was making decisions not personally, but as a result of a Security Council or the Board of the Knights of the Round Table. These knights, including Arthur, numbered only eight people: Lancelot, Gawain, Galahad, Percival, Yvain, Pelles (the Fisher King) and Sir Geraint.

Is there any sacral meaning in this figure? As is known, the figure 8 is an ancient symbol of the Türkic people and Türkic tribes. 8 is octagon, eight-sided polygon (Türkic omens of guardian, stamp, ethnic symbol); 8 is a symbol of the Amazon women - love, interlaced rings, marriage between a man and a woman, sex (O. Suleimenov); 8 is two twin yurts; 8 is the number of spokes in the Türkic wheel; 8 is eight-sided yurt that creates an illusion of a circle; 8 is the meaning of the Kazakh (Türkic) idiom "segiz kyrly, bir syrly"; etc. All these symbol and meanings are innate to the King Arthur's Round Table.

First, the geometric shape of the table. Here can and should be suggested a striking and bold hypothesis: the Arthur's table was not round, but an equilateral octagon! Behind each facet was sited one knight, but visually the table looked round. It should be recalled how wrong was the Greek Priskus when he visited the royal horde (center, capital) of Attila. The octagonal timber yurt-tower he mistakenly took for a round structure. But a circle of logs can't be coupled in and form a ring! The table was exactly the same. At that time Europe did not know neither octagonal nor round tables, and the major surprise from the perception of this wonderful table remaine in the memory for ages. The octagonal symbols came to the Europe with the Celts, their descendants then took them across the ocean, to the far-away America. The octagonal shape symbolizes not  the equality of the facets, but the equality and lucidity of the rights of the facets (advisers, jurors, feasting). In modern language this figure means collegiality and democracy, with well-defined boundaries and areas of responsibility. The roundtable decisions, like it is now, were accepted by a vote of the Council of the seven knights, Arthur had only to take them for execution. That's what the Britons respect their king for. For his ability to listen to and respect the views of the security councilors, to accept their general decision, for not to violating it, and for putting it into practice.

Secondly, the corollary amazingly reveals the sense of the Kazakh idiom "segiz kyrly, bir syrly": "eight facets of a single secrecy". Of course, the eight facets are the facets of the table and the number of the Council members, and the single secrecy is the secretive and unanimous decisions acepted as a result of discussions, analysis, and balloting. The Kazakh djyrau (knights) and batyrs (heroes) always urged people and Khans to follow the "way of grandfathers", which refers to a democratic Constitution, the basic principles of which were popular administration of the state, the collegiality of decisions by the legislative power in embodied in the Council of Elders, and exact and strict adherence to them by the executive powers (khans, sultans, generals, etc.).

It turns out that the Celts were following the "way of grandfathers", used the steppe common law or constitution into the life and jurisprudence in Britain, and Arthur strictly adhered to these principles. The European creators of the legends were not paying much attention to this fact. The Arthur's Round Table is mostly described by them just as a banquet table. But it was not an everlasting peace to hold an endless feast. Moreover, the whole history of the Middle Ages is woven of wars and political compacts, which were resolved with swords and the minds of the councils sitting at the negotiation tables, which were not always round...

And finally, the "eight" participated in the creation of the chivalrous "philosophy of love". The Celtic druids of the Arthur's time were developing cannons of monogamous matrimony. Each knight was to have only one "lady of the heart", and only with her he could couple the rings. This marriage custom of "betrothal-ring coupling" then spread throughout the Europe.

4. What language spoke Arthur?

Once again, the population of Britain of the Arthur times was diverse. First the Britons intermixed with the ancient tribes of the island, and with their Celtic tribesmen. Then they partially intermixed with variously-speaking tribes that were already generally called Romans. Subsequently, they  encountered not only military clashes with the Germanic tribes of Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, but also joined in into cultural and linguistic ties with them. On the islands of the Foggy Albion in that ethnic and linguistic soup in the end prevailed the brine of the Saxon language, or in other words one of the Germanic languages which we now call English. Earlier than others it was adopted by the Britons, and the Irish and the Scots resisted for much longer. The same Celts that remained on the mainland and who previously were collectively called Gauls (Galatians), were caught in the same soup of peoples and languages, and to the top scored the Romance language, which was the vernacular language of Rome, now called "dead" (Latin) language, it transformed over into the languages of the modern Europe: Portuguese, Italian, French, Spanish, etc. Certainly, these historical and linguistic collisions have left their mark on the language not only of the Britons, but also  of the other Celts on the mainland and islands.

Prior to the final separation and formation of the modern languages, the Celtic language consisted of such constituents as Breton, Welsh, (Walloon), Irish, Celtiberian, Cumbrian, Brythonic, Cornish, Lepontic, Manx, Pictish, Scottish, and even collectively called Gaulish (Gallic) language. All that variety of the richest language the European linguists, without much thinking, wholesale attributed to the Indo-European family of languages.

But following the noted line of the the Celts' eastern origins, the situation is not so simplistic. To discover at least some facts in the "Keltology", it is imperative to methodologically "involve" into the studies the languages of the nomadic Steppe (Türkic and Mongolian) and semi-nomadic forest-steppe (Slavic and Ugric).

To answer the question about the ancient language of the Britons, in other words of the Arthur's language, it should be posed linguistically wider, historically deeper: what language the Celts spoke "in general". Considering the subject in that light, then it is seen that the ancient and original language of the Celts (Britons and others) has not totally disappeared, but was deposited in anthroponyms, toponyms, ethnonyms, and in the names of various objects and things. Their reading requires a great effort, grammatical and historical studies, and comparative analysis. It is practically impossible to cover all these lexical aspects, but at least a relatively modest analysis can be performed.

4.1. Celtic-Türkic ethnonyms and anthroponyms

The Celts had a richest collection of names. Europe Prior to their appearance, Europe did not possess such variety of human proper names. That fact was noted by the European and Russian researchers. For example, the whole "the inventory of the Latin names did not number two dozens, and practically almost to the end of the Empire women did not have personal names, having only family line names, and being differentiated within the family by the birth order: Mayora, Terecia, etc". ("From where came, budded the Russian land", Moscow, 1986, p. 639). Up to the 18th-19th centuries among the Russian, Polish and other descendants of the Wends or Slavs "one and the same name lounged in the same family, like the "Ivashko senior, Ivashko middle, Ivashko the third. The Polish chronicler Yan Dlugosz had ten brothers with the same name. The same name was also enduring among the common folks in Germany"(Vyacheslav Nikonov "Name and Society ", Moscow, 1974, pp.12-13).

And the European aristocrats did not shine with a variety of names before the arrival of the Celts and then of the Huns. Is known a ridiculous fact when "at the feast in Bayeux gathered 117 Wilhelms" (D.N. Egorov "Colonization  of the Mecklenburg.."., Moscow, 1915, Vol. 1, p. 366).

The process of forming names usually becomes active at a transition time to the military democracy and class stratification (That according to the primitive Marxist social development dogma that used to be enforced in all humanities disciplines in Russia and subjugated people within and without). In  respect to the names, a personality is a community, the family trees of individual families are counterpoised with the tribal genealogy.

Just comparing the maximum diversity of the Turko-Mongolian and Celtic names can be posited that these nomads outpaced in their development the ancient and medieval European world. For example, the Celts of the Arthur time already formed a developed military democracy, a clear manifestation of which was the "King" Arthur's Council of the Round Table.

It appears that both the implied scheme of the societal development, and the acquisition process of an inventory of the names are faulty. The first conflicts with the organizations of the hunter-gatherer societies, the second is only a pre-defined aspect of the general lexical acquisition that is an outcome of the linguistical admixtures. The Roman Republic was a pronounced military democracy with poor name inventory vs. King Arthur's military democracy with rich name inventory. The Celts gained their inventory due to their mobility and intensive biological and linguistic intermixing.

Usually, the tribes with later decomposition of the communal structure borrow the names from the peoples who passed that stage earlier, first of all from the nations whose military glory attracted storytellers and song writers. The Celts (Gauls) brought to Europe an inordinary culture. And that the Romans hung on them a label of "barbarians" does not attest to their savagery and backwardness. In general, originally the word "barbarian" meant "different", "alien", "unlike", "dissimilar". Only with a passage of time the word has gained a derogatory, disparaging, and insulting hue. After all, the whole Europe, including Rome, willingly and enthusiastically copied the names of the "barbarians" sung in songs of the Celtic bards, whose art at the time Europe was dazzled about and copied. All later singers and poets of the Europe (troubadours, singers "chanson de geste") originated with the Celtic bards.

The ancient names, especially the eastern names, are classified by many criteria. Some simply repeat the tribal or clan names. Other depict names-wishes, name-commands. The third are heroic names: Brave, Lucky, Great, etc. The fourth reflect title or attributes of power. The nicknames and aliases were widespread. The names should be considered from these positions (All following translations are to and from Türkic).

The Celtic names-wishes are strikingly similar to the Türkic names. Take some of the command names derived from the imperative verbs tu (beget), tur (live, be healthy, persevere, etc.)...

Tuad (literally - give birth, an Irish name). In the first centuries BC the Celtic tribes of Ireland consisted of small communities called tuat (multiply, increase).
Tudor (tudyr - continue line, give birth, hence the famous Welsh dynasty Tudor).
Arthur - Ar (dignity, lion, honor) + tur (live). So, the semantics of the name of our hero is a wish: "Live with dignity, proud as a lion". Which, in fact, he did.
Tur, Tor (a son of a shepherd in the legend)
Turistan = Tristan (tur + stan = encampment, country). Note in passing that the Tristan lover Isolde also had a Türkic name: iz (clan, offspring) + aldi (has received) = "line, posterity received"
Thuringia (country of Turins or Türks?) and Lotharingia (Lorraine) - Uly (great) + Thuringia.

In this context, from the Arthurian legends and the Celtic history unexpectedly are emerging undoubtedly Türkic names. For example,
Turkwin (treacherous knight, who lured Lancelot and imprisoned him in a dungeon). Considering that the phonemes "v", "b", "m", and the "i", "e", "a" are freely interchangeable, here we may get the well-known ethnonym "Turkmen"!

One more example. The Titus Livius (Livy) "History of Rome from its Foundation" book 5 states that the Gauls (Celts) crossed the Alps and appeared in the northern Italy in 600 BC. Then the supreme power among the Celts belonged to tribe named Bituric, which was giving a "king to the Celtic world". It is impossible not to recall the Scoloti of the Herodotus, i.e. the "Royal Scythians", which also were giving the kings to the Scythian tribes! The Borjigins, i.e. clan of Genghis Khan, also were giving kings to the other nations. Here is present a clearly identical steppe tradition! It is hard not to read keep the ethnonym Biturik as bi (ruler, lord) + turyk (turik, Turk)! It turns out that the word Tur, Türk, Turk, Turkmen have existed in Europe 12 centuries (and maybe more) before the Türkic Kaganates! Undoubtedly, the Türkic language existed long before the appearance on the historical scene of Türks, i.e. the ethnic group called Türk. Similarly, the Slavic language existed before the appearance on the historical arena of the Slavs (Wend language).

Many "Celtic-Türkic" (Hunnic) family names are associated with such etymons as ru (clan) and uryk (seed, progeny) that drag the names like locomotives.

Ruald, Rualda - ru (clan) + aldy (took, accepted) = "chose clan" or "established clan".
Roberto (Robert was a King of Scotland) - ru (clan) + berdy (gave) = "established clan".
Ruman, Roman, Romyn, where mann, man, myn, mon is man, Roman is "clan's man".
Rolland - "Son of clan".
Ruslan - rusyz (rootless) + ulan (boy) = "rootless (of humble origin) boy".
Ruar - "honor of the clan".
Rulav, Rulau - "belonging to the clan".
Ruthen - Ru + ten (equal) = "equality of lclans" (Ruthenians is a Gallic tribe).
Rogvolod - uryk (seed, progeny) + bolat (will be) = "will be posterity", "will continue the clan lineage".
Rogneda - uryk (seed, progeny) + enedi (en- descend, come down, OTD p. 173) = "seed will take root".

The Celtic heroic names demonstrate similarity with the Türkic names formed with the title "er". Er is a rank or title of a hero warrior (It is well-known in its Germanic form Herr and as English suffix designating people of profession: carpenter, teacher, doctor, engineer). In Türkic names it used to preceed the name (Er-Mamai, Er-Kokshe, Dospambet Er Aydamet, Erulan = Erlan, Ermek, Erjan,  etc.) Then the semantic of the word transformed and came to mean just the word "man," although at one time not all men could be Ers. In Europe (again, after the Celts) this short word turned into an ending of the masculine nouns, and finally even into an ending of some female names, and even more, of the inanimate objects. Dismissing the last two forms as shells that have lost the core of their semantics, it can be noted that the ancient Celts at the outset knew the meaning of the word, and formed names with it. Here are just some of them...

Uther - Arthur's father. Ut (fire, in some cases a phallus) + er (man) = "man-fire" or "producer of progeny".
Ekter or Hector - Arthur's guardian and tutor.
Bediver - Veteran knight in the Arthurian legends.
Muter (Scottish name).
Durer - ter (the place of honor, i.e. tere) + er (man) = Durer ("honorable man", "of the nobility").
Richard ("Richard the Lionheart", the leader of the Crusades, the King of England).  He appropriated not only the Arthur's "Lionheart", but also his Türkic name: er (man) + chard (chard, shart - oath) = "Man's oath". The word shart also penetrated into French lexicon, denoting the same oath, vow, charter. The Türkic Erchardy, through phonetic metathesis in the first syllable and a loss of a soft "y", has become Richard.

Many names arose from the verbs "take" and "give". The consistent pattern was created by people were taken prisoner, included into the clan, adopted, given property rights, allotments, and correspondingly names. Take (get) in Türkic is alu, in the past tense aldy (short form ald). Give, furnish in Türkic is beru (berd gave, ber - give in imperative). Hence the names...

Aldan (Aed Aldan - Irish king and poet of the 8th century) - "Taken". This name is still widespread among the Kazakhs and other Türkic people.
Garibaldi - garyp, karyp (clutching like with claws; Garyp, Karyp are widespread Türkic names) + aldi ([he] caught, [he] captured) = "[he] took, clutching [like with claws]".
Gerald (Geraldine) - yer (earth) + ald (took) = "took earth", "took [land] allotment".
Archibald - archyp ([he] cleared) + ald (took) = "took, having cleansed" (from filth, heterodoxy?).
Arnaldo (Arnold, Ornaldo) -
1. Arnaldy - intended, dedicated
2. orn (place) + aldy (got) = "[he] received place".
3. aryn (honor) + aldy (got) = "[his] honor taken [away]".

Caroline - keri (back) + alain (let me try to take) = "[I would] take back" outcast wife?).
Esmeralda - esim (name) + er (man) + aldy (got) = "[My] name + Eraldy" = "taken for a man [married]".
Rualda - ru (clan) + aldy (got) = "was kind". The same Ronaldo
Ronaldo - ruyn + aldy (got) = "took beginning of his clan", founder of the clan.
Oswald (Osvaldo) - osyp (having cut, from verb osu - cut) + aldi (got) = "took (extracted) by cutting" (via C-section?). This should not be surprising, because cattle breeders possessed this technique of extracting babies still in antiquity. Many modern medical techniques are their long forgotten analogies.

Elber - el (country, land, people) + ber (give) - "Land, land, people create" (name-wish).
Roberto (Robert - King of Scotland) - ru (clan) + berd (gave) = "gave [continuation to] clan [line]".
Albert - al (strength, power) + berdi (gave) = "gave strength".
Sigizberd (Frankish king, 560-567) - sigiz (eight) + berd (gave) = "gave eight (children?)". In comparison: literally Sigismund (king) - "eight worries" (mun - grief, sadness; mundy - sad, worry).

No less surprising are also other names...

Baudik, Kalgak (leaders of the Briton uprising against Rome):
Baudik: bau (leash, tie, loop) + dik, dyk (affix) = "linkage".
Kalgak: kal (stay, in imperative) + gak (affix) = "remaining", the same as kalmak (Kalmyk).
Karmak ("Hook") - West Ireland leader at the end of 2nd and at the beginning of 3rd century, who captured neighboring provinces and created a strong tribal alliance. The name looks like a nickname, i.e. he "hooked" the alien lands, wrung them with a hook.
Akkolon = Ak kulyn ("White foal", a knight in the Arthur's times).
Aktavian (Oktavian) - Ak (here: white) + taban (paw, lower part of the pes). Aktavian was a ferocious emperor of Rome, a founder of the Roman world, it appears that the Romans adopted his name from the Celts. For comparison, a Kazakh proverb says: "Aktaban shubyryndy, Alakol sulama". In the Steppes, the name became a canine nickname.
Alwedd (Welsh leader) - al (take in imperative mood, front, avant-garde) + wedd (wet/vet, bet = face) = "take rule (into your hands)," "main man", "leading".
Akun, Yakun - generic for poet-bard. Akon was an Illyrian tribe. Till now, Kazakhs call poets akyns.
Armand - Dreamer. In Kazakh and French it is pronounced Arman.
Artamon - horde + mon, man (man, soul) = "horde-man", related to horde = capital, center, army.
Askold - ac (food) + koldy (kol = hand) = Askoldy - hand that feeds generously.
Barthold - bari toldy ("all is filled"; barï = all, everything [OTD p. 84]; toldi = filled [OTD p. 572]), an analog is Barekeldi - "everything came, everything fell into its place".
Bauer - in Türkic Baur means consanguine brother(s).
Wilhelm - bilik (knowledge) + elim (my country) = "wisest of my country". Cf.: Bilik-khan.
Hans - gan (blood) + ich, ish (drink) = "drink blood", "bloodsucker". Cf. the Kazakh Kanysh (Satpayev) (First name of a known modern personality).
Darren (Daryn - talent).
Janice - jenis (victory), hence - Jenny, Jennifer, Genifer (Welsh Gwenhwyfar)
Til (tongue, language), recall the "Legend of Wilhelm Tell". Tilen (Thielen) - Celtic tribal name with Türkic meaning: "Language, become ingrained". The tribe lived in the Danube area, and then migrated to Asia Minor.
Dilda - Tildi = "sharp-tongued".
Duma (Dumas) = tuma (kins, relative).
Jan (Jean) - soul, man.
Jordan - Ordadan - "of horde".
Lermon - ul (grand, great) + er (man) + mon (man) = "son of hero". The ancestors of the great Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov migrated from Scotland.
Terence (and then Russ. Terenty) - teren (deep, applied to people, always meaning a deep thought) = "deep thought".
Juan - huan "rejoice". The model names among the Kazakhs: Huandyk, Huantai, Huanysh etc.
Hansen -
1) khan (title) + sen/song (sen/song/son = son) = "Khan's son";
2) khan (title) + sen/song (sen/song/son = son) = "You are Khan".
Salvador - sal (poet-knight) + bator, batyr (hero) = "hero-knight poet".
Charles (Charlie, Charle) - charlys (jarlys, jarylys) = "explosive".
Conrad (First, Second, so were called in early medieval time the German emperors): konr (brown) + at (horse, name [OTD p. 65]); the name Conrad corresponds to the hue of the horse (chestnut) and the name of the Türkic tribe Konrat.
Otto - ot (fire) + you (possessive affix) = "fiery", "fiery man".
Ottokar - otty (fiery) + kar (in Türkic kar is a part of an arm, in Celtic kar is a friend, but a friend is an extension of the arm) = "fiery friend".

In general, the names with the word kar were fashionable among the Cornish in Cornwall. For example, Carmen, Carmona ("man-friend"). For comparison: Kardash (among the Oguzes, such as Azeris, Kardash is friend, brother), Karyndas (among the Cossacks it is "uterine, half-blooded on mother's side").

Yan, Jean are common Türkic names: Soul, Man (Ian, Yan in Oguz, Jan in Kipchak,  Djan in Karluk vernaculars). All Jane, Jean, Shan, Sheena, Jeannette, Jeannine, Jeannie, Jeannine, Jany, Jeanne, Jana, John, Januarius, etc. (anwar, jany bar, januar is animal, hence the animal cycle calendar starting in January), and similar names were derived from the Türkic-Celtic language (naturally, such language does not exist in the official linguistics).

The verity of the research direction is also tested by the later facts. For example, after the Huns' appearance in Europe (as a ruling force), their names became fashionable, especially among the Goths (Jordan). Attila, Etzel/Hetzel, Atley, etc. Even Shakespeare was fascinated by the name of Attila, so much so that he named so his tragic hero: Othello.

4.2. Türkic-Celtic place-names

In Türkic language, one of the most common words for the country, population, and the home area is a term El (el, il, ǝl). This word is clearly present as a part of many Celtic place names and ethnonyms. E.g. some examples.

From the same legend about Arthur we know that he was conceived in the castle of Tintagel. The end of the word (el) denotes the habitat (tintag ~ structure + el ~ population, i.e., castle). The first part of the word (tintag, tentak, tentek) is none other than the word "hooligan", "bully", "mischief". As we already know, it is in that castle that Arthur's father Uther committed an act of hooliganism: violence over another man's wife. The castle could get its name ("hooligan's lair") from that misdeed, or it was already known by that name because its inhabitants were noted for their unseemly, ugly actions.

The Duchy of Cornwall, the castle of Camelot, the country of Wales, Barcelona, Marseille, Eldorado, Bastille, Rugil, Itel (Italy) are only a part of the names persistently bearing the Türkic designation for the location, of the country, village, or the human abode. Becides the word el, like a nail driven into the place-names, the other parts of the words also are read as Türkic words and Turkisms:
El Dorado - el turady ("people will inhabit and live"),
Marselle (same as Barsel, Barcelona) - "place of Bars (Tiger), Mars",
Bastille - busty (head) + il = "Head abode" or "abode of suppression" (from basu - suppress, probably suppress the will by incarcerating into dungeons).
Wales - W (poison, poisonous) + el = "poisonous country (or ulus = area)"
Rugil - uryk (progeny) + il = "country of descendents".
Italy - it (dog) + el (al, il) = "people, country revering dogs".

The Rome initially worshiped a wolf, the Italics once deified dogs. It is no accident that the most common dog's name in Italy is Itollo ~ it (dog) + ollo (uly - son, puppy) = "dog's puppy". Another name-forming element of the Celts (and of the Türks) are the words ul, "ulan" (son, creation, product). The Türks and Celts used this word to call the cities founded by someone. Titus Livius (Livy) described that in the six century BC the Celts crossed the Alps, and as an avalanche fell on the heads of the Italic tribes, and later on the Rome. These migrants, fighting with the Etruscans and other Italics, settled and founded the city Mediolan (Madiulan, i.e. the city Medi, the current Milan). Madi, Medi is a common etymon of the Türks. Of these, the most famous were the Hunnish Shanyu (Khan, Kagan) Mode (Oguz-khan), a conqueror of China, and Ishkuz Madi, who conquered Babylon, Assyria, Persian (There was no Persia at that time yet) Media, Lydia and other ancient kingdoms (Ishkuzes in the 7th century BC ruled Mesopotamia for 28 years). Maybe it is the same historical figure? Was this ancient city named after Madi?

In the same way appeared names of the entire countries Rugilandia (possession of the Rugils), Ireland = yer (in Oguz - land) + ulandy ("land of the cities" or "land of the heirs"), Scotland (Scot + ulandy), Kamlan - kam + ulan (place where according to the legend fought King Arthur). Compare the word-forming models for the Türkic cities: Zangelan - Zengi (name of Seljuk ruler) + ulan (city), Mosula - Mys + uly, etc. Not less impressive are the other place-names introduced by the Celts.

Ispania/Spain (original name Espana). In Türkic es is memory, consciousness. Pana is refuge, shelter, protection, covering, safekeeping. Therefore, Ispania is  the "memory of the shelter". It is the country where Gauls found shelter after more than two centuries of residing in the Northern Italy and endless wars with the Etruscans and other tribes, after the conquest and incineration of Rome, after Rome grew stronger and subsequently displaced the bulk of the Gaul population from the Italian land. By the way, the European historians and writers unanimously admitted that the name Ispania/Spain is downright inexplicable, and is not readable in any of the European languages. None of them tried to read it from the standpoint of the Türkic languages, so naturally the consensus came to a dead end.

Etymology description from Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain#Etymology

The true origins of the name España and its cognates "Spain" and "Spanish" are disputed. The ancient Roman name for Iberia, Hispania, may derive from poetic use of the term Hesperia to refer to Spain (Hesperia => Hispania, a very long shot), reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima.

It may also be a derivation of the Punic Ispanihad, meaning "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean (try to get from "land of rabbits" to "edge" without loosing self-respect); Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a coney (why is used a Türkic term for a rabbit?) at her feet. There are also claims that España derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian peninsula constitutes the southwest of the European continent (or a refuge "paña" at the edge, closer to the skin?).

The humanist Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian (the largely unknown language, held as language-isolate, i.e. substituting one unknown for another) word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenecian word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged".

Belgium (a country founded by Belgae, one of the most powerful Celtic tribes), the belgi in Kazakh is still a sign, mark, the belgili is notable, significant, visible. The name corresponds to the historical merit of the tribe.
 Bilbao = bil (waist, spine) + bai (belt) = waist belt. The name describes the Spanish city and the province that "girdles" it, the abode of the Basques.
Jer - (jer is land in Kipchak. a cognate of the English earth) is a southern province in France.
Aishir - county in Scotland, where is bred big horned cattle under the same name. In Türkic ayyr (pronounced ay-yir) is pitchfork, moonlike horns + shy (instrumental affix for the acting subject). Many ancient coats of arms of the Scottish clans flaunt crescents (horns, moon). Take, for example, the distorted coat of arms of the ancient Scottish clan Seton Earl of Winton. At the bottom is a shield, the center of which depicts three Oguz (Ottoman) crescents or horns, around them are Türkic decorative patterns, above them is a battle cry (motto, uran) of three words:
1) "hazard";
2) "yet";
3) "forward",
i.e. "forward in spite of the hazard".

Britt - bir (one) + it (dog, canine) "lonely dog". Most likely, this word was a name of a person, because the tribal, clan names (ethnonyms) most frequently originate from anthroponyms.
Britan - bir (one) + it (dog, canine) + an (instrumental affix, affix of result of action) = "lone feral (wild) dog". Indeed, the Britons, like dogs, squabbled over their territory: at times with the Romans, at times with the Anglo-Saxons, almost always alone, because neither Romans, nor Anglo-Saxons for a long time could subjugate Scots and Irish.

Generally, nothing is surprising about the Türkic names on the European continent, because not only the Celts, but also other Türks (particularly the Huns) left a mass of toponyms.

Saxonia - Sak (Scyth) + son (son, child) - country formed before the Celts or the Huns.
Hungaria (from the word Hun, Hungary) - Hun (specific tribe) + gar (tribe).
Burgundy - bori (wolf) + Hun (specific tribe) = wolf-Huns.
Jarnac - a city in France (Jarnac was a son of Attila) (Names of  Attila's sons are conventionally spelled Ellak, Tengiz/Dengizik/Diggiz, and Bel-Kermek. Apparently, Ellak = Jarnac).
Aragon, Aragon - ar (dignity, lion, honor) + Hun (specific tribe), or Argyn (specific tribe).
Bavaria  - bu (this, it is) + Avaria (country) = "This is Avaria"). of The name is confirmed  by a historical fact that the Germanic Bavarians of the time fought against expansion of Charlemagne under the banners of the Avars. Even the Russian word Avaria as a disaster arose from the Avars, who plunged the medieval Europe in the "disastrous" horror.
Thuringia  - from Turs, Thurings, Türks.
Lotharingia (Lorraine) - uly (great) + Thuringia.
Kent (Kingdom, founded in Britain by the Jutes - Kent in Türkic is city: Tashkent, Chymkent).
Tyrrhenian sea - tiren/teren (deep). Who, for example, could name the Tyrrhenian sea Tyrrhenian? The word tiren/teren (deep) is clear to any Türk, it is translated with the word "deep". As always, the European historians this name attributed to the Europeans, in this case - the ancient Greeks, even though such word, and with such meaning in Greek never existed (The Greek etymology reverted to a proper name of the Etruscan prince Tyrrhenus, explaining unknown with unknown).

The list may go  for pages...

4.3. Miscellanea

What other secrets can be disclosed and what words can be extracted, like precious gold dust, from the  Celtic legends that survived in the history? There are, of course, many more secrets than a Turkologist-prospector like me was able to gather, and tried to uncover.

...With Celtic advance into new areas, the occupied lands were distributed to the pags - clans and tribes that also were making up the troop units. Pag (bak, bah) in Türkic is safeguard, protect, take care, pasture. Pag, bak, or bah were outposts, land allotments, which the leaving Celts instructed remaining Celts to guard, preserve, and protect. Compare the Kazakh words: bakhsha (garden), baktashy (shepherd), baksy (priest-shaman, keeper of ancient traditions of enlightenment, healing, predictions).

...The Arthur's illegitimate son  was Mordred. The Celts called those bastards. Translated into Türkic bastard is: bas (head) + tard (in this case - turn away, do not recognize) = "turn face away", "reject", "illegitimate", "do not recognize". This point is consistent with the philosophy and law of the "monogamous love", which was developing by the Celtic druids, and which became a basis for the marriage laws in all of Europe.

...Arthur's blood brother was Kay, a son of the Arthurian guardian-knight Hector. After Arthur, having pulled sword out of the grip, became a king, at the request of Hector he appointed Kay as his seneschal. Without any stretch this word is read in Türkic. Sen is trust in imperative mood, senu is to trust, senim is trust (n.), hence seneschal is a trusted person, trustee. An alternate reading: sene sal (to trust a priori, without any doubts). Britons called trusted persons seneschal.

The Scottish skirt kilt. It seems that the skirt is “dressed” in the Türkic imperative verb ki (put on, dress up). For comparison: kimeshek (Kazakh female apparel) kitel (military jacket), kimono (ki  + meni = "put on me").

Quite surprising is the Celtic addiction to the word kam:
Cumbria (the ancient name of Wales),
Camelot (castle, ancestral estate),
Camlann (location Arthur's battle), etc.
The last toponym is identical to the religious term kamlan (Communication with another world via a medium of a middleman cleric derisively called in the Christian lingo “shaman”). A comparison of the Türkic clergy with the Celtic druids brings up numerous similarities. First, the secrecy. Both druids and shamans kept their teachings, rituals and knowledge secret from everyone, including their tribesmen. The sacred knowledge was only passed to worthy students. For example, a druid student could gain an independent rank only after 20 years. The same can be stated of the Türkic clergy called “shamans”. Secondly, the druids, like the Türkic clergy, were magicians, healers, seers, and teachers. They performed different miracles, for example, of sending snow, hail, hurricane on the enemy camp, or reviving the dead. Thirdly, many common similarities appear in the personality of the "Arthurian" druid Merlin with his steppe "colleague" in the field of the miracles. The Steppes once had a lot of legends about Genghis Khan's personal shaman called Kokche, who like Merlin could change his appearance, even disappear in front of the eyes of everybody, and foretell so that all his forecasts came true. Otherwise, under the Chingiz's system of penalties, he would lose his head real fast. Of course, many druid and shaman mysteries and magic have sunk into oblivion.

The cornerstone of the Arthurian legend is the sword Excalibur, which incidentally was pulled out by Arthur of the stone vise. The sacral meaning of this part of the legend again lies in the ancient beliefs of the nomads, according to Herodotus  the Scythians worshiped a sword (it was amazing for him), sprinkling it before a fight with blood or milk. The legends about Attila also state that he conquered the world due to the discovery of the Mars' sword. These practices then also spilled to the Vikings. In short, who had a miracle sword owned the world. This means that the sword was not only an idol, but also an embodiment of God (Ars, Ares, Mars). In that regard in the Arthurian legends is felt an obvious understatement. The Arthur's death is attributed to his bastard Mordred. But from the context of the legends follows that he died because of the loss of the sword Excalibur, i.e. the loss of God, the loss of his faith. The legends hint that Arthur was unfaithful to the old Briton religion, he became "Christianized", hauling a cross. The Britons' battles with Rome were not only for the land, but also for the faith (Romans for a long time could not spread Christianity in Britain). The cross could not replace his lost sword for Arthur. And what was the religion of the heathen Britain?

To answer this question we have to return to the druid mysteries. Various scholars claim that the Celts believed in various gods, including plants (especially trees). But is it true? Is known the druid mystery about the "war of trees", which the Europeans did not manage to uncover. And they could not uncover because they understood the mystery literally. The scholasts tried to distinguish objects, exactly what trees the Celts have worshiped, and exactly with what "trees" (gods of other tribes) they fought. But everything falls into place by reading the legends metaphorically like druids, poetically like the bards. In reality, the "trees" should be understood as family trees of genealogical ancestry. This ancient image reflects and embodies the cult of aruah (a Hebrew word for “breath” or “life”) ancestors. This steppe tradition regards the tree as the tree of life of generations, as a ladder connecting earth (Yer, English Earth) and heaven (Tengri), those living on the earth and those who "flew away" to heavens. Until now, in Türkic of the deceased people the expression is not "went underground", but "soared into heavens". Even in a simple Kazakh word agash (tree) we can find ancient customs and traditions.
Agash: ak, ah, ah (the word ak in Türkic has over 150 homonyms, here: flow, continuation, and most accurately continuation of lineage) + ash (open) = "unfold genealogy" = "show (reflect) genealogy". Thus, the agash is not just a tree, but  a continuation  between generations, a genealogical diagram in a tree form, a genealogical picture of the lineage. This is analogous how none of the researchers of the "Song of Igor's Campaign" was not able to solve the mystery how Boyan (legendary bard, Bulgarian Khan Boyan-Chelbir or Sandugach/Nightingale, 535-590, aka Bayan) "flowed his thought over the tree", i.e., before singing of contemporary events he turned over his thoughts to antiquity, history, and tales about ancestors who lived before him.

The mysteries of the druids and Boyan best preserved in the Slavic word drevny "ancient" (Slavic "drevny" - ancient is a derivative of the word "drevo" - tree)! This word magnificently carries both the image of the tree and of the past rooted in history, and reflects the trunk, branches, and crown that connect the past, present and future.

Therefore, the Celtic expression "war of trees" refers to the battles between ancient clans or tribes, the "court" internecine conflicts. Then it follows that in addition to the sword, the Celts revered their ancestors, they run their genealogy from them. No wonder they still keep their coats of arms, battle cries, the names of their ancestors. Notably, none of the world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Islam) was able to overcome these beliefs of the Central Asian nomads. For example, Muslims for a long time were persuading and torturing the steppe nomads for their beliefs in the spirits of their ancestors, who come a dime a dozen, while the Allah should be the one and only, and be a sole beginning of the faith and etiology. The efforts were wasted, the Central Asian Türkic people still worship aruahs more than the monotheistic Gods, however wise or comely they were.

The Celts dissolved in Christianity and European languages more than their "Asian kinfolk", although they left a salient imprint of their eastern origin and mastery of the Türkic language. An illustrious example is the King Arthur, whom the Europe no longer sees as "non-Christian", as a person who once spoke the eastern language of his ancestors. But he remains a symbol of universal human dignity and courage, a defender of his Motherland and a fighter for the independence of his Fatherland. He is an example for those descendants of the Celts who, although without much success, are still fighting for their independence from the Germanic and Romance world (the Northern Irish and Britain, the Basques and Spain). Is it why so compassionately-drawling, melancholically-plaintive sounds their music, emanating out of bagpipes, that inflated steppe burduk wineskin?

In Russian
Back to Archeology
Ogur and Oguz
Kurgan Culture
Gorny Altai 1-2 Millenium BC (Pazyryk)
N. Pontic Scythians 7 c. BC
From Huns to Bulgars 6 to 15-th c. AD
Türkic and European Genetic distance
Klyosov A.Türkic DNA genealogy
Alinei M. Kurgan Culture Mesolith
Kurgan Afanasiev Culture 2,500 -1,500 BC
Kurgan Andronov Culture 1,500 - 1,000 BC
Kurgan Karasük Culture 1,000 BC - 500 BC
About Kurgans
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