Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans
Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Kipchaks In Europe
Gmyrya L. Caspian Huns
  Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Kurgan Culture in Scandinavia
  Snorri Sturluson (ca 1220)
Translated from fhe Old Norse fy George Webbe Dasent, B.A.Oxon
Stockholm Norstedt and Sons, 1842, London, William Pickering


http://archive.org/stream/proseoryoungere00snor/proseoryoungere00snor_djvu.txt (Text)
http://www.germanicmythology.com/index.html (Modern English)
https://archive.org/stream/proseoryoungere00sturgoog#page/n10/mode/2up (PDF Image/Text)
http://deriv.nls.uk/dcn6/8154/81547785.6.pdf (PDF Image/Text)

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Snorri Sturluson The Younger Edda, 1842
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Posting Introduction

The following Old Norse Prose Edda (Younger, Snorri's) and the Poetic Edda (Elder, Sæmundar) of Codex Regius MS were written down in Iceland in Icelandic language during 13th c., they contain material from earlier traditional sources of the Viking Age. The Eddas are main source of the Norse mythology. The Prose Edda is called so because it is a prose rendition of the Elder Edda, the pre-Christian poems quoted in the the Snorri compilation. The Prose Edda was created ca 1220 as an Icelandic poetry manual, to teach Icelandic poets and readers the subject of alliterative verse, used in the Elder Edda poems and many Germanic literary compositions. It so happens that traditional Turkic verse is also alliterative. It also happens that the Scythian poem recited by Herodotus (Herodotus, IV, 131) also reads in Türkic in alliterative meter, with use of forms derived from the name Kolaksai, and prime rhyming of initial stressed consonant (Zaur Gasanov, 2002, Scythian Poetry//Royal Scythians, Liberty publishing House, NY, ISBN 0-914481-61-4):

Qali, Qali, qarğa qahqa qal ı masanız   How, how as a crow to the sky you wouldn't not fly,
Qali, qaraqu qarima küliməsəniz,   How, as a mice into the ground you wouldn't hide,
Qali, qurbağa çülimənə qalimasaniz,   How, as a frog into a bog you wouldn't jump,
Qalti, çuramlarla qartlanmiş qarşibolmassiniz.   How then, you'd turn back, by these arrows striken

As is known, the poetry presentation did its job, Darius took the matters seriously and went on an inglorious retreat.

The Prose Edda, in addition to its Türkic poetic form in Germanic expression, provides numerous other parallels with the Türkic mythology, etiology, and ethnology. Among them is a notable eminence of the female role, personified by the female Sun; the role of the Alps called Gods (Tr. Quts “spirits”) and Giants (Giant is a lit. qalque of Tr. Alp) in the Prose Edda, which in the Judaism, Christology, and Islam are called “angels”; the spirits are interchangeably called Gods and Giants in the Prose Edda, they populate every object surrounding earthly people, tangible and intangible alike; the preeminence of Thor, the Tengri of Tengiism and Tian in Chinese; the miraculous transforming capabilities innate to the Alps called Gods and the angels alike, ever present in the Türkic dastans; the role of the supreme God Thor in the creation story, and a slew of other parallels. The Türkic dastan legends are not really religious, they are folklore stories associated with culture, institutions or persons. They entertain, not indoctrinate. Accordingly, the popular interpretations of the legends as a religious pantheon are totally erroneous, they reflect the mindset of the interpreters, not the contents of the legends. An episodic refernce to the Thor Tengri makes them no more religious than a reference to Almighty in a brothers Grimm story or Shakespeare poetry. They are stories recited at the fireplace or at the campfire when the supper is over, and the kids were sent to bed. Their Icelandic texts keep using some substrate Türkic vocabulary.

Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue. Posting notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown in (blue italics) in parentheses and in blue boxes, or highlighted by blue headers. A few curious morsels, parallels, and expressions, usually skipped over or misinterpreted, are highlighted. The English spelling may need verification against the original. A number of dedicated sites provide a smoother translation with expanatory notes for unclear terms, for example http://www.germanicmythology.com/index.html (texts in Modern English).

Snorri Sturluson (ca 1220)
Snorri Sturluson (ca 1220)







Page Line   Read
5 lines 15, 16 for the the the


last line




line 14















takes he upper

takes he the upper




Plutus hell

It should also be observed, for the sake of those readers who are not familiar with the aid Þþ and Đð that these signs answer respectively to the hard and soft th in English.




The short work now for the first time, it is believed, laid before the English reader, forms in the original the first part of a collection published by Prof. Rask at Stockholm in 1818, under the following title. “Snorra-Edda asamt Skaldu og Þarmed fylgjandi Rit-gjörðum”. “Snorri’s Edda together with the Skalda and the Treatises thereto belonging”. It was the opinion of that great Philologist that this collection grew together in the family of Snorri Sturluson, the work of several hands at different times; and the Translator has not scrupled to separate writings, which have scarcely any other connection than the fact of their being found following one another in the same MS. At some other time he looks forward to stating his convictions on this matter, and his reasons for them, at greater length; but for the present he must content himself with saying, that his opinion is in the main the same as that mentioned above as expressed by Prof. Rask.

Without entering into any discussion on the present occasion, as to the time at which the younger Edda was written, or as to its author; The Translator wishes to say that he

has felt no hesitation in placing the “Foreword to the Edda”, along with the “Afterwords to Gylfi’s Mocking and the Edda”, at the end of the volume, partly because they are plainly of a later age, but chiefly because he is desirous to save the reader from felling at the very threshold, into those false conceptions concerning the nature of the Asa in the old Norse Mythology, with which the Foreword in question is filled.

He has also taken the liberty of printing separately and under a different title, the chapter which in the original stands as the first in “Gylfi’s Mocking”, because however interesting, it has clearly nothing in common with what follows, and is doubtless, the interpolation of some early copyist, who thought himself bound to write down at the same time all he knew about Gylfi, and could find no better place for this myth than to set it first: it is remarkable that in the Upsala MS., said by some to be the oldest extant, this chapter is omitted.

With regard to the Translation itself, his chief wish was to make it as faithful as possible, and though he knows that it might have been smoother throughout, and that it contains

much that will seem harsh and abrupt, both in wording aud construction, to the polished ears of the 19th century, he could not help himself in these respects, his aim being to make a translation, not a paraphrase. In one passage only he has been forced to soften words, which the simple Norse tongue spoke out boldly without shame, but which our age, less inwardly pure perhaps, but more outwardly sensitive to what is unseemly, cannot hear without a blush.

After all the pains he has bestowed on his translation, he is well aware that faults are to be found in it, and that his renderings of doubtful passages, may not tally with those of others; but in the gloom which still hangs over many customs of the Old Norsemen, and above all in the want of a good Glossary of their tongue, (for the: collection of Björn Haldorson is poor and meagre in the extreme) he trusts that his failings will be treated with mildness, since all may stumble in the dark.

It was his intention to prefix a facsimile from a celebrated MS, of the Edda, preserved in the Library of the University of Upsala,

*) May the Old Norse Glossary on which Mr. Cleasby is said to be at work soon appear.

and up to the very last moment he hoped that this be possible; but hindrances, to be looked for rather in the Vatican than at Upsala, have rendered this intention and hope alike fruitless.

Lastly there is yet one point on which a few words must be said: most readers, it is likely, will think a work of the kind incomplete, nay useless, without a good Index of Proper Names and their meanings; to this objection the Translator is willing to allow very considerable weight, but as his excuse he would state that considerable progress had been made in such an Index, when circumstances arose, which would have made it, if printed, a hurried production, and rather than do the thing ill he gave it up for the present. It is however his purpose to translate the Skalda at some future time, should leisure and health be granted him, and he hopes then to atone for the imperfections of this volume, by an Index which will serve for both works, as there are comparatively speaking few Names to be met with in the one, which do not also occur in the other.

Ulfsunda near Stockholm, July 20th, 1842


Als producte der vernunft (aber nicht der denkenden) enthalten die religionen der volker, so auch die my thologien , sie mogen noch so einfach, ja lappisch erscheinen, wie achte kunstwerke, allerdings gedanken, allgemeine bestimmungen , das wahre, denn der instinct der vernunftigheit liegt ihnen zu grunde.

Hegel Gesch. der Philosoph. p. 98.

De sällsamma bilder, som möta oss i deana vara förföders lära, skola redan i sig sjelfva vara bevis nog, att vi här inträda i en för oss och all nyare odling främmande, längesedan försvunnen den menskliga tankans verld, hvars hieroglyfer äro lika undransvärda, som ofla svara att tyda.

Geijer. Svea Rikes Häfder. p. 311.


Gefiun’s Ploughing 1
Gylfi’s Mocking 86
Bragi's Telling 96
Foreword to the Edda 98
Afterword to Gylfi’s Mocking 112
Afterword to the Edda 113


King Gylfi ruled in that land which now hight SviÞiod, of him it is said that he gave a wayfaring woman, as the need of the passtime she made him. a ploughland in his realm, which four oxen could ear (Tr. or plow) up in a day and a night. But that woman was one of the Asa stock, she is named Gefiun, she took four oxen from the north out of Jotunheim; but they were the sons of a Giant and her, and set them before a plough. But the plough went so hard and deep that it tore up the land, and the oxen drew that land out to sea and westward, and stood still in a certain sound. There set Gefiun the land, and gave it a name and called it Saelund. And the room whence the land had gone up became afterward water, which is now called The Water (lavgrinn) in Svifiod; and the bays in the lake lie just as the headlands in Saslund. So saith bard Bragi the old.

Gefiun drew from Gylfi Four heads and eight
glad in deep-stored goods, brow-moons bore the oxen,
so that from the race-reek as they went with the wide
it steamed, Denmark s swelling; reft field of the dear isle.”


King Gylfi was a matı wise and skilled in spells, be wondered much that the Asafolk was so cunning that all things went after their will, (and) he thought to himself whether that might he from their own nature, or because of the mighty Gods whom they worshipped. He began his journey to Asgard and went stealthily, and took on him an old roan’s likeness, and hid himself so. But the Asa were wiser than be in that they had spaedom, and they saw his journey before he came, and made ready against him false shows. Now when he was come into the burg then saw he there a hall so high that he was scarce able to see over it, it’s roof was laid with gilded shields as it were with shingles. So saith Þiodolf of Hvina that Valhall (heaven) was thatcht with shields.

“Warriors care-vext Let on the back glisten
(smitten with stones were they) Svafnir's roof-tree.”

Gylfi saw a man in the hall-door who played with small-swords, and had seven aloft at once, that (man) asked him first for his name, he called   

himself Gangleri, and (said he was) come from a far journey and prayed to seek a nights’ lodging; and asked who owned the hall. He answers that was their King, “But I may lead Ithee to see him, and  tWen shallt thou thyself ask him his name:” and the im»n turned before him into the hall, but be went aftei, and straitway the door shut to at his heels. There saw he many rooms and much folk, some a-playing, some a-drinking, some with weapons a-fighting: then he turned him about and thought many things ' past belief that be saw, then quoth he

“Every gate for hard ’tis to tell
ere one goes on where foes are sitting
about should be scanned, i' th' house before thee.”

He saw three highseats one above the other, ' and three rtien sat, one in each, then asked he what the oames bf those Lords might be. He that led bin» in answers, that he who sat in the nethermost higbstat *as a King and hight Har, but next sat one hight Jafnhar, and uppermost he that hight Þriði (Thrithi), Then Har asks the comer what more his errand is, and says meat and drink are free to him as to all there in Hava-hall. He says he will first spy out if there be any wise man there within. Har says, that he comes not whole out unless he be wiser,

“and stand thou forth
since thou askest
he that, sayeth shall sit”.

  3. Gangleri began his speech thus; Who is first or eldest of all Gods? Har says. He hight Allfadir (everyone's father) in our tongue, but in the old Asgard (As land) he had twelve names; the first is Allfadir (Tr. al babai/papai ~ all father), the second is Herran or Herian (Tr. er man + -an abstract affix ~ humanity), the third is Nikarr (Spear-Lord) or Hnikarr, the fourth is Nikuz (Striker) or Hnikuðr; the fifth Fiölnir (Knower of Many Things), the sixth Oske (Fulfiller of Wishes), the seventh Omi (Far-Speaking), the eighth Bifliþi (Shaker) orBiflindi, the ninth Sviðorr (Burner), the tenth Sviþrir (Destroyer), the eleventh Viðrir (Protector), the twelfth Jalg (Gelding, Tr. jabu, jaidak horse) or Jalkr. Then asks Gangieri; Where is that God? or what is his might? or what has he been pleased to work out? Har says. He lives from all ages, and rules over all his realm, and sways all things great and small. Then said Jafnhar. He smithied heaven and earth and the lift and all that belongs to them. Then said Þriði: What is most he made man, and gave him a soul that shall live and never perish, though the body rot to mould or burn to ashes; and all men that are right-minded shall live and be with himself in the place called Vingolf (Tr. ïn ~ hope, kök ~ heaven); but wicked men fare to Hell, and thence into Niflhel (nifl “mist”) that is beneath in the ninth world. Then said Gangleri; Where kept he ere Heaven and Earth were yet made? Then answers Har: Then was he with the HrimÞursar.

4. Gangleri said; What was the beginning? or how did it arise? or what was before? Har answers: As it is said in Völuspa.

“Twas the morning of time Earth was not found
when yet naught was, nor Heaven above
nor sand nor sea was there, a Yawning-gap there was,
nor cooling streams; but grass nowhere”.

Then spake Jafnbar: Many ages ere the earth was shapen was Niflheim (nifl “mist”) made; and in the midst of it lieth the spring hight Hvergelmir and thence fall those risers hight thus. Svavl, Gunnjra, Fiorro, Fimbul, þul, Sliðr and HriÞ, Sylgr and Ylgr, Við Leiptr, Giöll is nearest Helgate. Then spake frİSi: But first was that world in the southern sphere hight Muspell, it is so bright and hot that it burns and blazes, and may not be trodden by those who are outlandish and have no heritage »here. He is named Sartr who sits there on the border to guard the Land; he has a flaming sword, and at the end of the world will he fare forth and herry and overcome all the Gods, and burn all the world with fire; so it is said in Völuspa.

“Surtr fares south fro Rocks dash together,
with blazing brand, Giants totter,
from the sword of the sphere-God Men tread the -way to Hel;
shineth a sunbeam, but Heaven is cleft”.

5. Gangleri said; What was the shape of things ere the races were yet mingled, and the folk of men grew? Then said Har: Those rivers that are called Elivagar, when they were come so far from their springhead that the quick venom which flowed with them hardened, as dross that runs out of the fire, then became that ice; and when the ice stood still and ran not, then gathered over it that damp which arose from the venom and froze to rime; and the rime waxed, each (layer) over the other, all into Ginnunga-gap. Then spake Jafnhar: Ginnunga-gap which looked toward the north parts was filled with thick and heavy ice and rime, and everywhere within were fogs and gusts; but the south side of Ginnunga-gap was lightened by the sparks and gledes that flew out of Muspellheim. Then spake Þriði; As cold arose out of Niflheim and all things grim, so was that part that looked towards Muspell hot and bright; but Ginnunga-gap was as light as windless air; and when the blast of heat met the rime, so that it melted and dropped and quickened from those lifedrops, by the might of him who sends the heat there was shaped the likeness of a man, and he was named Ymir, but the HrimÞursar call him Avrgelmir; and thence are sprung the stock of the HrimÞursar, as is said in Völuspa the short.

“From Vidolfi But poisonseethers
are witches all, from Svart-havfda,
From Vilmeiþi Giants all
wards all, from Ymir come”.

But as to this thus says VafÞruÞnir the Giant when Gagnradr asked

“Whence came Avrgelmir,   From Elivagar
of the sons of the giant   sprang venom drops,
first, Thou wise Giant?   and waxed till a Giant was made.
  Thence are our kindred  
  Come all together,  
  Therefore are we so stout”.  

Then said Gangleri; How waxed the races together from him, or what was done so that more men came? or trowest thou him God whom thou now spakest of? Then answers Har: By no means may we believe him to be God; he was had and all his kind, them call we HrimÞrsar: and so it is said, when he slept he fell into a sweat; then waxed imder his left hand a man and a woman, and one of his feet gat a son with the other; and thence cometh that race, those are the HrimÞrsar; the old HrimÞurs him call we Ymir.

6. Then said Gangleri; Where abode Ymir? or on what lived he? The next thing when the rime dropped was that the cow hight Andhumla was made of it, but four milk-rivers ran out of her teats and she fed Ymir; then said Gangleri. On what did the cow feed? Har says; She licked rime-stones

which were salt, and the first day that she licked the stones, there came at even out of the stones a man's hair, the second day a man's head, the third day all the man was there; He is named Buri, he was fair of face, great and mighty; he gat a son hight Börr. He took (to him) the woman hight Besla, daughter of BolÞorn the Giant, and they had three sons, the first hight Odin (Tr. Adam man), the second Vili, the third Ve: and I trow this Odin and his brethren must be the steerers of heaven and earth, and we think that he must be so called, so hight the man whom we know to be greatest and lordliest; and well may they (men) give him this name.


7. Then said Gangleri. What atonement was there between them, or which were the stronger? Then answers Har; Bör’s sons slew Ymir the Giant; but when he fell there ran so much blood out of his wounds, that with that they drowned all the kind of the HrimÞrsar, save one who got away with his household; him the giants call Bergelmir, he went on board his boat, and (with him) his wife, and held him there; and of them are come the race of HrimÞrsar, as is here said.

“Winters past counting that first I remember,
ere earth was yet shaped out, how the Giant so crafty
then was Bergelmir born; was stowed in the skiff safe”.

8. Then answers Gangleri; What was done then by Bör’s sons, if thou trowest that they be Gods? Har says; Thereof is not little to say. They took Ymir and bore (him) into the midst of Ginntraga-gap, and made of him the earth: of his blood seas and waters, of his flesh earth was made; but of his bones the rocks; stones and pebbles made they of his teeth and jaws and of the bones that were broken. Then said Jafnhar. Of that blood which ran out of the wounds and flowed free, they made the (great) sea, and apon set the earth fast and laid that sea round about it in a ring without; and it must seem to most men beyond their strength to come over it. Then said Þriði: They took also his skull and made thereof heaven and set it up over the earth with four sides, and under each corner they set dwarves: they hight thus Austri, Vestri, NorÞri, SuÞri. Then took they the sparks and gledes that went loose and had been cast out of Muspelheim, and set (them) in heaven, both above and below, to give light to heaven and earth; (and) they gave resting-places to all fires and set some in Heaven; some fared free under heaven and they gave them a place aud shaped their goings: So it is said in old songs, that from that time were days and years marked out; as is said in Völuspa.

“Sun that wist not what power he had,
where she her hall had, stars that wist not
Moon that wist not  where an abode they had”.

So was it ere this shape of earth was. Then said Gangleri; Great tidings are these I now hear, a wondrous mickle smithying is that, and deftly done. How was the earth fashioned? Then answers Har: It is round without and there beyond round about it, lieth the deep sea; and on that sea-strand gave they land for an abode to the kind of Giants, but within on the earth made they a burg round the world, against restless giants, and for this burg reared they the brows of Ymir the giant, and called the burg Midgard: they took also his brain and cast (it) aloft, and made thereof the clouds as is here said.

“Of Ymirs flesh “But of his brows
was earth y-shapen made the blithe powers
but of his sweat seas; Midgard for mens sons;
rocks of his bones, But of his brain
trees of his hair, were bard of mood
but of his skull heaven the clonds all y-shapen.”

9. Then said Ganglerî; Methought they had then brought much about, when Heaven and earth were made, and Sun and moon were set, and days marked out; but whence came the men that dwell in the world? Then answers Har: As Bör’s sons

went along the sea-strand they found two stocks, (and) shaped out of them. men. The first gave soul and life, the second wit and will to move, the third face, speech, hearing, and eyesight; (they) gave them clothing and names; the man hight Ask, but the woman Embla (Tr. ebi-/ebe- “engender, birth-giving (woman)”,  emi-/eme- with m/b dialectal variation > eponymic  Iþunn, Eve); and thence was the kind of man begotten, to whom an abode was given under Midgard. Then next they, (Bör’s sons) made them a burg in the midst of the world, that is called Asgard: [that call we Troy] there abode the Gods and their kind, and wrought thence many tidings and feats both on earth and in the sky. There is one place hight HliÞskialf, and when Odin sat there in his higbseat, then saw he over the whole world and each man's behaviour, and knew all things that he saw. His wife hight Frigg Fiörgvin’s daughter, and from their offspring is the kindred (Tr. hun/hün kin) come that we call the Asa stock, who dwelt in Asgard the old and the realms which lie about it; and all that stock are known to be Gods. And for this may he hight Allfadir, that he is father of all the Gods and men, and of all that was wrought out by him and by strength; Earth was his daughter and wife, and of her got he the first son, and that was. AsaÞorr: him followed strength and sturdiness, thereby quelieth he all things quick.

10. Nörvi or Narfı hight a giant who abode in Jötanhelm, he had a daughter hight Nott (Night), she was swart and dark like the stock she belonged to; she was given to the man hight Naglfari, their son hight Auðr, next was she given to him hight Annar, Jörð hight their daughter; last Dellingr had her, he was of the Asa-stock, their son was Dagr (Day), light and fair was he after his father. Then took Allfadur Nott and Dagr her son, and gave them two horses and two cars, and set them up in heaven that they should drive round the earth each in twelve hours by turns: Nott rides first on the horse that is called Hrimfaxi, and every morn be bedews the earth with the foam from his bit. The horse that Dagr has hight Skinfaxi, and all the sky and earth glistens from his mane.

11. Then said Gangleri; How steereth he the going of the Sun and Moon? Har says. The man who is named Mundilföri had two children, they were so fair and free that he called one of them (the son) Mani (Moon), but his daughter Sol (Sun), and gave her to the man hight Glenr: but the Gods were wrath at his pride, and took that kindred and set (them) up in Heaven; (and) let Sol drive the horses that drew the car of the Sun, which the Gods had made to give light to the world out

of those sparks that flew out from Muspelheim, those horses hight thus Arvakr, and Alaviðir: and under the withers of the horses the Gods set two wind-bags to cool them; but in some songs that is called isarncol (iron, and ice cooling), Mani steers the going of the moon, and sways his rise and wane; he took two children from earth hight thus, Bil and Hjuki, and they went from the spring hight Byrgir, and bare on their shoulders the bucket that Sægr hight, and the pole Simul; Viðfinnr is named their father; these children follow Mani as may be seen from earth.

12. Then said Gangleri; Swift fares the Sun and near as if she were afraid, nor could she make more speed on her way an she dreaded her bane. Then answers Har; Not wonderful is it that she fares amain; near cometh he that seeketh her, and no way to escape hath she save to run before him. Then said Gangleri; Who is he that maketh her this toil? Har says: It is two wolves and he that fares after her hight Sköll; him she fears, and he must overtake her: but he that hight Hati Hroðvitnir's son bounds before her, and he wills to catch the moon, and so must it be. Then said Gangleri; What is the stock of these wolves? Har answers; A hag (Tr. karga/kharga/qarga etc., allusive for “old”, “old woman”) dwells eastward of Midgard in the

wood hight Jarnviðr, in that wood abide those witches hight Jarnviðiur, the old hag brought forth many giant sons, and all in wolfs likeness; and thence sprung these wolves; and so it is said, of that stock will arise one the mightiest, who is called Managarm; he will be filled with the lifeblood of ail those men that die; and he will swallow the moon, and stain with blood heaven and all the sky; thence loses the sun his sheen, and the winds are then wild, and roar hither and thither; as is said in Völuspa.

“Eastward sits the old (hag) He is filled with lifeblood
in the iron-wood of men a-dying,
and brings forth there He reddens the Gods seats
Fenrir's kindred; with ruddy gore;
there comes of them all swart is the sun-shine
one the greatest, of summers after,
the moon’s swallower, weather all fickle:
in a fiends shape; are ye wise yet or what?”

       13. Then said Gangleri; What is the path fom earth to heaven? Then answers Har and laughed at (the same time). Not wisely is it now asked, hath it not been told thee how the Gods made a bridge from earth to heaven, and called it Bifraust; that must thou have seen, it may be thou callest it rainbow. It is of three hues and very strong and

wrought with craft and canning more than other smithyings: but though it be to strong, yet must it break when the children of Muspell fare to ride over it, and swim their horses over great rivers, so come they on. Then said Gangleri; Methinks the Gods could not have built the bridge in earnest, if it shall be able to break, they who can make what they will. Then said Har: The Gods are not worthy of blame for this smithving; a good bridge is Bifraust, but no thing is there in this world that may trust in itself when the sons of Muspell come on to the fight.

14. Then said Gangleri; What did Allfadir after Asgard was made? Har said: In the beginning he set rulers, and bade them doom with him the weirds of man, and rede of the shape of the burg; that was in the place hight IÞavoilr in the midst of the burg. Their first work was to make a court which their seats stand in, twelve others beside the high seat that Allfadir hath; that bouse is the best made on earth and the biggest, it is all within and without as it were one gold, in the place men call Gladsheim. Another hall made they there, where the Goddesses had their Holyplace, and it was very fair; that house call men Vîngolf. The next thing they

did was to lay down a forge, asd for it they wrought hammer tongs and stithy, and by help of these all other tools; and next to that they smitined ore and stone and tree, and so plentifully that ore hight gold; that all tlbeir housestuff had they of it; and that age is called gold-age but it was afterward spoilt by the coming thither of the women that came out of Jötunheim. Then next sat the Gods upon their seats, and held a doom and bethought them how the Dwarves had quickened in the mould and beneath in the earth, like to maggots in flesh: the Dwarves had first been shaped and taken quickness in Ymir’s flesh, and were then maggots; but at the will of the Gods they became wise with the wit of men, and were in the likeness of men; allbeit they abide in earth and stones; Moðsognir was one dwarf, and Durinn another; so it is said in Völuspa.

“Then went the powers all There was Moðsognir
to their stools i' the rack, made the master
Gods right-holy, of Dvarves all,
and of that took heed, and Durinn another;
who should the kindred there like to men,
of dwarves shape out, not few were shapcn
from the briny blood dvarves in the earth
and limbs of the blue One, as Durinn said.”


(And these, says the Sibyl, are their names:)

“Nýi and Niþi,   Óri, Ónarr,
Norþri and Suþri,   Óinn, Movitnir,
Austri and Vestri,   Víggr and Gandálfr,
Alþiofr, Dvalinn;   Vindálfr, Þorinn,
Nár and Náinn,   Fíli, Kíli,
Nípingr, Dáinn,   Funðinn, Váli;
Bifurr, Báfurr,   Þrór, Þróinn,
Bavmbavrr, Nóri,   Þekkr, Litr, Vitr,
  Nýr, Nýráþr,  
  Rekkr, Ráðsviðr.”  

These also are Dwarves and abide in stones, but the first in mould:

  “Draupnir, DólgÞvari,  
Havrr, Hugstari,   Dúfr, Anvari,
Hleðijólfr, Glóinn;   Hepti, Fíli,
Dóri, Óri,   Hárr, Síarr.”

  And these proceed from Svarinshaugr to Aurvangar on Jöruplain, and thence is Lovarr come; these are their names:

But these come from Svarin’s cairn to Aurvanga on Joruvalla, and from them are the Lovarr sprung; those are their names

“Skirfir, Virfir, Eikinskialldi,
Skáfiðr, Ái, Falr, Frosti,
Alfr, Ingi, Fiþr, Ginnarr,”

15. Then said Gangleri; What is the head-sea or holieststead of the Gods? Har answers: That is at Yggdrasil's ash, there must the Gods

hold their doom every day. Then said Gangleri; What is there to say of that stead? Then says Jafuhar; The Ash is of all trees best and biggest, it’s boughs are spread over the whole world, and stand above heaven; three roots of the tree hold it up and stand wide apart; one is with the Asa; the second with the HrimÞursar, there where aforetime was Ginnunga-gap; the third standeth over Niflheim, and under that root is Hvergelmir, but Niðhavggr gnaws the root beneath. But under the root that trendeth to the HrimÞursar there is Mîmir's spring where knowledge and wit are yhidden; and he that hath the spring hight Mimir, he is full of wisdom, for that he drinks of the spring from the horn Giöll: thither came Allfadir and begged a drink of the spring, but he got it not before he laid his eye in pledge. So it is said in Völuspa

“Well know I Odinn mead drinks Mimir
where thou thine eye hast hid, every morning
’tis in the mere  from Valfadir’s pledge;
 Mimirspring; are ye wise yet or what?”

   The third root of the Ash standeth in heaven, and under that root is the spring that is right holy hight Urþr’s spring; there hold the Gods their

doom, every day ride the Asa up thither over Bifraust, which hight also Asbridge: the horses of the Asa hight thus; Sleipnir is best, him hath Odinn he has eight feet, the second is Glaðr, the third Gyllir, the fourth Gler, the fifth Skeiðbrimir, the sixth Silfrinntoppr, the seventh Sinir, the eighth Gils, the ninth Falhofnir, the tenth Gulltoppr, Lettfeti the eleventh; Balldrs horse was burnt with him; but for walks to the doom and wades those rivers hight thus.

“Kavrmt and Avrmt,   Every day;
and Kerlaug twain,   that he fares to doom
those shall Þorr wade   at Yggdrasil’s ash;
  For Asa-bridge  
  burns all afire,  
  the holy waters boil.”  

Then said Gangleri; Bums fire over Bifraust? Har answers: That thou seest red in the bow is burning fire; the Rimegiants and the Hillogres (HrimÞursar oc Bergrisar) might go up to heaven were a path on Bifraust free to all who would fare (thither). Many fair homesteads are there in heaven and for all there is a godlike ward set: there stands one fair hall under the Ash by the spring, and out of that hall come three maidens hight thus, UrÞr, VerÞandi, Skulld, these maids shape the lives of men, them call we Nornir; yet

are there beside Nornir who come to every man that is born to shape his life, and of these (some) are known to be godlike; but others are of the Elfrace, and a third kind of the dwarfstock; as is here said

“Born far asunder some of the Askin are,
methinks the Nornir are,  some of the Elfkin are,
they have not the same stock; some Dvalin'e daughters.”

Then said Gangleri; If the Nornir rule the weirds of men, then they deal them very unevenly, for some have a good life and a rich, but some little gifts or praise, some long life, othersome short. Har answers: Good Nornir and well akin shape good lives, but those men who are weighed down with mishap, against them had Nornir wield their might.

16. Then said Gangleri; What more wonders are there to be said of the Ash? Har says; Much is to be said thereof; an eagle sits in the boughs of the Ash, and he is wise in much; but between his eyne sits the hawk hight Veþrfavlnir; the squirrel hight Ratatöskr runs up and down along the Ash, and bears words of hate betwixt the eagle and Niðhavgg; (the dragon) and beside four harts run amid the branches of the Ash and bite the buds, they hight thus Daion, Dvalinn, Dunneir, DuraÞror;

bot so many worms are in Hvergelmir with Niðhavgg that no tongue may tell, as is hcre said,

“Yggdrasil’s ash The hart hites above,
heareth hardships but at the ride it rots,
more than men wit of. Niðhavgg scores it beneath.”

 and so again it is said.

“More worms are lying   Goinn and Moinn,
under Yggdrasil's ash   (They’re Grafvitnir's sons)
than every silly ape thinks of;   Gribakr and Grafiavlluðr.
  Ofnir and Svafnir,  
  methinks must for aye gnaw  
  the boughs of the tree.”  

Again it is said, that those Nornir who abide by Urþr’s spring draw every day water from the spring, and take the clay that lieth round the well, and spriokle them up over the ash for that its boughs should not wither or rot; but that water is so holy that all things which come into the spring become as white as the skin hight shale, (skiall) which lieth within and cleaveth to an eggshell· As is here said.

“An ash ken I besprent Thence come the dewdrops
hight Yggdrasil's, that fall in the dales,
high (stands) the holy tree, green for aye stands it oir
with white clay, Urþr’s welspring.”

 The dew that falls thence on the earth call men honey-fall and on it feed beeflys; fowl twain

are fed in UrÞr's spring they hight Swans and from those fowl have come the kind so hight.

17. Then said Gangleri; Mickle tidings cans’t thou to tell of heaven, what more headseats are there than (that) at Urþr’s spring? Har inswers: Many famous homesteads are there, one is that cailed Elfheim, there dwell the folk hight Lightelves, but the Darkelves abide beneath in earth, and they are unlike in look, but much more unlike in deeds; the Lightelves are fairer than the sun to look on, but the Darkelves swarthier than pitch. There is also the stead which is called Breifablik and none fairer is there. There is also that hight Glitnir, and it’s walls and pillars and posts are of red gold but it’s roof of silver. There is again the stead hight Himinbiörg, that stands on heaven’s edge at the bridge end where Bifraust toucheth heaven. There is beside a great stead hight Valaskialf, that stead hath Odinn, the Gods made it and thatched it with sheer silver, and there in that hall is Hliðskialf the highseat thus hight, and when Allfadir sitteth in that seat he seeth over the whole world. On the southern edge of heaven is the hall that is fairest of all and brighter than the sun Gimle hight, it shall stand when both heaven and earth have passed away, and good and

righteous men shall live in that stead through ages. So is it said in Völuspa.

“A hall stands I wis. There shall doughty
than the sun fairer, men abide,
than gold better, and through all days
 in Gimle aloft; bliss enjoy.”

      Then said Gangleri; What guards this stead when Surtr’s fire hums heaven end earth? Har says: So it is said that there is a second heaven southward up above this heaven, and that heaven hight Andlangr; but the third heaven is again above this» and hight Viðblainn, and in that heaven we think this stead is, but we deem that the Light-elves alone abide in it now,

18. Then said Gangleri; Whence comes the wind? He is so strong that he rears great seas and fans fires but strong though he be, yet may he not be seen, therefore is be wonderfully shapen. Then answers Har. That can I well tell thee; at the northern end of heaven sits a Giant Hræsvelgr hight, he has an eagle's feathers, but when he bouns him to flight, then arise the winds under his wings; here is it so said.

“Hræsvelgr hight from his pinions
he who sits at heaven's end they say the wind comes
a giant in eagle’s guise, all mankind over.”

19. Then said Gangleri; Why skills it so much that summer should be hot but winter cold? Har answers: Not thus would a wise man ask, for this all know to tell of, but if thou alone hast been so slowwitted as not to have heard it, then I will rather forgive, that thou shouldst once ask unwisely, than that thou shouldst go on longer a dolt in what thou oughtest to know. Svasuðr (Sweetsuðr)· hight he that is father of Summer, and he is of easy life so that from his warmth that which is mild is called sweet; but the father of winter has two names, Vindloni or Vindsvalr, he is VasaÞar’s son; and all that kindred were grim and of icy breath, and winter keeps their mood.

20. Then said Gangleri; Who are the Asa that men are bound to believe on? Then answers Har. Twelve are the godlike Asa. Then spake Jafnhar. Not less holy are the Asynia nor is their might less. Then spake ÞriÞi; Odinn is first and eldest of the Asa: he rules all things, and though the other Gods be mighty, yet they serve him all like as children a father. But Frigg is his wife, and she knows the weirds of men though she tells them not before; as it is here said that Odin’s self said to the As hight Loki.

“Mad art thou Loki Weirdes all
and reft of wit methinks Frigg knoweth
why stopp’st thou not Loki? though she telleth them never.”

Odinn hight Allfadir (Tr. alqu babai/papai) because he is the father of all Gods, he also hight Valfadır (Tr. vil possession + papai father), because his sons by choice are all those who fall in fight, for them makes he ready Valhall (Tr. vil possession ~ heaven) and Vingolf (Tr. ïn ~ hope, kök ~ heaven), and there hight they champions (Einheriar ~ first man). He also hight Hangaguð or Haptagoð, Farmaguð, and beside he has been named in many ways while he was coming to king GeirröÞar.

“I am called Grimr, Siðhavttr, Siðskeggr,
and Gangraðr, Sigfaðr, Hnikuðr,
Herian, Hialmberi, Allfavðr, Atriðr, (Farmatyr),
Þeckr, ÞriÞi, Oski, Omi,
Þuðrr, Uðr, Jafnhar, Biflindi,
Helhlindi, Hiri, Gavndler, Harbarðr,
Saðr, Svipall, Sviðrr, Sviðrir,
Sann-getall, Jalkr, Kialarr, ViÞurr,
Hertcitr, Hnikarr, Þror, Yggr, Þandr,
Bileygr, Baleygr, Vakr, Skilvingr,
Bavlverkr, Fiolnir, Vafuðr, Hroptatyr,
Grimnir, Glapsviðr, (Fiolsviðr). Gautr, Veratyr.”

    Then said Gangleri; Very many names have ye given him, and by my troth I wis that will be a mickle wise (man), who can here weigh and deem what chances happened to him for each of these names. Then answers Har: Much skill is needed rightly to find out that, but yet it is shortest

to toil thee, that most of these names have been given for the sake, that, as there are many branches .of tongues in the world, so all peoples thought it was needful to turn his name into their tongue, that they might call on him and ask boons of him for themselves; but some chances of these names befell him in his wayfarings, as is said in old tales, and never mayest thou be called a wise man if thou shallt not be able to tell of those great tidings.

21. Then said Gangleri; What are the nemes of the other Asa? What is their business or what have they brought about? Har answers: Þorr is the foremost of them, he is called AsaÞorr or ÖkuÞorr (Tr. Aga Tengri ~ Elder, Senior Tengri), he is the strongest of all Gods and men; he hath that realm hight Þruðvangr, but his hall hight Bilskirnir, in that hall are five hundred and forty floors, that is the greatest house which men have made. So is it said in Grimnismal (Sayings of Grímnir, Tr. mal(um) render, construe),

“Five hundred floors
and forty mo
are in bowed Bilakirnir I trow;
of those homes
that roofed I know
my ·son is most I wis.”

 Þor has two goats hight thus Tanngmostr (Tr. teka goat) and Tanngrisnir, and a car which he drives in, but

the goats draw the car, wherefore he is called ÖkuÞorr (Tr. okuz ox + God Tengri ~ Thor). He has also three things of great price, one of them is the hammer Miöllnir (Tr. maltu/baltu ax + nir) which the Rimegiants and Hallogres know when it is raised aloft, and that is no wonder, it has split many a skull of their fathers or friends: the second costly thing that he has is the best of strength belts (Tr. bel), and when he girds it about him then waxes his godstrength one half; but the third thing he has, in which ıs great worth, is his irongloves those he may not miss for his hammer’s haft: but none is so wise as to say all his great works, yet can I tell thee so many tidiflgs of him that hours might be whiled away ere all is said that I know.

22. Then said Gangleri; I wish to ask tidings of more Asa. Har says: The second son of Odinn is Balldr and of him it is good to say, be is the best and him all praise, he is so fair of face and so bright that it glistens from him, and there is a grass so white that it is likened to Balldr’s brow, that is of all grass the whitest, and thereafter mayst thou mark his fairness both in hair and body (Allusion to Kypchak blonds ~ Kuman, Saklab, Polovets, Plavsy, Hartesh, Flaven, all“pale”). He is wisest of the Asa and forest spoken and mildest; and that nature is in him that none may withstand his doom; he abideth in the place hight

Breiðablik, that is in heaven; in that stead may naught be that is unclean, as is here said.

“Breiðeklik high In that land
where Ballder hath where I wis there lieth
for himself reared a hall; least loathlines.”

23. The third As is the one called Njörðr, he dwelleth in heaven in the place called Noatun, he ruleth over the going of the wind and stilleth seas and fire; on him shall (men) call in seafaring and fishing: he is so rich and wealthy that be can give broad lands and goods to those who call on him for them. He was born and bred in Vanaheim, but the Vanir gave him as an hostage to the Gods, and took instead for an Asahostage him hight Hænir; and be it was that set the Gods and Vanir at one again. Njörðr has that woman to wife hight Skaði daughter of Þiazi the giant, Skaði will have the abode that her father erewhile had, it is on some fells in the parts called Þrymheimr; but Njörðr will be near the sea; they settled it at last in this wise, that they should be nine nights in Þrymheim and then three in Νoatun; now when Njörðr came back to Noatun from the fells, then sang he this,

“I was sick of the feils, The wolf's howl
I was not there long methought sounded ill
nights only nine; after the swan’s song.”


 Then sang Skaði this,

“Sleep can I never he waketh me,
in my bed on the strand as he comes from the sea,
for the seafowl's cry, every morn, the mew.”

Then fared Skaði up to the fells and abode in Þrymheim; and she goes much on snowshoon, and bears a bow and shoots beasts; she hight the snowshoe Goddess or Avndurdis. So it is said.

“Þrymheimr hight But now Skaði dwells in,
where Þiazi abode the snowshoe bride good,
 he that mightıest a Giant; her fathers old. hall.”

   24. Niörðr in Noatun begat afterward two children, a son hight Freyr and a daughter Freyia, they were fair of face and mighty: Freyr ıs most famous of the Asa, he rules over rain and sunshine and also the fruitfulness of the earth, and on him it is good to call for harvest and peace; and he also sways the wealth of men. But Freyia is most famous of the Asynia she has that bower in heaven hight Folkvangar (Tr. eŋäk/ yaŋaq > vangar ~ cheek), and whithersoever she rideth to the battle, then hath she one half of the slain (Asynia ~ Amazon Asess), but Odinn the other. As is here said

“Folkvangr hight (ninth) half the slain she chooseth
and there Freyia ruleth every day
choice of seats in the hall. and half Odin hath.”

Her hall is Sessrynmir it is great aud fair; but when she fares abroad she drives cats twain,

and sits in a car; she lends an easy ear to the prayers of men, and from her name is that title that rich women are called Freyior; she likes well loveditties and on her it is good for lovers to call.

25.    Then said Gangleri; Great methinks are these Asa in themselves, nor is it wonderful that mickle craft follows you, ye who are able to scan the Gods, and know whence to ask your boons but are there yet more Gods? Har answers. There is beside the As hight Tyr; he is the most daring and best of mood, and he swap much the victory in fight; on him it is good for wrestlers to call. There is a saw that he is tyrstrong who is before other man and never yields; he is also so wise that it is said, he is tyrlearned who is wise. This is one mark of his daring. when the Asa beguiled Fenris-wolf to lay about him the fetter Gleipnir he trusted them not, that they would looşe him, before they laid in his mouth Tyrs hand as a pledge; but when, the Asa would not loose him then bit he the hand off at the part now hight wolf's joint: and Tyr is onehanded and not called a peacemaker among men.

26.    Bragi hight one (As,) he is famous for wisdom and best in tongue-wît and cunning speech.

He knows most about song and from him it is that songcraft is named Bragr. And from his name the call those “braga” churl or wifie, who have wit in words before other men and women. His wife hight Iþunn (Tr. ebi-/ebe- “engender, birth-giving (woman)”,  emi-/eme- with m/b dialectal variation > eponymic  Iþunn, Eve); she keeps in a chest the apples that the Gods must bite when they grow old, and then become they all young again, and so must it be all until the twilight of the Gods (Ragnaravk). Then laid Gangleri. Much indeed methinks have the Gods under the care and troth of Iþunn. Then said Har and laughed. They lay near a great risk once. I may be able to tell thee thereof, but thou shallt first hear the names of more Asa.

27. Heimdaflr fright one, he is called the White As, he is great and holy, him their son bare maidens nine, and all sisters; He also hight HallinskiÞi and Gulintanni his teeth were of gold, his horse hight Gulltoppr; he abideth in the place hight Himinbiorg by Bifraust, he is warder of the Gods, and sitteth there at heaven’s end to keep the bridge against the Hillogres (Tr. oɣrï thief, robber); he needeth less deep than a bird, he seeth day and night alike an hundred miles from him, he heareth be it grass that groweth on earth, or wool on sheep and all things louder than these; he hath the horn hight Giöll (Tr. qal horn, kal wild, savage, mad),

and its blast is beard in all worlds; the head is called Heimdall’s sword; Thus is it here said

“Himinbiōrg  hight There the God’s warder drinks
there where Heimdall in mirthful halls
they say rules the house; gladsome the good mead.”

And again he says of himself in Heimdall’s song,

“child am I of maidens nine
son am I of sisters nine”.

28.    Havðr hight one As, he is blind; very strong is he, but the Gods would wish that this As might never need to be named, because his handy-work will long be had in mind both by Gods and men.

29.    ViÞarr hight one, the silent As; he hath a very thick shoe; he is next in strength to Þorr, on him the Gods have much trust in all straits.

30. Ali or Vali hight one, son of Odin and Rindar; he is daring in fight and a very happy shot.

31. Ullr hight one, son of Sif Þor’s stepson, he is so good a bowman, and so fast on his snowshoon, that none may strive with him; he is fair of face, and hath a warriors mien; on him it is good to call in single combat.

32. Forseti hight the son of Balldr and Nanna Nep’s daughter, he hath that hall in heaven hight Glitair, and all that come to him with knotty

lawsuits go all away set at one again, that is the best doomstead with Gods and men; so is it here said.

“Glitair hight a hall But Forseti abideth
with gold 'tis stayed, there for aye
and silver thatcht the same; and stilleth all suits.”

 33.    He is besides told with the Asa whom some call the backbiter of the Asa, and spokesman of evil redes, and shame of all Gods and men; he that is named Loki or Loptr, son of Farbauti the Giant, his mother is Laufey or Nal, his brethren are Byleistr and Helblindi: Loki is free and fair of face, ill in temper and very fickle of mood; he hath above all men that craft called sleight and cheateth in all things; full oft hath be brought the Asa into great straits and oft set them free by cunning redes. His wife hight Sygin, their son Nari or Narvi.n

34. Yet more children had Loki; AngrboÞa hight a witch in Jötunheim, with her gat Loki three children; the first was Fenriswolf, the second Jörniungandr, that is Miðgardsworm, the third is Hel. But when the Gods wist that this kindred was bring bred up in Jötunheim, and the Gods found ont by spaedom, that from this kindred much moan

and mishap must arise to them; and thought that from all of them much ill was to be looked for, first by the mother’s side and still worse by the father’s, then sent Allfadir some of the Gods thither to take the children and bring them to him: and when they came to him then cast he the worm into the deep sea that lieth about all lands; and the worm waxed so, that he lieth in the midst of the sea round all the earth and holdeth his tail with his teeth. Hel he cast into Niflheim, and gave her power over nine worlds, that she should share all those abodes among the men that are sent to her, and these are they who die of sickness or eld (Tr. ol-/ul- obsolete); she hath there great domains, and her yardwalls are of strange height and her grates huge; Eliuðnir hight her hall, hunger her dish, starving her knife, Ganglati her thrall Ganglöt her maid, (they can scarce creep for sloth) a beetling cliff is the threshold of her entry, care her bed, burning bale the hanging of her hall; she is half blue and half the hue of flesh, therefore is she easy to know, and (beside) very stern and grim.

The wolf the Asa bred up at home, and Tyr alone had the daring to go to him and give him meat; but when the Gods saw how much he waxed

each day, and all spells said he must be raised up to scathe them, then took the Asa this rede, they made a fetter very strong which they called LaeÞing; and bare it to the wolf, and bade him try his strength on the fetter; but it seemed to the wolf not above his strength so he let them do with him as they listed; the first time the wolf spurned against (it) the fetter broke, so was he loosed from LæÞing. Next made the Asa another fetter half as strong again, which they called Dromi, and bade the wolf prove this fetter, and told him he must be very famous for strength if such great smithswork might not hold him; Now the wolf thought this fetter was very strong, but at the same time that his strength had waxed since he broke LæÞing; and it came into his mind that he must run risks if he would be famous, so be let them lay the fetter on him; and when the Asa told him they were ready, then the wolf shook himself, spurned against and dashed the fetter on the earth, so that the broken bits flew far; thus freed he himself from Dromi, and it has been since held as a saw to say “loose out of LæÞing,” or “dash out of Dromi,” when any thing is passing hard. After that the Asa were afraid they should never get the wolf bound; then sent Allfadir

a youth who is named Skirnir, Freyr’s messenger, downwards into Swartelfheim to certain dwarves, and let there be wrought the fetter hight Gleipnir; it was made of six things, footfall of cat, beard of woman, root of stone, sinew of bear, breath of fish, and spittle of bird, and though thou knewest not these tidings aforetime, yet may’st thou speedily find a sure proof that lies are not told thee; thou must have seen that a woman has no beard; that there is no din when the cat leaps, nor any roots under stones, and by my troth I wis all that I have told thee is just as true, though there be some things that thou canst not prove. Then said Gangleri; This may I skill to be true at sight, these things can I see which thou hast taken for a proof; but how was the fetter smithied? Har answers; That can I well say, the fetter was smooth and soft as a silkenstring, and so trusty and strong as thou shallt now hear. When the fetter was brought to the Asa they thanked their messenger well for his pains; then fared they out to the water hight Amsvartner, to the island that is called Lyngvi, and called the wolf to go along with them showed him the silkenband and bade him break it, and quoth it was somewhat tougher than it might look to be for the sake of it’s thinness;

then they banded it one to the other and tryed its strength with their hands, and broke it not; “but, quoth they, the wolf must be able to snap it.” Then answers the wolf; “As for this thread it seems to me I can get no fame though I break asunder so limber a band, but an it be made with craft and guile, little though it look that band comes not on my feet.” Then said the Asa that he must he able to snap asunder in a trice a limp silkenband, he who had before burst great ironfetters. “But if thou’rt unable to break this band thou canst never be able to cause the Gods fear, and we will· loose thee straitway.” The wolf answers: “If ye bind me so that I cannot get loose, ye would behave so that it would be late ere I had to thank you for your help; loath (Tr. ötä- oath) am I to let this band be laid on me, but rather than ye should doubt my bravery, let some one of you lay his hand in my mouth for a pledge: that this is done without falsehood.” But each As looked at the other, and thought now there was a choice of two evils; nor would any throw away his hand, before Tyr put forth his right hand and lays it in the wolfs mouth. But when the wolf spurned the band grew more stiff and the harder he strained the tighter it got; then laughed all save Tyr, he lost his hand; when the Asa saw

that the wolf was fully bound, they took the chain hight Gelgia, which was fixed to the fetter, and drew it through a great rock hight Giöll, and fastened the rock deep down in the earth: then took they a mickle stone hight Þviti, and drove it still deeper into the earth, and used this stone for a holdfast. The wolf gaped amain and twisted him about much and wished to bite them; they thrust into his mouth a certain sword, the hilt stuck in his nether jaw but the point in his upper, that is his gag; he howls fiercely and slaver (Tr. salya) runs out of his mouth, that is the river hight Von: there lieth he till the twilight of the Gods. Then said Gangleri; Right ill children of his own had Loki; and yet all that kindred are strong and mighty; but why slew not the Asa the wolf when ill was to be looked for from him? Har answers. The Gods set such store on their holiness and that sacred place, that they would not stain them with the blood of the wolf, though their spaedom says he must become the bane of Odin.

35. Then said Gangleri; Which are the Asynia? Har answers: Frigg is first, she has the bower hight Fensalir, and it is right lordly. The second is Saga, she dwells at Saukqvabeck and that is a mickle homestead. The third is Eir she is the best leech.

The fourth is Gefiun, she is a maid and her handmaidens are all they who die maids. The fifth is Fulla, she is still a maid, and fares loosehaired with a goldband about her head, she bears Frigg's chest, and keeps her shoon, and knows her hidden redes. Freyia is ranked with Frigg, she is wedded to the man hight Oðr (Tr. öðür- select, choose); their daughter hight Hnoss, so fair is she, that from her name that which is fair and winsome is called Hnoss. Oðr has fared abroad a far way, but Freyia greets for him and her tears are red gold. Freyia hath many names and the reason of this is, that she gave herself many names as she fared through unknown peoples in seareh of Oðr: she hight Mardavll and Hörn, Gefn (and) Syr (Tr. sary, Norse sölr “dirty yellow”). Freyia hath the necklace Brisingr; she is called Vanadis. Seventh is Siöfn it liketh her much to turn the mood of men, woman aud man alike, to love; from her name a wooer is called Siafni. Eighth is Lofn, she is so mild and good to call on, that she gets leave from Allfadir or Frigg to bring men and women together, though that be forbidden or under a ban before; for this is “love” called after her name, and so also that which is much “loved” by men. Ninth is Vör or Var, she listeth to the oaths of men, and the troth that men and women plight between one another;

therefore those vows hight “varar,” and she takes vengeance on those who break them. Vör is wise and searching, so that no thing may escape her; it is a saw that a woman becomes “var” (ware) of what she becomes wise. Tenth is Syn, she keeps the door in the ball and locks (it) against those who should not go in; and in trials she is set over those suits, in which (any) man forswears (Tr. vara “piety, reverence (fear) of God”) himself; whence is the saw that “syn is set against it” when a man denies aught. Eleventh is Hlin she is set to watch over those men whom Frigg will forewarn against any peril; thence is the saw, that be “hleinir” who is forewarned. Twelfth is Snotra, she is wise and courtly, from her name men and women that are wise are called Snotr. Thirteenth (is) Gna, her sendeth Frigg into many worlds on her errands; she hath the horse that runneth through air and water hight Hofvarpnir; it felt once on a time as she drove, certain Vanir saw her car in the lift; then quoth one,

“What flyelh there,
what fareth there,
or is the lift glideth?”

She answers,

“I fly not, on Hofvarpoir,
through I fare whom Hamskerpir
and glide though the lift gat with Garþroþa.”

From Gna’s name it is said that what fares high (in air) “gnæfi.” Sol and Bil are told with the Asynia, but of their nature it has been said before.

36. There are beside, the others whose duty it is to serve in Valhall, bear drink and tend the hoardgear and alehorns; so are they named in Grimnismal.

“Hrist and Mist will I   Hilldr and Þruðr,
should bear me the horn,   Hlöck and Herfiotur,
Sleggiþld and Skargul,   Gavll and Geirshavð,
  Randgrið and Ridgrið,  
  and Reginleifj,  
  They hear the champions ale.”  

 These hight Valkyriur; them sendeth Odin to every fight, they choose those men that are fey, and sway the victory. Guðr and Rota, and the youngest Norna, hight Skulld, ride also to choose the slain and turn the battle, Jörd (earth, Tr. yer) Þorr's mother, and Rindr Vala’s mother are told with the Asynia.

37.    Gymir hight a man, and his wife Avrboða, she was of the Hillogres kin (Tr. hun/hün kin); their daughter is Gerðr, who is fairest of ail women. There was a day when Freyr had gpne into Hliðskialf and saw over all worlds; but as he looked toward the north

parts, then saw he in an hamlet a mickle and fair bouse, and to this house went a woman, and as she lifted her hand and opened the wicket before her, it glistened from her hands both in the sky and water, and all worlds were bright from her: and then his great pride, in that he had sat him in that holy seat, was so ywroken on him that he went away full of grief. Now when he came home, he spake not, neither slept he nor drank; and none dared to crave words of him: then let Niördr be called to him Skirnir, the yonth who waits on Freyr, and begged him to go to Freyr and pray him to speak, and ask him with whom he was so wrath that he spake not to men. But Skirnir quoth he would go, though he was loath; and said ill words were to be looked for from him. Now when he was come to Freyr, he asked why Freyr was so close and spake not with men. Then answers Freyr and said that he had seen a fair woman, and for her sake was he so woeful that he could not live longer if he might not have her: “and now shallt thou go and ask her hand for me, and have her home hither whether her father will or no, and I will well repay thee.” Then answers Skirnir, and says that he will fare forth on his errand, but Freyr shall give him his sword; that

is so good a sword that it wields itself in fight; and Freyr did not let this fell short, but gave him the sword. Then fared Skirnir and begged the woman for him, and got her word and nine nights after should she come to the isle hight Barey, and go then to the wedding with Freyr. Now when Skirnir told Freyr how he had sped, then quoth he

“Long is one night Often one month
 long are two nights seemed to me less,
how can I last out three; than this half night of love,”

This is the reason that Freyr was so weaponless when he fought with Beli, and slew him with a hart’s horn. Then said Gangleri; Great wonder it is that such a lord as Freyr is, would giveaway a sword so that he had not another as good every whit; a very great loss was that to him when he fought with him hight Beli, and by my troth I wis he must then have repented him of that gift. Then answers Har: Little matter was that when he and Beii met, Freyr could have slain him with his hand; (but) the time shall come when Freyr will think himself in a worse plight, as-he misses his sword, when the sons of Muspell fare forth to the fight.

38. Then said Gangleri; Thou sayest that all those men, that have fallen in light from the beginning of the world, ere now come to Odin in

Valhall; what has he to give them to eat? methinks there should be there a very great throng. Then answers Har: True it is what thou sayest, a very great throng is there, but many more shall yet come, (thither) and still will it be thought too little when the wolf cometh; but never is there so great a band of men in Valhall, that the flesh of the boar that hight Sæhrímnir is not left over and above to them; be is sodden every day and whole again at even, but this asking that thou now askest, methinks few would be so wise as to be able to tell thee the truth hereof: Andhrimnir hight the cook but Eldhrimnir the kettle; so is it here said.

“Andhrimnir serveth beest of flesh;
 in Eldhrimnir but that few wot of,
Sæhrímnir sodden, on what the champions feed.”

Then said Gangleri; Has Odinn the same food as the champions. Har answers: The meat that stands on his board he gives to two wolves, which he hath, hight so Geri (Raven, Tr. qarɣa) and Freki (Glutton, greedy, Tr. ħaris), and he needs no meat, wine is to him both meat and drink; as is here said.

“Geri and Freki, But with wine only,
sates the wartamer lordly in arms,
the famous Father of hosts. Odinn for aye lives.”

Ravens twain sit on his shoulders and say into his ear all tidings that they see or hear; they

are called thus: Huginn (Thought, Tr. saq-) and Muninn (Memory, Tr. ming). He sends them at day-break to fly about all the world, and they come back at undern-meal (undern-meal= midday meal, lunch); thus he is acquainted with many tidings. Therefore men call him Raven-God, as is said:

Huginn and Muninn hover each day
The wide earth over;
I fear for Huginn lest he fare not back,
Yet watch I more for Muninn.”

39. Then said Gangleri; What have the champions to drink which fills them as bountifully as their meat? Or is water there drunken? Then answers Har; Wondrousy now askest thou, as if Allfadir would bid to him kings and earls and other great men, and would give them water to drink; and by my troth I wis many of these come to Valhall who would think they bought their water drink dear, if there were not better fare to be had there at will; they who had before borne wounds and toil unto death; other tidings can I tell thee thereof, the shegoat hight Heiðrun stands up alove Valhall, and bites the buds off the branches of tree that is very famous hight Lerað; but out of her teats runs mead, so that she fills a stoop every day, which is so great that all the champions are full-drunken out of it. Then said Gangleri;

A mighty useful goat is she to them, (and) a right brave tree must that be that she bites off. Then said Har: Still worthier of mark is the hart EikÞyrni who stands over Valhall and bites off the boughs of this tree, but from his horns fall so many drops, that they come down into Hvergelmir, and thence fell the rivers so hight; Sið, Við, Sekinn, Ekinn, Svöl, GunnÞro, Fiörm, FimbulÞul, Gipul, Göpul, Gömul, Geirvimul; these run about the Asa abodes. These are also named; Þyn, Vin, Þöll, Böll, Grað, GunnÞraiun, Nyt, Navt, Navnn, Hrönn, Vina, Vegsvinn, Þioðnuma.

40. Then said Gangleri; These are wondrous tidings, which thou now sayest; a very great house must Valhall be, and a great throng must there often be before the door? Then answers Har; Why askest thou not how many doors there are in Valhall, or how great? If thou hearest that said, then mightest thou say that it ıs wonderful if he who will may not go out and in; but sooth to say it is not less roomy as to its shape inside, than as to its ingoing; of this mightest thou hear in Grimnismal.

“Five hnndred doors eight hundred champions
and forty mo go at ones through one door,
are there in Valhall I trow; when they fare forth to war with the wolf.”

41. Then said Gangleri; A mighty hand of men must there be in Valhall, (and) so by my troth I wis that Odinn is a very great Lord when he steers each a mickle host; but what is the pass-time of the champions, when they drink not? Har answers; Every ay when they have clothed them, they put on their arms, and go out into the yard and fight and fell each other; that is their play: and when it looks toward mealtime, then ride they home to Valhall and sit down to drink; so is it bere said

“Ail the chimp ion!, the slain they choose,
Odin's town within,  and ride from the fray;
are hewn at each day; then sit they in friendship together.”

    But that thou sayest is true, great is Odinn in himself; many proofs are found of this; so is it here said in the very words of the Asa.

“Yggdrasil's ash   Odia of Asa,
it is first of trees,   hot of steeds Sleipnir,
hot Skiðblaðnir of ships;   Bifraust of bridges;
  But Bragi of bards,  
  Habrok of hawks,  
  hut of hounds Garmr.”  

42. Then said Gangleri; Who hath that horse Sleipnir? or what is there to say of hım? Har answers: Thou bast no skill of Sleipnir, nor knowest thou by what chance he came; but it must

seem to thee worth to hear tell of. Once on a time when the town of the Gods was abuilding, when the Gods had set Miðgarð and made Valhall; there came a certain smith, and bid to make them a burg in three half-years so good that it should be true and safe against the Rimegiants and Hillogres, though they should come in by Miðgarð. But he asked for his hire, that he should have Freyia for his own, and (beside) he would have the Sun and Moon· Then went the Asa to talk, and took their rede; and the bargain was made with the smith that he should have what he asked, if he could get the burg done in one winter, but the first summerday if aught of the burg was undone, then his bargain should be off; (and beside) be should get help from no man toward the work. And when they told him these terms, then prayed he them to give him leave, that he might have help of his horse who Svaðilföri hight; and by Loki’s rede that was also granted to him. He set to work the first day of winter to make the burg, but by night he wont to draw stone for it with his horse; but it seemed a great wonder to the Asa how great stones that horse drew, and the borse did one half more of the toilsome work than the smith; but to their bargain there was strong


witness and much swearing (Tr. vara “piety, reverence (fear) of God”), for that it seemed not safe to the giant to be among the Asa truceless if Þorr came hom; but then he was faring eastward to fight Trolls. Now as the winter went by the burg-building was far on, and it was so high and strong that it could in no wise be taken; but when there were yet two or three days to summer (the work) was come almost to the burggate. Then sat the Gods on their doomstools and took rede, and asked each other, who had given the rede to give Freyia away in Jötunbeitn, or so spoil the lift and heaven, as to take thence Son and Moon, and give them to the giant; and all were of one voice that this rede he must have given, who giveth most ill redes, Loki Laufey’s son, and said he was worthy an ill death if he could not hit upon some rede, so that the smith might be off his bargain; and they were just about to lay hands on Loki. But as he became then afraid he sware an oath that be woold so bring things about, that the smith should lose his wages whatever it cost him. And. the same even when the smith drove out after stone with the horse Svaþilföri, there ran out of a wood a mare to the horse and neighed to him I but when the steed knew what kind of horse that was, then he grew mad and burst asunder

the rope, and ran to the mare, and she away to the wood; and the smith after them, and will catch his horse; but these horses ran all night, and the smith tarried there the night, and afterward at dawn so much was not smithied as had been wont before. And when the smith see that it will not be ended with the work, then falls he into the giant-mood. But when the Asa saw surely that it was a hillogre that had come in thither, they spared not for their oaths (Tr. ötä- oath), but called on Þorr; and quick as thought came he, (and) next of all lifted he hammer Miöllnir aloft, and so paid the smith’s hire, and not with the Sun and Moon; but forbade him even to dwell in Jötunhlim, and that was easily (done) by the first blow that broke his skull into small bits, and sent him beneath under Niflhel. But Loki had run such a race with Svaþilföri, that sometime after he bare a foal, it was gray and had eight feet, and that is the best horse with Gods and men; so is it said in Völuspa.

“Then went the powers all Gone were then oaths,
to their stools i' the rack, words and swearing,
Gods right-holy, all speech of might
and of that took rede, that past between them;
who had the lift all Þorr alone wrought this,
with guile blended, swollen with anger,
or to the giant kin seldom sits he still
Oðr's may given? when he hears the like talktof.’’

43. Then said Gangleri; What is (there) to say of Skiðblaðnir, that (you say) is best of ships? is there not a ship even as good as she or even as great? Har answers: Skiðblaðnir is best of ships, and made with most cunning, but Naglfar is the greatest ship, that is in Muspell. Some Dwarves sons of Ivaldi made Skiðblaðnir, and gave Freyr the ship; she is so great that all the Asa with their weapons and wargear may find room on board her, and as soon as the sail is set she has a fair wind whither she shall go; and when there is no need of faring on the sea in her, she is made of so many things and with so moch craft, that be (Freyr) may fold her together like a cloth and keep her in his bag.

44. Then said Gangleri; A good ship is Skiðblaðnir, but many cunning spells must have been had to her, ere she was so made. Has Þorr ever fared anywhither, so that he has found against him aught so strong or mighty, that it has been an overmatch for him either for the sake of strength or cunning spells? Then said Har: Few men I wis can tell of this, and yet it hath many a time fared hard with him; but though it hath been so that any thing hath been so strong or stark that Þorr has not gotten the mastery, there is no need to speak thereof; for that there are many proofs of

this, and for that all are bound to trow that Þorr is mightiest. Then said Gangleri; It looks to me as if I had askt yon of a thing that none (of you) is able to tell of. Then spake Jafnbar: We have heard say of some chances, which seem to us past belief that they should be true, but here must sit one near; who will know how to say sooth tidings hereof, and thou mayest not believe of him that be will lye now the first time who never lyed before. Then said Gangleri; Here will I stand and listen if any answer be given to these words; but otherwise I call on you to be overcome, if ye cannot tell me what I ask. Then spake Þriði: Easy is it to see that he will know these tidings, though it thinketh us not fair to speak of them, but it is thine to hold thy peace thereof. The beginning of this story is, that ÖkuÞorr fared forth with his hegoats and car, and with him the As who is called Loki; they came at even to an husband, and get there a night’s lodging, and when even was come Þorr took his hegoats and killed them both, and after that, they were flain and borne to the kettle; but when it (the fiesh) was sodden, then Þorr and his fellow sat them down to supper. Þorr bade to meat with him the husband and his wife and their children, the man's son hight Þialfi, but the daughter Ravsqra.

Then laid Þorr the goatskins away from the fire, and told the husband and his household they should should cast the bones into the goatskins. Þialfi the son of the husband took hold on the thigh of the goat, and struck it with bis knife and broke it for the marrow· Þorr tarried there the night, but at peep of dawn before day he arose and clothed him, took his hammer Miöllnir and lifted it, and hallowed the goatskins; then stood up the goats, and one of them was halt in one of it's hindfeet: that Þorr found (out), and said that the husband or some of his folk could not have dealt skillfully with the leg of the goat, (for) he knew the thigh was broken. It needeth not to say much, for all may know, how frightened the husband must have been when he saw that Þorr let his brows sink down over his eyes, but what be saw of the eyes, made him think he must fall down at the sight alone: He (Þorr) clutched the haft of his hammer with his bauds, so that the knuckles whitened; but the husband did what was to be looked for, so that all the household cried out amain, begged for peace and bade for an atonement all they bad. But when he saw their fear, then his wrath went from him and he was softened, and took from them for ransom their children Þialfi and Ravsqra, and they were

thus made Þorr’s bond-servants and they follow him always since.

45. He left after this his goats there, and went on his way eastward into Jötunheim and all to the sea, and then fared he on over that the deep sea; but when be came to land then went he up and with him, Loki and Þialfi and Ravsqva; when they had gone a little way, there was before them a great wood, and they went (through it) all day till dark, Þialfi was of all men fleetest of foot, be bare Þorr’s bag; but the wood was not a good place for food. When it was dark, they spied about them for a night’s lodging, and found before them a hall very great, the door was at one end, and as broad as the hall; there they looked them out a place to sleep in. But about midnight there was a great landquake, and the earth went from under them with a slip, and the bouse shook; then stood Þorr up and called on his fellows, and they spied about, and found an offhouse at the right band in the midst of the hall, and went thither. Þorr sat him in the doorway, but the others they were within away from him and were afeard; but Þorr held his hammer's haft and thought to guard him; then heard they a mighty groaning and roaring. But when the dawn came, then went Þorr

out, and saw where a man lay close to him in the wood, and he was not little; be slept and snored stoutly; then Þorr thought be had found out what noise it was they had heard overnight, be spanned round him his strengthbelt, and his Asmight waxed; but in the mean while the man woke (Tr. vak), and stood strait up, and then it is said Þorr forbore at once to smite him with the hammer, and asked him his name; but he (the man) called himself Skrymir. “But I need not, said he, to ask thee thy name, I know thou art AsaÞorr; but whither hast thou drawn away my glove?” Then Skrymir raught out his hand and took up his glove: (and) then sees Þorr that was what he had taken overnight for a hall, but the ofihouse, that was the thumb of the glove. Skrymir asked, if Þorr would have his fellowship, and Þorr said yea to this; then took Skrymir and loosed his wallet, and began to eat his breakfast, but Þorr in another place and his fellows. Skrymir then bade they should lay their store of meat together, and Þorr said yea; then bound Skrymir all their meat in one bag, and laid it on his back; he went before them all the day through, and took very great strides; but afterward at even Skrymir looked out for them a night's lodging under a great oak. Then said Skrymir to Þorr that he will lay

him down to sleep, “but take ye the wallet and make ready your supper.” Then next slumbered Skrymir and snored fast, but Þorr took the wallet and shall loose it; but so must it be said, though it may seem past belief, that he could get no knot loosed, nor stirred one end of the strings so that it was looser than before: and when he saw there was no thrift in this work, then became be wrath, grasped then Miöîlnir with two hands, and stepped with one foot forward thither where Skrymoir lay, and dashed it (the hammer) against his head; but Skrymir wakes and asks whether any leaf fell on his head, and whether they had supped, and were ready to sleep? Þorr answers, they were just going to sleep. They went then under another oak, and sooth to say there was no fearless sleeping. But at midnight when Þorr hears that Skrymir snores and sleeps fast, so that it thunders in the wood; then stands he up and goeth to him, clutches the hammer tight and hard, and dashes it down on the middle of his crown; he knows that the head of the hammer sank deep into his skull. But just then Skrymir wakes and said. “What is’t now, fell an acorn on my head? Or what’s the news with thee Þorr?” But Þorr went away hastily, and answers that he was just then newly awaked, (and)

said it was then midnight, and still time to sleep. Then Þorr made up his mind, if he should come to be able to strike him the third blow, that he should never see him more: he lies now and watches if Skrymir slept fast; but a little before day then hears he that Skrymir must have slumbered; then stands he up and runs to him, grasps the hammer with all his strength, and dashes it on the cheek that he saw upmost; then sinks the hammer up to the haft. But Skrymir sat up and stroked his cheek and said. “Be there any birds sitting in the tree over me? Methought as I woke some moss from the branches fell on my head: what, are you awake Þorr! It must be time to stand up and clothe ones’s self: but ye have not now a long way before you to the burg that is called Utgarð. I have heard yon whispering between yourselves, that I was not a little man in growth, but ye shall see there greater men if ye come into Utgarð. Now will I give you a wholesome rede, do not make too much of yourselves, not well would the thanes of Utgarð’s Loki brook the boasting of such mannikins; otherwise turn about, and that I wis were the best way ye could take; but an ye will fare forward, go strait on eastward, but I have now my path northward to those fells which ye may

now see.” Skrymir takes the wallet, and casts it on his back, and turns thwart away from them into the wood; and it is not said that the Asa prayed to fall οn him again in health.

46. Þorr fared forward on his way and his fellows (with him), and went on till mid day; then saw they a burg stand on some vales and set their necks on their backs behind them, ere they got to see up over (it). They go to the burg, and there was a grating before the gate and fast locked: Þorr went to the grating and could not get it unlocked, but as they strove to come into the burg, they crept at last through the bars, and so came in: then saw they a great hall and went thither; the door was open, then went they in, and saw much folk on two benches, and the most hugely great; next straitway come they before the king Utgarð’s Loki and hailed him, but he looked slowly on them, and smiled scornfully and showed his teeth, and said. “It is late to ask tidings of a long way, or if it be otherwise than I think, that this stripling thrall here is ÖkuÞorr? but thou may’st be taller than thou look’st to me; or what are the feats thou and thy fellows think yourselves skilled in? None shall be here with us who kens not some trick or cunning before the most of men.” Then says he that went

last, hight Loki. “I ken a feat which I am quite ready to prove; that there is no one here within, who shall eat his meat swifter than I.” Then said Utgarð’s Loki. “That is a feat (indeed) if thou keepest thy word, and it shall be tried forthwith.” (So he) called towards the farther end of the bench, that he hight Logi shall come forth on the floor and try his (strength) against Loki. Then was taken a trough and borne in on the hallfloor and filled with flesh: Loki sat him at one end but Logi at the other, and each of the twain eat as fast as he could, and they met in the midst of the trough; then had Loki eaten the flesh all off the bones, but Logi had both eaten all the flesh, and the bones and the trough beside: and now seemed it to all as if Loki had lost the game. Then asked Utgarð’s Loki; “What game that young man yonder could?” But Þialfi says he will try to run a race with anyone whom Utgarð’s Loki brought forward. Then Utgarð’s Loki says that is a good feat, and quoth besides, it were to be hoped he was very ready in swiftness if he would win this game; but he would take care this should soon be tried. Then stands up Utgarð’s Loki, and goes out, and there was good ground for running along the flat vale. Then called to him Utgarð’s Loki a serving-lad who is named Hugi

and bade him run a match with Þialfi. Then take they the first heat, and Hugi is so much ahead that he turns back to meet him at the goal: then said Utgarð’s Loki: “Thou needest Þialfi! to lay thee mere forward an thou willt win the game; but yet, sooth it is, there hath not methinks come hither a man swifter of foot than this.” Then take they again a second heat, and when Hugi is come to the goal and turns him about, there was a long apearthrow to Þialfi. Then said Utgarð’s Loki: “Well methibks has thy heat been run; though I trow not now that be wins the game; but now shall it be proved as they run the third heat.” Then take they yet one heat, but when Hugi is come to the goal and turns round, then Þialfi is not come to the midst of the course: then say all that this game has been enough tried. Then Utgarð’s Loki asks Þorr, what those feats may be which he would be willing to show before them, answering to the tales men had made of his great works. Then said Þorr that he will rather begin a drinking-bout with any man. Utgarð’s Loki says that may well be, and goeth into the hall and calls his cupbearer, bids him take the horn of harm that his thanes are wont to drink of. Then straitway comes forth the cupbearer with the horn and gives it into Þorr's hand, Then

said Utgarð’s Loki: “Of this horn it is thought well-drunken, if it goes off in one draught, though some men drink it off in two, but no one is so little a man in his drink that it goes not off in three.” Þorr looks at the horn, and it seems not mickle, though it be rather long, but he is much athirst: (so) he takes and drinks, and swills very much, and thinks it shall not need to bend oftener than once over the born; but when he was tired of the thing and set down the horn, and sees how it went with the drink, it seems to him hard to tell whether it were now any lower in the horn than before. Then said Utgarð’s Loki; “Tis well drunken and (yet) not much, I would not have believed, had it been told me, that AsaÞorr could not have drunk a greater draught; but I wis thou must wish to drain it off at the second drink.” Þorr answers naught, sets the horn to his mouth, and thinks now he shall drink a greater draught, and drinks deep as he was wont; and yet sees that the tip of the horn will not go up so much as he likes, and when he took the horn from his mouth, it seems to him now as if he had drank less than the first time, but the born could now be borne without spilling. Then said Utgarð’s Loki: “How now Þorr! thou must not spare thyself more in a drink than befits thy skill;

so it seems to me, if thou shallt now drink off the horn the third drink, thou must strive to make the most of all: but never willt thou be called among us here so great a man as the Asa say, if thou makest not more of thyself in other games than it seems to me will be (the case) in this.” Then was Þorr wrath, sets the horn to his mouth, and drinks amain the best be can, and held to the drink as long as might be; but when he saw into the horn, now at last some small change had come upon it; and then he gives up the horn, and will drink no more. Then said Utgarð’s Loki. “Easy to see is it now, that thy might is not so mickle as we thought; but willt thou try more games? It may be seen thou takest no gain away with you hence.” Þorr answers; “I will try more games yet, but it would seem wondrous to me when I was at home with the Asa, if such draughts were called so llttle; but what game willt thou now bid me?’’ Then answers Utgarð’s Loki: “That do young lads here, which is of little mark to think of, they lift up from the earth my cat; but I could not dare to talk of such a thing to AsaÞorr, if I had not first seen that thou art much less in thyself than I thought.” Then next, sprang forth on the hallfloor a gray cat and a very great one; but Þorr went up to him and took him beneath

under the middle ef the belly with his band, and would lift him up, but the cat bent his back just as Þorr raised his hands; but when Þorr had got them as high as ever he could, then the cat lifted up one foot, and Þorr did not carry this game farther. Then said Utgarð’s Loki: “So fared this game as I thought, the cat is very mickle, but Þorr is low and little by the great men that are here with us.” Then said Þorr: “So little as ye call me,.let any one of you now come hither and wrestle with me, now am I wrath.” “Then .answers Utgarð’s Loki, and looked about on the benches and said: “I see not the man here within, who would not think it a trifle to wrestle with thee;” and. again he said “Let me see first, call me hither the carlin my nurse Elli, and let Þorr wrestle with her if he will, she has felled men who have seemed to me not less strong than Þorr is.” Then next came into the hall an old carlin: then Utgarð’s Loki said that she shall take hold on AsaÞorr. The tale is not long: so fared the grapple that the harder Þorr tightened his hold the faster she stood; then began the carlin to bestir herself, and then became Þorr loose on his feet, and there were very hard tussels, and it was not long ere Þorr fell down on one knee. Then went up Utgarð’s Loki and bade them leave their

hold, and said that Þorr could not need to bid any men beside to try a hug in his hall, and it was then close on night. Utgarð’s Loki showed Þorr and his fellows to seats, and they tarried there the night through in good fare.

47. But in the morning so soon as it dawned stands Þorr up and his fellows; (they) clothe them and are ready to go away strait: then came thither Utgarð’s Loki, and let a board be set for them; there was no lack of good fare, meat and drink, but after they had eaten they betook them to their way. Utgarð’s Loki, leads them out, (and) goes with them away out of the burg; but at parting Utgarð’s Loki spoke to Þorr, and asks; “How he thinks his journey had turned out, and whether he had met any stronger man than himself?” Þorr answers that he will not say, that be has not fared very shamefully in this meeting; “but I know ye will call me a man of little worth, and I brook that ill.” Then said Utgarð's Loki: “Now shall I tell you the truth, since thou art come out of the burg, that if I live and may bare my way, then shallt thou never more come into it: and by my troth I wis thou hadst never come in, if I had known before thou hadst so much strength in thee, and that thou wouldst bave brought us so near to great mishap. But

I have made against thee mocking shows, so that the first time when I found thee in the wood, 1 came to meet yon; and when thou shouldst loose the wallet, then had I bound it with iron-thread, but thou foundest not where it was to be opened· Next of all thou gavest me with the hammer three blows, and the first was least, and yet was it so mickle that it must have ended me to my bane if it had fallen on me; but when thou sawest by my hall a rock fast set, and there above sawest it cloven into three dales and one the deepest, those were the dints of thy hammer: the rock I brought before the strokes, but that thou sawest not. So was it also with the games that ye played with my thanes! the first then was that which Loki made; he was very hungry and eat fast, but he hight Logi was wildfire, and he burned the trough not less soon than the flesh. And when Þialfi tried his race with him hight Hugi, that was my thought, and it was not to be weened by Þialfi that be could strive in swiftness with that. But when thou drankest of the horn, and it seemed to thee to sink slowly, by my troth I wis that was then a wonder which I never could have trowed might be; the other end of the horn was out in the sea, that sawest thou not,

but now when thou comest to the seashore, then willt thou be able to see what a sinking thou hast drunk in the sea, that is now called the ebb.” And again said he; “Nor me thought was it less worth when thou liftedst up the cat, and to tell thee sooth, then all feared who saw how thou liftedst him with one foot off the ground, for that cat was not as it seemed to thee, that was Midgardsworm. who lieth about the whole earth, and his length is barely enough to take in earth with his head and tail, and thou raised him so far up, that there was but scant room then to heaven. And it was also a great wonder about the wrestling match that thou hadst with Elli (Eld),· for that none hath yet been, and none shall be, that eld doth not come and trip them all up, if they be so old as to bide her coming. And now sooth to say we must part, and it will fall out better for both of us twain, that ye come not oftener to seek me, I will guard my burg another time with the same or other sleights, so that ye will not get any power over me.” But when Þorr heard this tale he grasped his hammer and brought it aloft, but when he sbould dash it forward, then sees he nowhere Utgarið’s Loki; and when he turns back to the burg, and

will forthwith break down the burg, then sees he there vales wide and fair, but no burg. Then turns he back, and fares on his way until be came back to Þruðvangr; but sooth it is to say, that even then he had taken a rede with himself to look about, if be might find that meeting with Midgardsworm which afterward happened. Now I trow that none can tell thee truer tidings of this journey of Þorr.

48. Then said Gangleri; Almickle in himself is Utgarð's Loki, though he deals much with sleight and cunning spells, but it may be seen that he is great in himself, in that he has thanes who have mickle might; but has not Þorr avenged himself for this? Har answers: It is not unknown, though there be no wise men (to tell thereof), that Þorr set right this journey just spoken of, and he dwellt not long at home ere he went off so hastily on his way, that he had not (with him) his car, nor his hegoats, nor any fellow. He went out of Midgard in the guise of a young man, and came one even at dusk to a certain giant who is called Ymir: Þorr tarried there as a guest the night over, but at dawn Ymir stood up and made ready to row out to sea to fish; now Þorr sprang up and was soon dressed, and begged that Ymir

would let him row out to sea with him; but Ymir says, that little help was to be had from him as he was so little and but a lad, “and (quoth he) thou willt get a chill, if I sit so long and so far out as 1 am wont.” But Þorr said he could row from the land for all that, and that it was not sure whether he would be the first to pray to row back; and Þorr was so wrath with the giant that it was nigh then that he had let the hammer ring on his pate straitway; but he bore with him, because he thought soon to try his strength somewhere else. He asked Ymir what they should have for bait, but Ymir bade him get bait for himself; then turned Þorr away thither where he saw an herd of oxen, which belonged to Ymir: he took the biggest ox hight Himinbriotr, and cut off the head, and went with it to the seashore; Ymir had then shoved off the skiff, Þorr went on board and sat down in the afterroom, (and) took two oars and pulls, and Ymir thought they went along fast from his rowing: Ymir pulls in the bow forward, and the rowing was soon ended; Then said Ymir, that they were come to those waters, where he was wont to sit and draw up flatfish: but Þorr says he will row much farther; and then they took again a swift row; Now Ymir said, that they were come so

far out, that it was perilous to sit out for the Midgardsworm, but Þorr says he will row (yet) a bit, and so he did, but Ymir was then very sad. Now when Þorr laid up his oars, he got ready a line very strong, nor was the angle less nor weaker, then put Þorr on the angle the oxhead, and cast it overboard, and the angle went to the ground: and so, sooth it is to say, that Þorr beguiled not a whit less then Midgardsworm, than Utgarð’s t Loki had mocked Þorr when he heaved np the worm in his hand. Midgardsworm gaped wide over the ox head, but the angle stuck in the worm’s gum: Now when the worm knew this, he tugged so hard that both Þorr’s fists were dashed against the gunwhale, but then was Þorr wrath, and he took on him his Asmight, and so spurned against (the worm), that he dashed both his feet through the ship and spurned the ground, and then drew the worm up on board. And it may be said, that no one hath seen ugly sights who might not see that, when Þorr whet his eyes on the worm, but the worm stared at him from beneath and blew venom. Then is it said that the giant Ymir changed hue, paled, and qvaked, when he saw the worm, and that the sea ran out and in the skiff; and just as Þorr grasped his hammer and

brought it aloft, then, the giant fumbled at his fishingknife, and cut off Þorr’s line at the board, but the worm sank in the sea, and Þorr cast the hammer after him; and men say he took the head off him at the ground, but I think it were true to tell thee that Midgardsworm lives yet, and lies in the sea. But Þorr clenched his fist and set it on Ymir's ear, so that he tumbled over board and (Þorr) sees his feet (last); and Þorr waded to land.

49. Then said Gangleri; have any more tidings been with the Asa? A hard and famous deed wrought Þorr on that journey. Har answers; It must now be said of those tidings which the Asa thought of more worth. But the beginning of this tale is, that Balldr the good dreamt dreams great and perilous for his life: but he told the Asa the dreams. Then took they their rede together, and that was done, that they should pray peace for Balldr, against all kinds of harm: and Frigg took an oath that they would spare Balldr, of fire and water, iron and all kinds of ore, stones, earth, trees, sicknesses, beasts, birds, venoms, and worms. But when this was known and done, then was it the passtime of Balldr and the Asa, that he should stand up in their meetings, and that all the others should some shoot

at him, some hew at him, some smite him with stones; but whatever was done to him he took no scathe, and this all thought great gain.. But when Loki Laufey’s son saw that, it liked him ill that Balldr was not scathed. He went to Fensalir to Frigg, and turned him into a woman’s likeness: then asks Frigg, if the woman knew what the Asa did at their meetings. She said, that all shot at Balldr and that he was not scathed. Then said Frigg: “No weapon nor tree may hurt Balldr, an oath have I taken of all of them.” Then asks the woman, “Have all things sworn an oath to spare Balldr?” Then answers Frigg; “There grows one treetwig eastward of Valhall that is called mistletoe, that methought too young to crave an oath of.” Then next went the woman away; but Loki took the Mistletoe, cut it off, and went to the meeting. But Havðr stood without in the ring of men, for that he was blind; then said Loki to him “why shootest thou not at Balldr?” He answers; “Because I am blind and see not where Balldr is, and another thing because I am weaponless.” Then said Loki; “Do thou after the likeness of other men, and shew Balldr worship as other men; I will shew thee whereabout he stands, shoot thou at him with this wand.” Havðr took the mistletoe and shot at Balldr under
71  GYLFI’S MOCKING.  ÞþĐð  “”θδğŋɣşĉāáäēə ð ï öōüūû Þþ and Đð “” Þorr Þialfi Türkic

the guidance of Loki: the shaft flew right through him, and he fell dead to earth; and that is the greatest mishap that hath befallen Gods and men. When Balldr was fallen, then failed the Gods words and speech, and bands too to take hold of him; and each looked at the other, and they were all of one mind toward him who had done the deed, but none might avenge it, that was so holy a place. But when the Asa strove to speak, then it was that a wailing came up first, so that none might tell the others of his grief with words; and Odin as was meet bare this scathe worst of them all, for he could best deem what a mickle loss and lessening there was to the Asa in the falling away of Balldr. But when the Gods came to themselves, then quoth Frigg and asked; Who might be there with the Asa, who would win for his own all her love and good-will, “and (this, said she, he shall have) if be will ride on the way to Hell and try if he can find Balldr, and bid Hel a ransom if she will let Balldr fare home to Asgard.” But he that is named HerrmoÞr the brisk, Odin’s lad, he was ready to undertake this journey; then was taken Sleipnir Odin’s horse, and led forth; and HerrmoÞr got up on that horse and galloped away. Now the Asa took Balldr’s body and bore it to the seashore;

Hringhorn hight Balldrs ship, she was the biggest of all ships, her would the Gods launch forth and make thereon Balldr’s balefire, but the ship went not forwards; then (one) was sent into Jötunheim, after the witch that is hight Hyrrockin; but when she came, she rode on a wolf and had adderworms for reins; then leapt she from her steed, but Odin called for four Baresarks to mind the horse, and they could not hold him before they felled him. Then went Hyrrockin to the stern of the ship, and shoved it forwards so the first touch, that fire sprang out of the rollers, and all the land shook: then was Þorr wrath and grasped his hammer, and would forthwith break her head, till all the Gods asked peace for her. Then was borne out on the ship Balldr’s body, and when his wife Nanna Nep’s daughter saw that, her heart was broken for grief, and she died; she was borne to the pile and thrown into the fire. Then stood Þorr up and hallowed the pile with Miöllnir, and before his feet ran a certain dwarf, that is named Litr, but Þorr spurned at him with his foot, and dashed him into the fire, and he was burnt. But many kinds of folk sought this burning; first is to say of Odin, that with him fared Frigg and the Valkyriur and his ravens; but Freyr drove in a car with the boar that hight

Gullinbursti or Sliðrugtanni, and Heimdall rode the horse hight Gulltoppr, but Freyia (drove) her cats; thither came also much folk of the Rimegiants and Hillogres. Odin laid on the pile the goldring that hight Draupnir, to it followed since that nature, that every ninth night there dropped from it eight goldrings of even weight; Balldr's horse was led to the pile with all his gear.

But of HermoÞr it is to be said, that he rode nine nights (through) dark dales and deep, so that he saw naught, before he came to the river Giöll, and rode on the bridge over Giöll; it is thatcht with shining gold. Moðguðr is the maid named who keeps the bridge. She asked him his name or kin, and said that the day before there rode over the bridge five bands of dead men, “but my bridge rings not save under thee alone, and thou hast not the hue of dead men; why ridest thou here on Hels way?” He answers “I shall ride to Hel to look for Balldr, but hast thou seen aught of Balldr on Hel's way?” And she said that Balldr had ridden thither over Gioll’s bridge “but beneath and northward lieth Hel’s way.” Then rode HermoÞr thereon till he came to Hel’s grate; then got he off his horse and girthed him up fast, got up and cheered

him with his spurs, but the horse leapt so hard over the grate that he came never near it. Then rode HermoÞr home to the hall, and got down from the horse, went within into the hall, and saw there his brother Balldr sit in the first seat; and HermoÞr tarried there the night over. But at morn then begged HermoÞr of Hel, that Balldr should ride home with him, and said how great wailing was with the Asa. But Hel said, that it should now be tried whether Balldr were so beloved as is said, “and (quoth she) if all things in the world, quick and dead weep for him; then shall he fare back to the Asa; but be kept with Hel if any speak against him or will not weep.” Then stood HermoÞr, but Balldr led him out of the hall, and took the ring Draupnir, and sent it as a keepsake to Odin, but Nanna sent Frigg a shift (tunic) and yet more gifts, (and) to Fulla her thimble. Then rode HermoÞr back on his way and came to Asgard, and told all the tidings that he had seen and heard. Next to that the Asa sent over the whole world messengers to pray that Baldr might be wept out of Hell, all did that, men and things quick, and earths, and stones, and trees, and all ores; just as thou must have seen that all these things weep they come out of frost and into heat. When

the messengers were a-faring home, and had well done their errand; they find a certain cave wherein a hag sat, she is named Þavck; they pray her to weep Balldr out of Hell, she answers,

“Þavck will bewail Nor quick nor dead gain I
with dry tears by man's son; by man's son;
Baldr's balefire; Let Hel hold what she has!.’’

 But men guess that there was Loki Laufey’s son, who has wrought most ill among the Asa.

50. Then said Gangleri; Very much ill brought Loki about, first of all, in that Balldr was slain, and next, in that he was not loosed out of Hell; but was this at all ywroken on him? Har answers: It was repaid him so that he will long feel it; when the Gods were so wrath with him as was to be weened, be ran away, and hid him in a certain fell, (and) made him there an house with four doors, so that he might see out of the house on all sides; but often in the day he turned him into the likeness of a salmon, and then hid him in the water hight Franangr force; then thought he to himself what trick the Asa would find out to take him in the force; now as he sat in his house he took flax and yarn, and wrought (them) into meshes, as nets are since, but a fire burned before him: then saw he that the Asa were hard upon Him, and Odin had

seen out of Hliðskialf where he was; he sprang up straitway and out into the river, and cast the net from (him) into the fire. But when the Asa came to the house, then went first in he who was wisest of all hight Kvasir, and when be saw on the fire the ash of the net that had been burnt, then skilled he that must be a trick to take fish, and told the Asa; then next they took and made them a net, after that which they saw in the ashes that Loki had made; and when the net was ready, then fared the Asa to the river and cast the net into the force: Þorr held one end, and the other held all the Asa, and (so they) drew the net. But Loki fared before, and lay him down between two stones, they drew the net over him, but knew that something quick was against (it); and they fare another time up to the force, and cast out the net, and bind up with it something so heavy that nothing shall be able to pass under. Then fares Loki before the net; but when he sees that it was a scant way to the sea, then leaps he up over the top of the net and runs up to the force. Now saw the Asa whither he went, so they fare once more up to the force, and shift the folk into two bands, but Þorr wades now along the midstream, and so they fare toward the sea. And now Loki sees two choices,

it was the risk of his life to swim out to sea, and the other was to leap again over the net; and that did he, (and) leapt as speedily as he could over the top cord of the net· Þorr grasped at him, and tried to take hold of him, but he slipped in his hand, so that the hand first stayed at the tail, and for this sake is the salmon thin behind. Now was Loki taken truceless, and they went with him into a certain cave; then took they three rocks and set them up on edge, and bored a hole though each rock; then took they Loki's sons Vali, and Nari or Narfi, the Asa turned Vali into a wolf's likeness, and he tore his brother Narfi; then took the Asa his guts and bound Loki with (them) over the three stones, one under his shoulders, another under his loins, the third under his hams, and made those bands into iron. Then took Skaði an adder-worm and fastened (it) up over him, so that the venom should drop from the worm on his face; but Sigyn his wife stands by him and holds a dish under the venomdrops; and when the dish is full then goes she out, and pours away the venom, but while the venom drops on his face, then is he so racked with it, that the whole earth shakes, that call ye earthquake. There lieth he till the twilight of the Gods.

51. Then said Gangleri; What tidings are to say of the twilight of the Gods? of this have I not heard before. Har answers: Mickle and much tidings are to be said thereof; the first of these is, that then comes the winter called Fimbul-winter; then drives snow from all sides, the frosts are then mickle, and the winds keen, nor any joy of the sun, then come three winters together and no summer between; but first come three other such winters, that then are there all over the world great strifes, then brothers slay one the other for gain’s sake, and none spareth father or sons in that manslaughter and sibslaying: so is it said in Vöiuspa.

“Brothers shall fight together, Whoredoms many,
and be one the other's bane; an axeage, a swordage,
 sister's children shields are cloven,
their sib shall spoil; a windage, a wolfage,
hard is’t with the time, ere the world, stoops to doom.’’

Then happens what is to be thonght great tidings, that the wolf swallows the Sun, and men think that great moan; then takes the other wolf the Moon, and he too maketh great harm; the stars are hurled from heaven; then is also that tiding that the whole earth and all rocks shake so, that the trees are torn up from the earth; but the rocks are rent, and all fetters and bonds are then broken and snapped: then becomes Fenriswolf loose; then

boils up the sea over the land, for that then Midgardsworm turns him in giantmood, and seeks the land: then happens it that Naglfar is loosed, the ship so hight, it is made of dead men's nails, and for this sake is it worth warning, if a man die with unshorn nails, that mao helpeth with much stuff towards the ship Naglfar, which Gods and men wish may be made ready late; but in this flood floats Naglfar, Ilrymr hight the giant who steers Naglfar. Fenriswolf fares with mouth a-gapa, and the upper jaw is at heaven and the lower on earth, he would gape more were there room; fire burns out of his eyes and nostrils. Midgardsworm breatheth forth so much venom that be de-fileth all the air and water, and he is very ugly, and he is on the other side of the wolf. In this burly the heaven is cleft and thence ride Muspell’s sons; Surtr rides first, and both before and after him (is) a burning fire; his «word is very good, (and) the sheen of it brighter than of the sun, but as they ride (on) fiifravst then breaks it as before is said; Muspell’s offspring seek the field of meeting that Vigriðr hight,, thither come also then Fenriswolf and Midgardsworm, thither are alio then come Loki and Hrymr, and with hint all the Hrim-Jursar, and all the friends of Hel follow Loki; but

Muspell’s sons have their band alone by themselves, it is very bright: the field Vigrfðr is as hundred miles wide every way.

But while these tidings are happening, then stands up Heimdallr and blows amain into his horn Giöll, and awakens all the Gods, and they hold a meeting together. Then rideth Odin to Mimirs spring, and taketh rede of Mimir for himself and his folk; then shaketh Yggdrasil's Ash, and nothing is then fearless in heaven or earth; the Asa arm them, and all champions, and speed forth to the field: first rideth Odin with golden helm, and fair byrnie, and his spear Gungnir hight; he stands against Fenriswolf, but Þorr (stands) forward on his other side, and may not help him, for that he hath his hands full in fighting with Midgardsworm; Freyr fights against Surtr, and there is a bard struggle ere Freyr falls, it is his bane that he misses that good sword of his which he gave Skirnir. Then is also become loose the hound Garmr, that is bound before the cave Gnipa; be is the greatest plague, he hath the fight against Tyr, and they are each other’s scathe, Þorr bears off praise for Midgardworm's bane, and steps away from him nine feet, then falls he dead to earth for the venom

that the worm blows on him. The wolf swallows Odin, that is his bane, but straitway comes on Viþarr, and steps with one foot ou the nether jaw of the wolf, on that foot hath he the shoe, for which stuff hath been agathering in all ages, this is those stripe of skin which men cut out of their shoon for the toes or heels, for this sake shall the man cast away those strips, who thinks to come to help the Asa; with one hand takes he upper jaw of the wolf and rends asunder his gape, and that is the wolfs bane. Loki hath strife with Heimdallr and they are each other’s bane. Then next Surtr slingeth fire over the earth and burneth all the world; so is it said in Völuspa.

“High blows Heimdallr, What is’t with. Asa?
the horn is aloft, what is't with Elves?
Odin speaketh roareth all Jötunheim,
at Mimir’s head, The Asa are met;
shaketh Yggdrasil’s Dwarves are howling
ash straitstanding, before their stonedoors,
groaneth the old tree; witty in rockwalls;
but the giant is loose,” ere ye wise yet or what!
Hrymr drives east fro the worm smites the waves;
holds his shield before; but the eagle screams,
Jörmungandr turns him the pale beak tears corpses,
 in giantmood, Naglfar is loose.
A keel fares east fro, Odin’a son goeth
Muspell’s peoples to war with the wolf,
will come oёr the sea, VlÞarr on his way
but Loki steereth,  to the wild beast,
there are fell powers He to the giant's child
with Freki all, lets in the heart stand
to them is his brother his hand-drawn sword,
 Byleistr in front. when he venges his sire.
Surtr fares south fro Goeth the famous
with blazing brand, offspring of Hlodyn
from the sword of the sphere-God scarce from the adder
shineth a sunbeam; the champion of gloom,
rocks dash together, ere from his wrath drops
giants totter, Midgard’s warder;
men tread the way to Hel; then will all mankind
but heaven is cleft. from homesteads be hnrled.
Then comes to Hlyn Sun shall be swart,
another woe forward, fields sink in sea,
when Odin fares and the bright stars
to war with the wolf; from heaven be cast;
and the bright bane firebreath rageth
of Beli with Surtr, round time’s nurse,
hen will fall the high heat playeth
Frigg’s dearest God. with heaven itself.”

 Here too is it thus said,

“Vigriðr hight a field,
where will meet in fight
Surtr and the sweet Gods;
an hundred miles
is it every way;
 that is their fated field.”

52. Then said Gangleri; What comes then after, when heaven is burnt and earth, and all the world, and all the Gods dead and all champions, and all the folk of men? for ye have already said that each man shall live in some world for all ages. Then answers Har: Many abodes are there then good, and many bad; best is it then to be in Gimle in heaven with Surtr; and great store of good drink is there for them who think that joy in the hall hight Brimir, it stands also in heaven. That is also a good hall which stands on NiÞa-fells wrought of red gold, it hight Sindri, in this ball shall abide good men and wellminded. On Na-strand is a mickle hall and a bad, and the doors look northsward; it is also wrought altogether of adderbacks like a wattled bouse; but the worm’s heads all turn into the house, and blow venom so that rivers of venom run along the hall, and in those rivers wade murderers and all who forswear themselves, as it ıs here said.

“A hall stands I wis that hall is woven
for from the sun, with backs of worms,
Na-strand upon; there shall wade
north look the doors: the heavy streams
venom drops fall men forsworn
in through loopholes. and menslayers.”

But in Hvergelmir is worst

“There quells Niðhavggr
 the bodies of the dead.”

53. Then said Gangleri; Live any Gods then? or is there any earth or heaven? Har answers; The earth shoots up then from the sea, and it is green and fair, the fields wax unsown, ViÞarr and Vali live, so that neither the sea nor Surtr’s fire hath harmed them, and they dwell on IÞavöllr, where Asgard was before; and thither come Þorr's sons, ΜoÞi and Magni; and have there Miöllnir; then next come Balldr and Havðr from Hell; then they set all together and talk, and call to mind their old tales, and rede of the tidings which happened aforetime, and of Midgardsworm, and Fenris-wolf: then find they in the grass those golden tables which the Asa once had: so is it said.

“ViÞarr and Vali ΜoÞi and Magni
abide in the God’s house shall have Miöllnir
when Surtr’s fire is black, of Vingnir to stay fight.”

      But in the place hight Hodmimir’s holt two men lie hid during Surtr’s fire, hight thus Lif and LeifÞrasir, and they have morningdew for meat; but  from these men comes so mickle kinsfolk that they dwell over the whole world, as it is here said.

“But Lif and LeifÞrasir Dew of the morning
they will lie hid  is what they for meat have,
in Hodmirair's holt. but thence come the races.”

But what will seem to thee wondrous, is that the sun should have brought forth a daughter not

less fair than herself, and she fares then in the steps of her mother; as is here said.

“Daughter one That maid shall ride,
bears AlfravÞull when the Gods are dead,
ere Fenrir takes her; on her mother's way.

But now if thou knowest aught farther to ask, I wis not whence that can come to thee; for that never heard I any man tell longer of the worlds-faring, and enjoy now what thou hast heard as thou canst.

Then next heard Gangleri a great din every way around him, and he turned and looked on all sides, and when he sees more about him then stands he without on a flat vale, and he sees then no hall and no burg: then goes he away on his road, and comes into his kingdom, and says those tidings that he has seen and heard, and after him each man told others these sayings.



1. One man is named Ægir or Hler, he abode in the isle that is now called Hler’s isle, he was very skilled in spells. He went on his way to Asgard, but when the Asa wist of his coming they treated him with good fare, though many things were then wrought with false shows; and at even when they should drink, then let Odin be borne into the ball swords, and they were so bright that it glistened from them, and there was no other light had while they were set down to drink: then go the Asa to their guild, and the twelve Asa who are wont to doom set them on their highseats; and so were they named, Þor, Njörðr, Freyr, Tyr, Heimdallr, Bragi, ViÞarr, Vali, Ullr, Hænir, Fotseti. And likewise the Asynia with them: Frigg, Freya, Gefiun Iþunn, Gerþr, Sigun, Fulla, Nanna. It seemed grand to Ægir to look about him, the pannels of the wall were all tiled with fair shields; there was also swingeing strong mead and they drank deep; next man to Ægir sat Bragi, and they had much talk together over their drink: Bragi spake to Ægir of'many tidings which had befallen the Asa.

2. He began then with the tale, how three Asa, Odin and Loki and Hænir, fared from home, and fared over fells and heath and were badly off for meat, but as they came down into a certain dale, they see there a flock of oxen, and take one ox and set about seething it; now when they think the flesh shall be sodden, they lift the lid off the broth, and it was not yet sodden; and the second time when they lift the lid, after a little time was gone, and it was not yet sodden, they talk among themselves how this thing could happen, Then hear they a voice in an oak up above them, that said he who sat there sways so that it is not sodden in the seething, they looked thither, and there sat an eagle and no little one: Then said the eagle “An ye are willing to give me my fill of the ox, then shall it be sodden in the seething.” To that they said aye: then he let himself sink down out of the tree, and set him to the seething, and snatches up straitway first of all two thighs of the ox and both shoulders: then was Loki wrath and grasped a mickle stock, and swings it with all his might, and smites against the eagle’s body; the eagle shakes him after the blow and flys up, then was the stock fast on the body of the eagle and Loki’s hands at the other end: the eagle flys just so high that Loki’s

feet take bold below on stones and rooks and trees, his hands be thinks will be torn from his shoulder-blades: be calls out, and begs the eagle most earnestly for peace, but he says that Loki shall never get loose, unless he takes an oath to him to come along with Iþunn and her apples out of Asgard: but Loki is willing to do this, then is be loosed and goes to his fellows, and it is not said farther how they fared before they came home. But at the time spoken of Loki lures Iþunn out of Asgard into a certain wood, and says that he has found some apples which she will think of great price: and begged that she should have with her her apples and put them alongside these. Then comes thither Þiazj the giant in eagleshape, and takes Iþunn and flys away with her, and has her borne to his abode; but the Asa were ill at ease for the loss of Iþunn, and became soon gray and old. Then held they a meeting, and ask each other what was last known about Iþunn, and it was last seen that she went out of Asgard with Loki: then was Loki taken and brought to the meeting, and death or strong pain was threatened him, but when he became afraid then he said he would seek after Iþunn in Jötunheim, if Freyia will lend him the falconshape that she hath: and when be gets the falconshape,

be flys north into Jötunheim, and comes one day to Þiazi the giant's, he was rowing on the sea, but Iþunn was alone at home: Loki turned her into the likeness of a nut, and held her in his claws, and flys as fast as he can. But when Þiazi came home and misses Iþunn, he takes his eagleshape and flys after Loki, and the eaglewings gained in the flight. But when the Asa saw that the falcon flew with the nut, and where the eagle flew, then went they out under Asgard, and bare thither bundles of chips for firing (Logaspænir). And when the falcon flew within over the burg and let himself sink down inside the burgwall, then the Asa set fire to the chips, but the eagle could not stop himself when he missed the falcon, and then the fire caught the feathers of the eagle, and took from him his flight: then were the Asa dear and slew Þiazi  the giant within Asgard's grates, and that slaughter is all-famous. But Skaþi daughter of Þiazi the giant took helm and byrnie, and all wargear, and comes to Asgard to avenge her father; but the Asa bade her atonement and ransom; and the first thing is, that she shall choose her a man from among the Asa, and choose by the feet and see no more of him: then saw she one man’s feet wondrous fair; and said, “This one choose I,

few things will be loathly about Balldr.” But it was Njörðr out of Noatun. She had also this in her deed of atonement, that the Asa should do that which she thought they would not be able, and this was to make her laugh; then did Loki this, he tyed a string to the beard of a goat, and the other end to his own body, and afterward one pulled this way the other that, and both shrieked out loud: then Loki let himself fall on Skaþi’s knees, and then she laughed, and so the atonement with her at the hands of the Asa was brought about: and so it is said that Odin did over and above what she asked, in that he took Þiazi’s eyes and cast them up into heaven, and made thereof stars twain. Then spake Ægir; Mickle methinks was Þiazi in himself; but of what kin was he? Bragi answers: Avlvaldi hight his father, and it will seem to thee worth mark if I tell thee of him. He was very rich in gold, but when he died and, his sons should share their heritage, they had this measure for the gold which they shared, that each should take his mouthfull in turn, and all even as many. The first of them was Þiazi, the second Iþi, the third Gangr; but we have it now as a saw among us, to call gold the mouthtale of these giants, but in runes or songship we wrap this up

so, that we call it the measure, or saw, or tale of these giants. Then said Ægir; methinks that is well hidden in runes.

3. And again said Ægir; Whence have ye that craft that ye call songship? Bragi answers; It was the beginning to this that the Gods had a feud with the folk that hight Vanir, but (at last) they held a meeting about a peace, and settled it in this wise, they went both to a jar and spat into it their spittle; but at parting then the Gods took it, because they would not let that mark of peace perish, and shaped out of it a man, who hight Kvasir: be is so wise that none asks him any things that he knows not how to answer; and he fared wide about the world to teach men wisdom, but when he came at their bidding to certain dwarves, Fialar and Galar, then called they him to speak aside with them, and slew him, (and) let his blood run into two jars and one kettle, and this they called Oðrærir, but the jars hight Son and Βοðn they blended honey with the blood, and thereof was made such mead, that whosoever drinks of it becomes bard or wiseman. The dwarves told the Asa that Kvasir had choked in his wisdom, for that no one was there so wise as to be able to ask him enough about learning.

Then bade these dwarves to them the giant hight Gillingr and his wife, then the dwarves bade Gillingr to row out to sea with them, but as they fared forth along the land the dwarves rowed against a blind scar and overturned the skiff; Gillingr was no swimmer and was drowned; but the dwarves righted their skiff and rowed to land: they told his wife this mischance, but she bore it ill and wept aloud. Then Fialar asked her, if it would make her mind easier, if she were to see out on the sea the place where he had sunk; and she said it would; then spake he with Galar his brother, that he should go up over the doorway as she went out, and let the quernstone fall on her head, and said he was weary of her weeping; and so he did. Now when Suttungr the giant Gillingr’s son heard this, he fares thither and took the dwarves, and bears them out to sea, and sets them on a scar flooded at high tide, they pray Suttungr to spare their lives, and bid him (take) in atonement for his father’s blood the dear mead; and that was for an atonement between them. Suttungr bears the mead home, and hoards it in the stead hight Hnit-biörg, and sets there to guard it his daughter Gunnlavþa. From this call we songship Kvasir’s blood, or dwarves drink or fill; or some kind of

liquor of Oðrærir or Boðn or Son; or the dwarves freight, (because that mead brought them a life-ransom from the scar) or Suttungr’s mead, or Hnitbiorg’s liquor.

4. Then said Ægir; Methinks it is darkly said, to call songship by these names. But how came the Asa to Suttungr's mead? Bragi answers: The story about this is, that Odin fared from borne and came thither where thralls nine were a-mowing hay; he asks if they will that he should whet their scythes; to this they said yea; then takes he a hone from his belt, and whetted them, and their scythes seemed to them to bite much better, and they asked if the hone were for sale; but he put such a price on it, that he who would buy it should give a fair sum for it, now all quoth they were willing (to give it), and (each) bade him sell it to him; but be cast the hone up aloft; and as all wished to lay hands on it, they scrambled so about it that each brought his scythe on the other’s neck. Odin stopped for a night’s lodging at a giant’s that Baugi hight, Suttungr’s brother. Baugi said his housekeeping had gone ill, and told him that his nine thralls had slain each other, but that he had no hope of (other) workmen. Now Odin named himself (when) with him Bavlverkr; he offered to take upon him the

work of nine men for Baugi, but asked for his hire one drink of Suttungr’s mead. Baugi quoth be owned no sway over the mead, (and) said that Suttungr would have it all alone, but he said he would fare with Bavlverkr and try if they could get the mead. Bavlverkr won during the summer nine men’s work for Baugi, but at winter asked Baugi for his wages. Then fared they both away: Baugi told his brother Suttungr his bargain with Bavlverkr; but Suttungr denied stoutly even a drop of the mead. Then said Bavlverkr to Baugi, that they should try some trick if they might get at the mead, and Baugi was ready enough: then drew forth Bavlverkr the borer hight Rati, and said that Baugi shall bore the rock if the borer will bite; be did so: then says Baugi that the rock is bored through, but Bavlverkr blows into the hole that the borer had made, and the splinters flew op against him; then found he that Baugi would cheat him, and he bade him bore through the rock: Baugi bored again; but when Bavlverkr blows the second time, then the splinters were blown inward. Then Bavlverkr turned him into a worm’s likeness, and crept into the hole made by the borer, but Baugi stuck after him with the borer and missed him; Bavlverkr fared whither Gunnlavð was, and

lay with her three nights, and then she gave him leave to drink of the mead three drinks; the first drink he drank all out of Oðrærir, the second all out of Boðn, the third all out of Son, and so had he all the mead; then turned he him into an eagle’s shape and flew off as fast as be could. But when Suttungr saw the eagle's flight, be took on him an eagle’s shape and flew after him; but when the Asa saw where Odin flew, they set out in the yard their jars: now when Odin came inside of Asgard he spewed up the mead into the jars, but it then so near befell him that Suttungr had caught him, that he sent some of the mead after him backwards, and no care was taken of that, he who would might have it, and that we call the share of silly bards; but Suttungr's mead gave Odin to the Asa, and to those men who have wit to use it, therefore call we songship Odin’s prey, and find, and his drink, and his gift, and the Asa’s drink.


1. Almighty God shaped in the beginning heaven and earth, and ail things that belong to them, and last (of all) men twain, from whom the races are come, Adam and Eve; and this kindred waxed more and more, and was spread over all the world. But as the times went by, then became the folk of man uneven, some were good and right-trowing, but many more turned then after the lusts of the world, and took no heed of God’s laws: and for this drowned God the world in the flood, and all that was quick on the world save those who were in the ark with Noe.

After Noe’s flood eight men were alive, they who abode in the world, and from them came the stock of men, and it chanced now as before, that when mankind waxed, and the world was dwellt over, then was there a very great throng of men, who loved the greed of gain and power, but went away from listening to God, and did this so much, that at last there was none who would name God; and who was there who could tell his

sons of God’s great wonders? And so it came that they tint God’s name, and wide over the world there was not found the man who could say truely who shaped him. But not the less did God give them earthly gifts, wealth and happiness, which should be with them in the world; he shared also among them wisdom, so that they skilled to know all earthly things, and all kinds that might be seen in the lift and on earth. This they (men) thought upon and wondered at, how it might happen that the earth and beasts and fowl had the same nature in some things, and yet (were) unlike in shape. It was one mark of this nature, that the earth might be delved into on high fellpeaks and the water sprang up there, and it needed not to dig longer there for water than in deep dales; and just so with beasts and fowl, it is no farther to the blood in the head than in the feet. Another (proof of this) nature of the earth is it, that every year waxes on the earth grass and bloom, and the same year falls that all away and rots; so also on beasts and fowl waxes hair and feathers, and falls off every year. The third nature of the earth is that when it is opened and delved, then groweth grass on the mould which is uppermost on the earth. Rocks

and stones they set off against the bones and teeth of things quick. From these things they deemed that the earth must be quick, and that she had life in some manner; and they wist that she was wonderfully old in the tale of her ages, and mighty in her kind; she fed.ell things quick and took to herself all that died: for this sake gave they her a name, and told (back) their race to her. This also learned they of their old kinsmen, that after many hundred winters were told back, the goings of the heavenly balls were uneven, some had longer goings than othersome. From suchlike things guessed they, that some one must be the steerer of the heavenly balls, who could stay their going at his own will, and that he must be strong and mighty; and of this one weened they, if he swayed (these) first shapes, that he must have been before the heavenly balls yet were, and they saw that if he ruled the goings of the heavenly balls, he must sway the sun’s shine, and heaven's dew, and earth’s growth, which follow them; and so also the winds in the lift, and with them the storms of the sea. They knew not where his realm was, but still they trowed that he ruled all things, on earth and in the lift, of heaven and the heavenly balls, of seas, and weather. Cut for that these things might be better

told and kept in mind, then gave they him the same name with themselves, but this belief has been changed in many ways, just as the peoples shifted about, and tongues arose.

2. In his old age shared Noe the world with his sons; for Cham he meant the western lands, and for Japhteth the northern lands, but for Sem the southern lands, with those parts that will afterward be marked out in the trithing of the earth. In the time that these men’s sons were in the world, then grew strong forthwith the greed of gain and power; for that they knew then many crafts which beforetime had not been found out, and each was puffed up with his own handywork. And so long forward tarried they their pride, that the Affricans, sprung from Cham, made war on that lot of the world that Sem’s offspring their kinsmen abode in; and when they had overcome them, it seemed to them that the world was too small for them, and they smithied a tower with tile and stone, which they meant should reach to heaven, on the vales called Senniar. And when this smithying was so far forward that it almost stood above the air, and they had not a whit less eagerness to hold on with the work; and when God sees how their pride rages high, then sees he that he must in some way beat

it down. And the same God, though he is all-powerful, and might have cast down all their work in the twinkling of an eye, and made themselves become dust, yet willed he rather to set at naught their purpose in this wise, that they might know their own littleness, in that none of them should skill to understand what the other talked, and in that none knew what the other bade him do, but one broke down what another wished to raise up; until that they strove among themselves, and with this their purpose in beginning the smithying of the tower came to naught. And he that was foremost hight Zoroastres, he laughed before he wept when he came into the world, but the master-smiths were two and seventy, and so many tongues have since been spread over the world, after that the giants shifted their seats over the land, and the peoples waxed full. On this same place was made one burg the most famous, and it’s name was taken from the name of the tower, and it was called Babilon. And it was so when the mingling of tongues was, then waxed many the names of men and other things, and that same Zoroastres had many names, and though he understood that his pride was laid low by the said smithying, still bore he on to worldly power, and let himself be chosen king

over many peoples of the Assirians; from him arose the bewildering of false Gods, and after he was worshipped, he was called Baal, whom we call Bel: he had also many other names, but as the names waxed many, then the truth was tint along at the same time, and from this first sin then worshipped every man that came after his foregoers, and beasts and fowl, the lift and heavenly balls, and countless lifeless things; until this bewildering went over the whole world; and so carefully tint they the truth, that none knew his shaper save those men alone who spake the Ebrew tongue, that which passed before the smithying of the tower; albeit they lost not the bodily gifts that were allowed them, and for that they skilled to deem of all things with earthly skill, for wisdom of the soul was not given them, so they deemed that all things were smithied of some one stuff.

3. The world was shared into three parts; (one) from the south westward and till the Midland-sea, that lot was called Affrika, but the south side of this share is hot and burnt by the sun. The second lot from the west until the north and up to the sea, that is called Evropa or Enea, the nether side of this is cold, so that grass grows not, nor may it be dwelit in. From the

north and round the east country all to the south, that is called Asia, in that lot of the world is all fairness, and pride, and wealth from the fruitfulness of the earth, gold and gemstones: there is also the midworld, and as the earth is there fairer and of better kind than in other steads, so was also the folk of man there most furnished with all gifts, wisdom and strength, fairness and all knowledge.

4. Near the middle of the world was made the house and inn, the most famous ever made, that was called Troja, there in the land we call Tyrkland. This homestead was made much bigger than others, and with more craft in many ways, with cost and riches that were there about. There were twelve kingdoms and one overking, and much folk and land belonged to each kingdom: there were in the burg twelve lords; these lords have been before all men who have been in the world in all manly things. This every storyteller that hath said of these things doth not in the least gainsay, and for this sake, that all great men of the north country tell back their race thither, aud set among the tale of the Gods, all who were Lords of the town, just as first of all they set Priamus’ self in Odin’s stead: nor may that be called wonderful, for Priamus was come of Saturnus, the same whom

the north country longtime trowed to be himself God.

5. This Saturnus waxed up in that island in Greekland’s sea hight Krit, he was greater and stronger and fairer than other men. So also was his wisdom before that of all men, like his other natural gifts; he found also many crafts which before had not been found out; he was also so mickle in the black art that he knew things about to be; he found also that red thing in the earth from which he smelted gold, and from such things as these he became speedily powerful; be foretold also harvests and many other hidden things, and for this and many other deeds took they him to be Lord over the isle, and when he had steered it a little space, then was there soon enough all kinds of plenty. There passed none other coin save goldpieces, such a store of gold was there; and though there were hard times in other lands, no crops ever failed there, so that men might seek thither for all the things that they needed to have: and so from these and many other unsearchable gifts of might that he bad, they trowed him to be God, (and from him arose another bewildering among the Kritmen and Macedonians, just as the first among the Assirians and Challdeans from Zoroastres) and when Saturnus finds

how great strength the folk think they have in him, then says he that he is God, and calls himself the steerer of heaven and all things.

6. Once on a time fared he in a ship to Greek-land, for that there was a king’s daughter on whom he had set his mind, he got her love in this wise, one day as she was out with her handmaidens, then took he on him the likeness of a bull and lay before her in the wood, and so fair was he that a golden hue was on every hair: and when the king’s daughter sees him, then patted she him on the mouth, he springs up and threw off the bull’s shape, and took her in his arms and bare her to the ship, and had her home to Krit. When his wife Juno finds out this, he turned her (the king’s daughter) into the likeness of a heifer, and sent her eastward into the Nile country, and let the thrall hight Argulus tend her, there was she twelve months ere he changed her shape. Many things did he like this, or more wondrous. He had three sons, the first hight Jupiter, the second Neptunus, the third Plutus. They were all mighty men, yet was Jupiter long before them, he was a man of war and woo many kingdoms; he was also crafty like his father, and took on him the likeness of many beasts, aud so he wrought out much, that for mankind is unable

to be done: and in this wise and by other things, he awed all peoples, so that Jupiter is set in Þorr’s stead, since all evil beings fear him.

7. Saturnus let be raised up in Krit two and seventy burgs, and when be thought him fastseated in his realm, then shared he it with his sons, whom he had set up with himself as Gods: and to Jupiter gave he the realm of heaven, but to Neptunus the realm of earth, and to Plutushell, it seemed to him that lot was the worst, so he gave him his hound, which he called Serberus (Serb, Serb-er ~ Serf, subject, servant), that he might guard hell; this Serberus the Greeks say Erkulus dragged out of hell up to earth. And though Saturnus had shared to Jupiter the realm of heaven, yet was he not less greedy to have for his own earth also, and now makes war on the realm of his father; and so it is said he let take and geld him, and for great works like this he says he is God; and the Macedonians say that he let the parts be taken and cast out into the sea; and longtime trowed they that thereof had been made a woman, whom they called Venus, and set her in the tale of the Gods, and for that hath Venus eversince been called the Goddess of love, for they trowed that she might turn all hearts of men and women to love. When Saturnus was gelded

by Jupiter his son, then fled he from the east out of Krit, and hither into Italy; there abode then such kind of people as worked not, but lived on acorns and grass, and lay in caves or holes in the earth: and when Saturnus came thither, then changed he his name, and called hım Njörðr, for the sake that be thought his son Jupiter might afterward seek him out. He first taught the men there to plough and plant vineyards; there was good land and raw, and there were soon great crops, they took him for their lord, and so got he all the realms there about, and let build there many burgs.

8. Jupiter his son had many sons from whom the races are come; his son was Dardanus, his son Herikon, his son Tros, his son Ilus, his son Lamedon, father of Priamus the headking. Priamus had many sons, one of them was Ektor, he has been most famous of all men in the world for strength and growth, and grace, and for all manly deeds of knightly rank; and if is found written, that when the Greeks, and all the strength of the north and east country, bore down on the Trojan men, they had never been overcome unless the Greeks had called on the Gods, and so went the answers that no strength of man might overcome them, unless they were broken by their own men, which afterward was done.

And from their fame men that came after gave themselves titles, and among the first, just as the Romans have been the most famous men after their days in many things, so it is said that when Rome was built the Romans turned their customs and laws, as near as they could come, after those which the Trojan men their forefather had. And so mickle might followed these men, that many ages after when Pompetas a leader of the Romans herried in the east country, (and) Odin fled away out of Asia, and hither into the north country, then gave be himself and his men their names, and said Priamus had hight Odin but his queen Frigg, and from this took the realm since it’s name, and there where the burg stood was called Frigia. And whether it be that Odin said that of himself out of boasting, or that it had been so in the mingling of tongues, yet have many wise men held that for a sooth saying, and for a long time after every great lord took for himself a pattern therefrom.

9. A king in Troja hight Munon or Mennon, he had (to wife) a daughter of Priamus the headking, she hight Troan, they had a son, who hight Tror, (him call we Þorr) he was in fostering in Tracia with the duke who is named Loricus. Now when he was ten winters old then took he to him his

father’s arms; so fair of face was he when be stood by other men as when ivory is set in oak, his haiır is fairer than gold. When he was twelve years old he had full strength, then lifted he from earth ten bear's hides at once, and then slew be duke Loricus his fosterfather, and his wife Lora or Glora, and took for his own the realm of Tracia, that call we Þruðheim. Then fared he wide over the land and knew the countries of the world, and quelled then alone all baresarks, and all giants, and one the biggest dragon, and many beasts. In the north of the world found he that spaewife hight Sibil, whom we call Sif, and got her to wife. None can tell Sif's stock, she was of all women fairest, her hair was as gold, their son was Loride who was like his father, his son was Henrede, his son VingeÞor, his son Vingener, his son Moda, his son Magi, his son Cespheth, his son Bedvig, his son Atra, whom we call Annan; his son Itrman, his son Heremod, his son Skialldunn, whom we call Skiöld, his son Biaf, whom we call Biar, his son Jat, his son Guðolfr, his son Fiarleif, whom we call FriÞleif, he had the son who is named VoÞinn, him call we OÞinn. He was a famous man for wisdom and all craft, his wife hight Frigiða who we call Frigg.

10. OÞinn had spaedom, and so also his wife, and from this knowledge found he out that his name would be held high in the north part of the world, and worshipped beyond all kings; for this sake was he eager to go on his way from Tyrkland, and he had with him very much people, young men and old, churls and wives, and he had with him many costly things. But whithersoever they fared over the land much fame was said of them, so that they were thought to be liker Gods than men: and they stayed not their faring till they came northward into that land that is now called Saxland, there dwelt OÞinn longtime, and had that land far and wide for his own. There set OÞinn three of his sons to keep the land. One is named Veggdegg, he was a strong king and ruled over East Saxland, his son was Vitrgils, his sons were these, Ritta father of Heingez, and Sigarr father of Svehdegg, whom we call Svipdag. The second son of OÞinn hight Beldegg, whom we call Balldr, he owned that land now hight Vestfal, his son was Brandr, his son FrioÞigar, whom we call FroÞa, his son was Freovit, his son Yvigg, his son Gevis whom we call Gave. The third son of OÞin is named Siggi, his son Verir. These forefathers swayed in the land now called Frankland, and from them is come the race

that is called Vavlsungar. From all these are great and many races come.

11. Then went OÞinn on his way northward, and came into the land that they called Reiðgota-land, and had for his own in that land all that he would, he set up there in the land his son that hight Skiölld, his son hight FriÞleif; thence is the race come that hight Skiölldungar, those are the Danekings, and that hight now Jotland which was then called Reiðgotaland.

After that fared he northward thither to the land now hight SviÞioð, there was the king who is named Gylfi, but when he learnt the faring of these Asiamen, who were called Asa, he fared to meet them, and bade that OÞinn should have so much power in his realm as he himself willed; aud such luck followed their path, that wheresoever they tlwellt in the land, then was there plenty and good peace; and all trowed that they swayed these; and this too the mighty men of the land saw, that they were unlike other men whom they had seen in fairness and wit. In that land OÞinn thought there were fair lands, and he choose for himself a stead for a burg, where it is now called Sigtunir, he set up there lords, in the same likeness as had been in Troja, and set twelve headmen in the stead to

doom the Law of the land, and he so moulded all rights as had been before in Troja, and as the Tyrks were wornt.

After that fared he northward until he fell upon the sea, which they trowed to lie about all lands, and set up there his son over the realm now hight Norway; he is called Sæmingr, aud Norway’s kings tell their race up to him, and so also earls and other mighty men, as is said in Haleygiatale: but OÞinn had with him that son of his who is named Yngvi, who was king in SviÞiod, and from him are come the stock who are called Ynglingar.

These Asa took to them wives there within the land, but some for their sons, and these races waxed full many, so that about Saxland, and all thence about the north country they spread so, that the tongue of these Asiamen was the true tongue over all these lands; and men think they can deem from the way that the names of these forefathers are written, that these names have belonged to this tongue, and (that) the Asa brought the tongue hither into the north country; into Norway and into SviÞiod, into Denmark and into Saxland; but in England there are old names of the land and towns, which one may skill to know that they have been given in another tongue than this.


But the Asa set them now to talk, and take their rede and call to mind all these tales that were told him, (Gylfi) and give these very same names, that are named before, to the men and steads that were there; for the sake that when long times pass by, men should not doubt, that those Asa of whom these tales were now told, and these to whom the same names were given, were all one. Then was there (one) called Þorr, and he is AsaÞorr, the old one he is ÖkuÞorr, and to him are given those great deeds that Ektor wrought in Troja; but men think that the Tyrks have told about Ulyxes, and have called him Loki, because the Tyrks were his greatest foes.


1. But this is now to be said to young bards, to those who are eager to take to them speech meet for song, or fill their store of words with old names, or are willing to skill to understand what is sung darkly; that they must master this book for their learning and passtime: but these sayings are not to be so forgotten or disproved, as to take away from songship names used of yore, which great bards have been pleased with; yet should not Christian men trow on heathen Gods, nor on the truth of these sayings, otherwise than as is found in the beginning of the book, where it is said of the chances which led the folk of man away from the true belief, and next to that of the Tyrks, how the Asiamen, who are called Asa, falsed the tales of the tidings which were done in Troja, for that the landfolk should trow them to be Gods.

2. Priamus king of Troja was a great lord over all the Turkish host, and his sons were most worshipped of all his host; the famous hall, which the Asa called Brimir's hall or Biorsalr, that was king Priam’s hall; but as for the long story they

made of the twilight of the Gods, that is the wars of the Trojan men; that which is said, how ÖkuÞorr angled with an oxhead, and drew on board Midgardsworm, but the worm kept his life so that be sank into the sea; that is said from this pattern, that Ector slew Volukrontes a famous champion, in the sight of the mighty Akillevs, and so drew him on to him with the head of the slain, which they likened to the head of the ox which ÖkuÞorr had torn off: but when Akillevs was drawn into this risk through his daring, then was it his life’s help that he fled before the baneful stroke of Hector, and as it was wounded: so also it is said that Ector waged the war so mightily, and so mickle was his rage when he saw Akillevs, that no thing was so strong that it might stand before him; and when he missed Akillevs he soothed his wrath in this wise, that he slew the champion hight Roddrus; (and) so say the Asa that when ÖkuÞorr missed the worm, then slew he Ymir the giant. But in the twilight of the Gods came Midgardsworm unawares upon Þor, and blew on him with venom and struck him to his bane, but the Asa could not make up their minds to say that ÖkuÞorr had so fared, that any one stood over him dead, though so it had been, but they hurried over old

tales more than was true, when they said that Midgardsworm took there his bane, and they added this, that though Akillevs bore away the fame of Ector’s death, yet lay he dead on the same field in the same way; that was the work of Elenus and Alexander, this Elenus call the Asa Ali. They say that he avenged his brother, and he lived when all the Gods were dead and the fire was slaked, when Asgard was burnt and all the goods of the Gods: but Pirrus they likened to Fenriswolf, he slew Odin; but Pirrus might be called a wolf in their belief, for that he spared not holysteads when he slew the king in the shrine before Þor's altar. That which they call Surtr's fire, is Troja’s burning. But Moþi and Magni ÖkuÞorr sons came to crave land of Ali or ViÞarr, he is Eneas, he came away from Troja and wrought afterward great works. So is it also said that Ector's sons came to Frigialand and set themselves up in that realm and drave away Elenus.


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Contents Huns
Contents Tele
Contents Alans
Ogur and Oguz
Alans and Ases
Kipchaks In Europe
Gmyrya L. Caspian Huns
  Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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