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Z. Z. Miftakhov
HISTORY OF TATAR PEOPLE

Lecture Course
Ch. 2. Ancestors of the ancient Bulgars Contents Ch. 4. Initial period of the ancient Bulgars' ethnic history

Introduction

This chapter is a digest of the origin legend in the volume 1 of Djagfar Tarihi - Translator's Note.

In the 20th century linguistic affiliation of the Sumerian has not been uniformly consented, in the 19th century Sumerian was surely classed as Ural-Altaic language phylum. Sumerian is agglutinative language that excludes flexive languages like Indo-European and Semitic. Published lexical listings provide about 160 Indo-European lexical cognates that includes a load of dubiously attributed Kuchean (misnamed Tocharian) lexicon, about 400 Türko-Altaic words, and the latest Simo Parpola count of about 1,700 Uralo-Altaic phylum words and morphemes. We also have Simo Parpola summary is here =>.

LECTURE 3
ORIGIN of ETHNONYM "BULGAR"

50

Sumer language contains, on the one hand, some Altai and Türko-Tatar features...,
on the other hand - some Indo-European features...

B.Groznyi (1940, Czech historian)

Contents

1. Emergence of the Sumer state.
2. Social organization of Sumerians.
3. Features of development of culture and language Sumerians.

Methodical instructions. Purpose of this lecture is to help students to understand origin of ethnonym Bulgars. The origin of the term "Bulgars" and its transformation into ethnonym did not coincide in time. They are separated from each other by centuries. Historically happened that the term "Bulgars" arose among the most ancient people of Mesopotamia - Sumerians. Sumer soldiers were an initial ethnic nucleus around which developed Bulgar ethnos. Studying the history of the Sumer state is necessary for understanding the formative process of the Bulgar ethnic nucleus and primary meaning of the term "Bulgars".

Movement in the direction of Mesopotamia continued only Sindians-Samarians and Imenians  from the clan Dulo. Led by the leader Samarians Mar they penetrated through eastern Anatolia into Mesopotamia and settled in its southern part, i.e. in the lower course of Tiger and Euphrates. Probably it happened in the 5th millennium BC (1; 29).

At first after arrival in Southern Mesopotamia the Samarians and Imenians  lived separately. Archeologists and anthropologists note that in the 4th millennium BC in Southern Mesopotamia lived people belonging to two anthropological types - dolichocranial and mesocranial (2; 39). To dolichocranial type probably belonged Imenians , and to mesocranial - Samarians . The following facts testify to Sindians-Samarians presence in Mesopotamia.

First, until now the mountains bordering Mesopotamia are called Sindzaru (3; 35).

Secondly, both the Itil and Ural Sindians, and Sumerians of  Mesopotamia called the moon with the same name - Sin.

Thirdly, both Sindians, and Sumerians called the sky with the same name - Dinger.

In due course, apparently by the end of the 4th millennium, Sindians-Samarians and Imenians  from clan Dulo intermixed. The mix of peoples subsequently received a name Sumerians (variants of ethnonym: Sumers, Samarians). Mixture of Samarians and Imenians from clan Dulo begat a new type of people, who created the most ancient civilization and were developing in its limits. The name "Samarians" (Sumerians) was a self-name. However in due course for a designation of the population evolved a name "black-headed" (1; 29). It was a common designation for the population of the Sumer state. How Sumerians looked? Reder D.G. and Cherkasova E.A. give the following description of Sumerian appearance: "Externally, it is difficult to confuse Sumerians with other peoples. They have stocky, thickset figures, rounded faces, protruding noses, absence of beard and moustache - all that drastically differentiates them from their neighbors" (4; 117).

Thus, a synthesis of two extremely different ethnic components - dolichocranial Imenians and mesocranial Sindians - produced the above described type of people.

1. APPEARANCE OF SUMER STATE

When Sindians-Samarians arrived to Southern Mesopotamia they found that extensive flat plain has no mountains with flat tops and ledged slopes. In other words there were no Samar mountains where Tengre could descend from the heaven. Facing the fact, Samarians began building Samar mountains out of clay and asphalt (oil in Mesopotamia was known from the most remote times (1; 29). So arose artificially created uplands, the hills where Samarians later began installing symbols of their gods.

Still at the end of the 4th - the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC Sumerians started building cities. Best known cities were At-Alan, Ura, Uruk, Lagash. In the city centre was located a temple of the main local deity. Around the temple were houses of clerics, warehouses for storing food stocks and weapons. There were also handicraftsmen workshops. All this encircled with a wall, turning the city into fortress. Surrounding it were houses of free people. Agricultural ugodja, i.e. Arable lands and pastures further settled down. City and agricultural land around it were a property of the territorial community. Scientists call such territorial community with a Greek term "nom" (4; 120).

In the pre-state period noms were governed by communal self-government institutions - national assembly and council of elders with diverse functions.

Still in extremely ancient times began a process of state development in Sumer. In the 3rd millennium BC appeared first state formations. They formed on a basis and within the limits of a territorial community, i.e. nom. Each city with adjoining territory was a state. These tiny city-states in essence were communal states. Their governors carried a title vali.

Separate city-states united only for military purposes.

In the head of military-political union stood Ulug (great) Vali (prince of princes, king). It was a supreme royal title in Sumer society. Governors of separate cities (vali) were essentially independent, but at the same time they recognized Ulug Vali as their military leader, and initially as a religious head also. Initially in the Sumer city-states the post of Ulug Vali in turns occupied governors of separate cities for a  certain time. The leader of the union was chosen at an assembly. For that purpose every spring in the main Sumer city At-Alan gathered the heads of city-states. After Vali among themselves have chosen Ulug Vali, began public games and fairs.

Subsequently a post Ulug Vali was reserved for the descendants of Mar and Seberche. Mar was a leader of Samarians-Sindians who immigrated to the Lower Mesopotamia. Seberche was a daughter of the Imenian leader from Dulo clan, who returned to the land of the ancestors. The residence of Ulug Vali up before the flood was in the city At-Alan located in a lower course of Euphrates. At-Alan was a military-political and religious center of Sumer.

There was located the throne of Sumer kings (Ulug Vali). It was a folding chair (2; 310). The word "throne" apparently descends from an Imenian word "trun". The concepts of "authority" and "throne" were designated by the same word "trun".

Thus, the Sumer state was a confederation of cities-communities of "new" type led by the city At-Alan.

After the flood, when city At-Alan remained under water, among other city-states a prevailing position was taken by the city Uruk.

2. SOCIAL ORDER OF SUMERIANS

The social structure of Sumer society did not remain the same during existence of the Sumer state. Therefore the description pertains to the initial stage of development of Sumer state.

Approximately in the 4th - 3rd millennium BC in Southern Mesopotamia was going a process of estate formation. All population of Sumer was divided into two parts.

First part. It was composed of free, full-fleged inhabitants of Sumer. In Sumerian they were called buls. The word "bul (or bal)" means "lord". Buls were a dominating part of the Sumer society.

Second part. It was made by dependent, limited-rights inhabitants of Sumer. In Sumerian they were called berdjuls. The members of the Sumer communities were connected by patrimonial ties, and a practice of enthrallment fellow tribesmen did not exist yet. In the dependent position in Sumer were historical ancestors of Arabs (Semites) (6; 309 and 4; 117). And dependent were not only captive Semites, but also all Semites of southern Mesopotamia. They were not slaves in classical sense yet, but were close to slaves in their status.

Free people, i.e. the buls, had three estates.

First estate. This category of free people was formed by professional soldiers in lifetime military service in a standing army of Ulug Vali. To designate the estate of soldiers, Sumerians used a term "Bulgars".

Ethymology of the word Bulgar. The word "Bulgars" consist of two words, bul and gar. Bul is master, and gar is soldier.

Thus, the initial sense of the word "Bulgar" is "lord-soldier".

Let's emphasize meaning of the term "Bulgars" once again: so Sumerians called association of soldiers from among the free inhabitants of Sumer.

Composition of warrior estate . It was formed of people who grew up and raised under open sky. They were tolerant of the heat, muscled in shoulders, with strong arms. Cattlemen satified all these requirements. The pastures framed both sides the narrow strip of the Mesopotamian plains with cities and farming settlements. The main force of Sumer armies was cavalry. Bulgars (lord-soldier) held as their ancestor a legendary peregrine soldier Hishdek. A military leader, a commander of Bulgars, initially was called "lugal" (lu-gal), later "sardar". Their pedigree the military leaders (lugals, sardars) run from the leader of Samarians-Sindians Mar and daughter of the leader of Imenians from clan Dulo by the name Seberchi.

It is important to emphasize that Bulgars as an estate of soldiers served not for the individual city governors - Vali, but only for the Ulug Vali, i.e. to kings (Batam) (5; 310). In other words, the Sumer army was a standing military force of the Supreme ruler of the Sumer state. This status caused that during a long time no struggle for domination had occurred between separate city-states. The struggle for hegemony began after the flood, when the center of the Sumerian military-political union, the city At-Alan, remained flooded.

Thus, the first and prevailing estate of the Sumer society consisted of soldiers and carried the name Bulgars. Bulgars were not only a military unit, but also a prevailing structural element of the Sumer society. The soldiers were bonded not by familial connections, but professional class ties.

Second estate of free people. This category of free people was composed of priests. Clergy took an important place in the Sumer society. The main features of the Sumerian religious concept via a number of intermediate transmissions were subsequently borrowed by Itil Bulgars. Therefore we shall review them in detail.

The religious views of Sumerians were a synthesis of teachings of the ancient Sindians and Imenians. At the same time during centuries-old development the primitive concepts of the ancient Sindians and Imenians have changed. In their consciousness formed concepts of the second generation of gods. The most essential changes took place in the following directions.

To the new territories the Sindians brought ideas about a Supreme deity they called Dingir (accordingly Tangra, Tengre). The intermixture of Sindians with Imenians in new living conditions was accompanied by important changes in public consciousness of their descendants. From former ideas about numerous spirits rose separate, certain types of star and planetary gods. The concept in the most ancient religion about a supreme creating beginning at the outset of the universe received a new name Bal (Lord or God Lord). In the Sumerian the sky and the god were designated by the same word "dingir" (variants: an, bul). The name of the Supreme deity Babilonians designated with a word "Bel", and Poenicians with a word "Baal". Like Dingir (Tangra, Tengre), Bal was a god of the heaven. However, the Bal concept was more universal than the Dingir concept. If Dingir was a lord of human souls, a creator of thunder and lightning, Bal was a wider and more general concept about life-giving force of the heaven. This light life-giving force of the heaven was not associated exclusively with the sun (5; 271), but represented a light force of the cosmos as a whole. The name Bal as a general name of the Supreme deity meant lord or possessor. The most ancient symbol of Bal was a column from a shiny stone (5; 282-283). Such column was called bal-bal. A wooden column served as a symbol of Bal's wife (5; 283).

Bal was a king in relation to star and planetary gods. Because the former cult of Alps was essentially replaced with a planetary cult. In other words, the former Alps (kind spirits) transformed into star and planetary gods. The Gods of the Sun and the Moon retained the names of the former spirits - Ur and Sin. Were added Gods of five planets: Adar (Saturn), Marduk (Jupiter), Nirgal (Mars), Istar or Ishtar (Venus) and Nabu (Merkury) (5; 240). As the lord of the universe, Bal dominated over star and planetary gods.

Thus, religious views of Sumerians were closely connected with cosmos. In the beliefs of Sumerians, the influence of the star and planetary world on the condition of the Earth and fate of people was deciding. Stars and planets in their beliefs acted as persons. Sumerians adhered to the thesis that "the destiny of a person is written in the star book". Thus they made an enormous step on the way of forming views based on a reason.

With emergence of writing and development of astrology came a cult of a god of wisdom. In sacrifice to him was given a wisest young man. First he was made mindless, forced to drink a large quantity wine. Then the young man was taken to an idol of the god of wisdom and addressed: "we came to you with a man who is clever like you and similar to your being, accept him favorably from us" (5; 266).

Thus, religious views of Sumerians were based on beliefs of Sinds and Imenians.

During first period after migration to Mesopotamia the Sindians and Imenians were installing symbols of their gods at elevated places. Subsequently the main places of of cult services were temples. In every Sumerian city was a special quarter where were located main temples. They were built in honor of the main deity Bal, and also in honor of gods of the Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury. They were pyramidal tower temples like the Egyptian pyramids. They were built of stones and shaped as pyramidal terraces. The most important temple in honor of Supreme deity Bal looked like a tower with terraces on eight floors. Such step tower was called zikkurat. The seven lower floors of the zikkurat were devoted to the seven star and planetary gods, i.e. Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury. On the top platform was a sanctuary of a king of star and planetary gods Bal (5; 264). There was his lounge. In it spent the night a woman whom the priests chose as Bal's wife. In addition to the bed, on the top platform was a golden table. This tower with stone symbols was built in honor of Bal as a universal supreme deity. Next to this eight-story tower was usually built a special temple in honor of Bal already as a local god. In it was his huge golden sculpture. Temples were also built for other, lower deities. The walls of the temples were decorated with images of various monsters (5; 264).

That part of city where similar temples were located was called Esegel, i.e. "Divine city" (or "Temple city"). The word "esegel" consist of two parts: "es (or as)" - "god", and "gel" - "city". The Sumer priests serving in these temples were also called Esegels.

A multitude of priests, priestesses and lower attendants worked at the temples. The priests wore a special high cone cap. Each of the main gods had their priests to perform sacrifices. The Supreme priest of Bal temple had a title en (2; 63).

In addition to numerous upper gods, Sumerians worshipped a multitude of lower gods. The priests serving the temples of lower rank gods than the main gods were called bolyars or boyars. Bolyars is a general name for cult attendants serving in the temples of lower rank gods. In honor of minor gods were built relatively smaller temples.

Third estate of free people. These were farmers and cattlemen. This estate, despite of their free status, did not play any appreciable role in the political life of Sumer society. Dominating position was occupied by military and priestly nobility.

Burial ceremony among Sumerians. When Vali or Ulug Vali died, Sumerians constructed a seven-story tower-tomb. Why seven-story? In the views of Sumerians, the heaven consisted of eight spheres. Within the eighth sphere lived Tengre, the lord of human souls, creator of lightning and thunder. For the soul of a rithteous governor after his terrestrial death to reach Tengre faster, the body of the dead man was placed on the seventh floor of the tomb tower. Each stone platform on each of the seven floors symbolized one of seven heavenly bodies: five planets (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury), and Moon and Sun.

In the described way was first buried the founder of the dynasty of Sumerian rulers Mar. Subsequently, such tomb towers began to be called "May-yuly" ("Road of righteous Mar to the sky") (6; 309-310).

In addition, Sumerians built special prayer towers. Such towers they called "Djok Yorty" - "Prayer house".

Simple people buried their dead in mountain caves. When Bulgars (soldier estate of Sumer society) began living in the steppes, they started to dig funeral caves in the tombs. In archeological literature such burials are known as catacombs. If on a mountain where were dug funeral caves was built  a prayer tower, it was called Djuketau.

The burial practice described above the Sumerians adopted from one of their historical ancestors, Sindians. The Imenians  in ancient times used to burn bodies of their diseased relatives.

3. SPECIFICS OF SUMERIAN CULTURE AND LANGUAGE

Sumerians not only pastured and protected cattle, built temples, cities, transformed S. Mesopotamian plains into earthly paradise, but they also engaged in crafts, science and culture. As noted Czech historian B.Groznyi (1940), Sumerians were "founders of the most ancient eastern civilization" (2; 35). Very early, in extreme ancient times, they learned to process metals. Sumerian word "urudu" (copper) entered many Indo-European languages (2; 44). It came to Russian in the form "ruda" = "ore". Sumerians were able to construct powerful defensive fortifications, make wheels and carts. They have domesticated bulls and horses (not quite - Translator's Note), and learned to harness them in carts. Sumerians raised barley, from it they brewed beer.

Sumerians gave mankind numbers and alphabet, thought up astronomy, medicine, and art of fortunetelling. They used sixty-based system of count, and decimal for grain measurement (2; 38). Sumerians subdivided time into three periods: Soss, Nir and Sar. Soss was 60 years. Nir comprised 10 sosses, i.e. it was 600 years. Sar comprised 60 sosses, i.e. it was 3,600 years.

Sumerians have created alphabet books and dictionaries. In the4th millennium BC they wrote with pictorial signs. At about 2400 BC they began to use cuneiform type of script. In such script the signs are similar to wedges assembled in groups, parallel to each other, obliquely, or crossed (4; 111).

Question of Sumerian language. The Czech historian B.Groznyi, a known expert on the history of Sumer, wrote about Sumerian language: " Sumerian language contains, on the one hand, some Altai and Türko-Tatar features (for example, agglutination and propensity to vowel harmony), and on the other hand - some Indo-European features (for example, in pronouns). It seems that Sumer language is a mix of Indo-European and Türko-Tatar elements in their still very primitive, rudimentary form" (2; 43).

Studying the ethnic history of Tatars, we shall return to this question, for now only note that Sind language languages of the Iranian group, and Imenian language developed into Manchurian languages (Tungusic language group - Translator's Note).

Hence, the language of Sinds was proto-Iranian, and the language of Imenians was proto-Manchurian. Interaction of proto-Manchurian and proto-Iranian languages resulted in formation of Sumerian language.

After the flood in the Euphrates and Tiger valley. subsequently named a "Flood", the number of Sumerians in Mesopotamia sharply decreased. Akkadian Semites became a majority of the population. Accordingly, their language became domonant in relation to Sumer. Even Ulug Vali and his court ceased to use the native Sumerian language. Only Bulgars-soldiers continued to speak it. The great bulk of the population began to speak in Akkadian language. Akkadian language is an eastern branch of the Semitic language group. Akkad was a city in northern part of Mesopotamia.

Some conclusions

1. If the Sinds and Imenians in relation to the ancient Bulgarian ethnos were the most ancient ancestors, Sumerians who arose as a result of their mixture are a substrate ethnos.

2. Within the limits of this substrate ethnos originated the initial nucleus of the ancient Bulgarian ethnosystem. The initial form of existence of this nucleus was a dominant estate of soldiers in the Sumer society.

3. The concept "ethnosystem" in our further discourse will be a key term carrying function of a main scientific tool of learninge the formation process of the Bulgarian ethnos. The nucleus of this ethnosystem initially germinated as microetnosistem: to the soldiery estate were assembled people from ethnically different pastoral clans and tribes; and accordingly the Bulgars-soldiers were bonded not by the commonality of origin or language, but by similarity and qualities of professional soldiers.

4. The nucleus of the future ancient Bulgarian ethnosystem developed in the center of the most ancient civilization, in Mesopotamia. Bulgars-soldiers as dominating estate of the Sumer society were not only an object of influence of that culture, but also its co-creators.

Thus, one of the ethnic components of the modern Tatar nation has roots coming from the depths of the centuries.

5. Quotations from sources.

5.1. From " Hon kitaby" ("History of Huns") by said Kul Gali

... The Samara state was composed of city possessions surrounded by fields and pastures, and governors of these cities took turns to reign...

Free Samarians called themselves by a word "bal" or "bul", meaning "lord".

People of the soldiery estate, drafted from cattlemen, were called "Bulgar", which is "warrior lord" because "gar" meant "soldier" and "bogatyr" (bogatyr=strongman - Translator's Note).

Estate of dependent people was called "berdjul".

In addition the Samarians had an estate of faith servers, boyars, called "esegel". And "esegel" meant "Divine city" becauses "as" or "es" in Samarian meant "Almighty", and "gel" meant "city". This name had parts of the Samara cities with main temples, therefore the serving there boyars (clerics M.Z.) were called "esegel".

Source: Bahshi Iman. Djagafar tarihy. Vol.1. Collection of Bulgarian annals. Orenburg, 1993. p. 310.

5.2. From " Hon kitaby" ("History of Huns") by said Kul Gali

Already in Mar time the Bulgars defeated and subordinated Arabs, and subdued Great Rum. Then the southern part Great Rum was named "Bal-i stan" ("Lord's land") (never mind that "'Mar time" is supposedly 2 millennia older than "Great Rum" = Rome - Translator's Note).

... And the north if the Great Rum received a name Kimer or Kamyr-Batyr, a commander-in-chief of Bulgars. After retiring from the service he settled there with his people, and they began to be called Kimmerians...

Source: Bahshi Iman. Ibid, p. 310

5.3. From " Gazi-Baraj tarihy" ("Annals of Gazi-Baraj")

And inside of... Samar Mountain they made a cave where they laid diseased. And if a husband would die, his wife was immured alive in the cave with him. And if the wife who won combat over her husband at the wedding duel would die, together with her body her husband was immured alive in the cave.

Source: Bahshi Iman, Ibid, p. 12.

5.4. From the book "In the land of Aladdin descendants" by Djalal Ibragimov

In 1922 the English archeologist Leonard Woolly has found out a site of the city of Ur. As a result of excavation "scientists uncovered ancient city streets, rows of craft workshops, quarters of the townspeople, houses of noble inhabitants, palaces of governors, temples. City streets run from a gate in fortification wall to the center, where was a main sanctuary, a temple of the Moon god Nanna, with a wide squire for praying in front. The largest and most beautiful building was zikkurat, built as a step tower.

Practically all buildings and structures in the city, from simple dwelling of handicraftsmen to the palaces of nobles and temples, are made of a burnt brick which preserved till now. Much valuable data gave the archeological finds of royal tombs in Ur. Gold and silver jewelry, precious and semiprecious stones were found in one of the tombs, where remains of a woman were laying on a stretcher, in a dress embroidered with a golden beads, with a golden wreath of flowers and leaves of the beech. In total the burial place had remains of more than 60 people who accompanied the unknown woman on her last way. Remains of women are in purple dresses, the abundance of ornaments of precious metals and stones are amazing. Were found remains of soldiers, apparently the bodyguards, drivers, and servants. The remains were located around a silver table with dishes, golden cups, bowls, jugs and other utensils.

People poses are relaxed, apparently in those days was a custom according to which the servants voluntary accompanied the mistress into a next world. The remains do not have any traces of violence. Most likely, people had fallen into eternal dream after drinking a medicine with the wine" (reverse translation from Russian translation - Translator's Note).

Djalal Ibragimov. In the land of Aladdin descendants.-.; 1988. p.92.

5.5. Additional information about Sumerians.

"More 5 thousand years ago on low banks of Mesopotamia  lived Sumerians. Later to the north from them in the Middle course of the rivers settled Akkadians. The  inhabitants of Mesopotamia achieved great successes in sciences, construction, arts and crafts. Builders and handicraftsmen used materials with which their land was rich, clay and reed. Of these simple materials Sumerians made dwellings, palaces for nobles, daily objects - furniture, utensils, jugs and casks for wine storage, figurines, children's toys and statues of gods. On the rivers sailed reed boats. Mixing clay with bitumen, the ancient architects from this hard like a stone material built granaries and erected temples.

A most widespread and easily accessible material, clay, served for creating the most ancient in the world "books". Hundreds of clay tablets reached us - first manuscripts distinguished by enviable durability and indestructible accuracy. Fired clay tablets with the writings on them were not affected by  heat, cold, fire, or dampness, or time. For more than 5 thousand years they lain surrounded by ruins of the ancient city Uruk, before they were found by archeologists. Sumerians wrote on tablets with triangular reed sticks, more precisely they "did not write", but stamped on raw, still not burnt clay initially the images of birds, people, animals, which in due course obtained a symbolical value and gradually turned into cuneiform writing. From such primitive images appeared writing, one of the greatest achievements of civilization. Scientists had to work hard to decipher texts of the tablets. But gradually the silent clay with mysterious signs started talking, telling about the life and affairs, daily life and customs, scientific achievements and wars of the people who disappeared long ago from the face of the earth.

According to various research, writing on the Earth exists for 4-5 millennia, for comparison can be said that people began to draw 17 thousand years ago, and to speak about 37 thousand years ago... (...17...37... maybe - Translator's Note)

Sumerian cuneiform writing was later borrowed by all peoples of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Iran, Transcaucasia (see I.Taylor "The Alphabet" - Translator's Note).

In those days also existed a brisk correspondence. And not only between rulers of separate states and cities, but also between their regular citizens. Frequently, they sealed the letters so that strangers could not read them. "But how and where to could a clay tablet be sealed? " - you could ask. The answer will be simple - in clay. First the message was written on a soft surface of a clay tablet, then it was dried under the sun and burnt in a furnace. After baking the "letter", it was ready to be  sent. Now was needed an "envelope". The surface of the tablet was covered again with clay, then the tablet was again burnt. Thus the clay "letter" was sealed in a clay "envelope". To open such message,  knock accurately with a hard object on clay "envelope". The top layer of clay would fell off, the "envelope" was opened.

Today, archeologists extracted from the ancient land of Mesopotamia thousands of clay tablets with cuneiform text, scientists deciphered hundreds of messages from the ancient world, but the works of decoding is still proceeding. So much material from the ancient tablets is now recovered, so many texts engraved on them were deciphered, that appeared a need for a Sumerian dictionary. An 18-volume dictionary of Sumer language was prepared by a professor of Philadelphia university Dr. Ake Sjoberg. The first volume of that unique edition includes historical notes, legends, medical prescriptions and letters.

The mankind is indebted to Sumerians for many other inventions. For example, a wheel that initiated a quantum leap in many branches of economy, and allowed to transport more freight than using saddlebags...(transportation wheel is Sredny Stog.... for now. Sumer is potter's wheel - Translator's Note)

To the Sumerians belongs an invention of a sickle and a plough with a special tube for seeding, these devices with little changed are used until now. The ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia knew Pythagoras theorem which they called by another, Sumerian name... The priests in the temples... were able to extract square and cubic roots, used a map of the star sky. The knowledge accumulated by them in the field of astronomy subsequently became a property of the Mediterranian peoples and had a great influence on the development of astronomy of ancient Greeks".

Djalal Ibragimov. In the land of Aladdin descendants. .; 1988. pp. 93-95.
Ch. 2. Ancestors of the ancient Bulgars Contents Ch. 4. Initial period of the ancient Bulgars' ethnic history
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