Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
Yu.Zuev Seyanto Kaganate and Kimeks
|Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz||
|Tele in Chinese annals|
|Contents||<= Part 1 Division 5 Hoihu||Part 1 Division 7 Hoihu||Part 1 Division 7 Tele =>|
See introduction for Part 1 Division 5 Hoihu. The period of 540 - 840 AD bears the events in which Uigurs participated as members of Tele union or separately. The Chinese annals recorded many events of the Uigur saga.
* * *.The posting's notes and explanations, added to the text of the author and not noted specially, are shown blue in parentheses (), grammatical clarifications in angular brackets <>. В оригинальной публикации авторские комментарии, в отличие от прямого перевода, выделяются большими полями, не всегда последовательно; в постинге авторские комментарии в тексте выделяются рамками.Авторские примечния в оригинальной публикации выделены круглыми скобками 1). Page numbers are shown at the beginning of the page in blue, with associated PDF file page number. To avoid font conflicts, the Russian original is presented in modern orthography. The dates highlighted by N.Bichurin are shown in front of the respective sentence; a few of them are clearly erroneous. Additional subtitles are shown in blue. The copyright to the 1851 publication expired long ago, the publication is in the public domain.
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Ancestors of the House of Oikhor (Uigur) were Huns. 1) They usually rode carts with high wheels: so during Yuan-wei dynasty they still were called Gaogui or Chile, wrongly transformed to Tele. Their generations (tribes, divisions; in Tr. "ok" = "bone") are:
Yuange (Oikhor, Uigur),
Total fifteen generations (tribes). They lived dispersed along northern side of the Great sandy steppe (western part of Gobi desert). 2).
Yuange, i.e. Oikhor (Uigur), also were called Wuhu, Uge; during Sui dynasty were called Weige. 3) Oikhors (Uigurs) are brave and strong. Originally they had no elders; depending on sufficiency of grass and water, moved from place to place. Skilful in mounted bow shooting; inclined to larceny and robberies. Supposedly, they were subjects of the House of Dulga (Ashina Türks). Dulganians (Ashina Türks) with their forces were heroes in the deserts of the north (this is a remarkable statement, worded exactly like the Türkic runiform inscription discovered 15 centuries later - Translator's Note).
1) I.e. the sovereign House of Oikhor (Uigur)
descended from the House of Hunnu (Huns).
During the reign of Da-e, 1) Chulo-khan attacked Tele tribes and imposed heavy levy; but afraid of their wrath, he gathered few hundred of their elders and killed all of them (Western Türkic Kaganate, ca 605). Oikhor (Uigur), joined with Pugu, Tunlo and Baegu, seceded, declared himself a Sygin (Tekin Erkin, 605-646?, sygin = erkin), and adopted a name Hoige. 2) A surname of the Oikhor House was Iologe (Yaglakar). 3) It was located north of Seyanto along the river Solin, 4) 7,000 li from capital. It had up to 100,000 people, including a half, i.e. up to 50,000 army. The soil is rocky and salty. Of cattle most of all <they> had large-legged rams. The people also proclaimed Shygyan-Sygin their sovereign. His senior son Pusa was brave and clever; <he> loved hunting very much; in battles always was in front, and where he went, he crushed everything: so subordinates feared and obeyed him. Shygyan removed him. On Shygyan death the clansmen, who respected Pusa (646), raised him as a sovereign. His mother Ulohun, a woman strict and clever, run well the generation (here and everywhere: generation = a tribe, federation, people, subdivision; depending on context). Oikhor- Yaoshy (Pusa) 6) gradually gained strength, and jointly with Seyanto attacked the northern limits of Dulgans (Western Türkic Kaganate, ca 627).
628 Heli-khan (Aru Kagan, Western Türkic Kaganate) - to pacify them - sent Yuiga She with 100,000 cavalry, 628. Pusa with 5,000 cavalry defeated him at Ma-tszun-shan mountain, pursued to Heavenly mountains (Tian-shan), and took a great multitude in captivity. His glory has shaken the northern countries. Yaoshy (Pusa) submitted to Seyanto, and they mutually supported each other.
1) In Gan-mu in 606.
Accepting a name Ho-Gielifa (Sylifa/Sulifa), <he> (Seyanto, i.e. Jenchu-Bilge-Kagan =Pearly Wise Kagan, or Pusa Sylifa?) set his court along the river Dulo (Also Tola in the sources, and in non-Mongolian literature; present Mongolian name Tuul, Tuul-gol 48°N 105°E; Bichurin is using predominantly the name Tola elsewhere; the river and Türkic tribes share this name; its form Dulosu = Dulo+river is a prominent fixture in Türkic mythology; tribe Dulo was a prominent member of European Huns, the 5th c. domain of the European Hun's confederation was called Duloba = Dulo-land, Dulo-habitat; that was retained in the Slavic "Duleby" = people of Duloba; Khan Kurbat/Kubrat of 7th c. Great Bulgaria was of Dulo clan; that was recorded in the Sherjere-Nominalia of Bulgarian Khans. As a dynastic clan of the Eastern Huns, Dulo tribal confederation played a prominent role in the Western Türkic Kaganate; provided a number of rulers in various Asian countries; and remains a major ethnic union in Kazakstan, under a name Dulat with Mongolian pl. ending).
629 In the third year of Chjen-guan rule, 629, for the first time <they> came to the Court to present local products. The House of Dulga (Tukue, Eastern Türkic Kaganate) has already fallen, and the Oikhor (Uigur) and Seyanto came to extreme strength. Upon a death of Pusa, the Oikhor head Hulu Sylifa Tumidu with other generations (tribes) attacked Seyanto, crushed it and seized its lands; after that in the south passed across He-lan-shan to the Yellow river, 1) and sent an envoy with an offer of a submission. T'hai-tszun undertook a travel to Lin-chjeu, and, lodging in Gin-yan, received his feats. After that came eleven Tele generations (tribes), 2) and presented that "Seyanto did not obey the Great Power, and with that drew destruction upon himself. His subject elders out of fear dispersed like birds - not known where to. Now everyone has a part of the land allocated to him; everyone wishes to submit to the Son of Sky, and <they> are asking to institute for them rankings of the House of T'han." Was directed to prepare a great table and to introduce the elders. A few thousand of them with that received rankings of the House of T'han. 3)
630 The next year, 630, they again came to the Court. And so the aimak Oikhor (Uigur) has been transformed to Baikal, the aimak Dolange to Yanjan, the aimak Pugu to Gin-wei, the aimak Baegu to Yulin, the aimak Tunlo to Guilin, the aimak Syte to Lushan governorships; 3) Aimak Hun was renamed to Gao-lan-chjeu district.
1) Opposite of the north-western corner of Ordos.
Huse in Gao-kue-chjeu, the Ade in Githyan-chjeu, Kibiui in Yui-hi-chjeu, Hige in Gil chjeu, Syge in Gui-lin-chjeu, Baisi in Dyan-yan-chjeu; from them on northwest generation Gegu in Gyangun-fu, in north Guligan in Suan-kue-chjeu, on north-east Guilobo in Chjo-lun-chjeu. In all these aimaks their own elders were installed as chiefs with Chinese military titles; 1) and for centralized control of them in the former place, called Shanyu -t'hai, was founded Yan-yan vice royal office, 2) overseeing the above six governorships and seven districts. Li So is installed а Yanjan viceroy. To the chief commander and the governors are given twin 3) golden seals in a form of fishes with letters of pure gold.
1) I.e. the elders under Chinese names Du-lu, Tsy-shy, Chjan-shu, Sy-ma were installed as
heads of their generations
(tribes) and clans.
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This time the Son of Sky favorably received the remote foreigners; granted them sturdy caftans (long outer coat) (long outer coat) of cherry-red and yellow colors, expensive sabers and rare things. The emperor sat in a secret throne room. Posted music. In front of the throne room was set out a high buffet, and on the top of the buffet was placed a cinnabar lacquer vessel. From a side room on the east, adjacent with a bouquet, was covertly laid a channel through which wine flew into the vessel, and from the vessel it poured into a huge vase on suspended on chains. A few thousands of Oikhors (Uigurs) got drunk, and could not drink even a half of it. Was directed to drink both to civil and military officials, from 5-them class and higher.
After that was directed to build 68 lounges which would hold koumiss and meat, from the Great sandy steppe
(western part of Gobi desert)
to the south to the southern side of the Baklan (pelican)
spring - for the embassies that would deliver the annual yasak
(tribute) of the sables. And so the emperor gave
Tumidu Chinese titles; but Tumidu, in spite of it, continued to be called khan in his
possessions. The names of other eminences and rankings remained the same with those of
Dulgans (Ashina Türks). There were six external
and three internal ministers. There were titles Du-du, Gyan-gun, Syma and so forth. The emperor
decree renamed Shygyan-Sygin's aimak into Tsilyan-chjeu
(Onion Mountains) district, and
subordinated it to the chief commander in Lin-chjeu, aimak Baisi renamed into Gui-yan-chjeu
Uge, Tumidu's nephew from his senior brother, had an affair with Tumidu's wife, after that he with Guilu Mohe Dagan (Tarkhan) Guilobo contrived to revolt and switch to Chebi khan (who fought against Chinese occupation of Western Türkic Kaganate). These two men were both Chebi khan's sons-in-law from his daughters: so Uge at night with cavalry seized Tumidu, and killed him. Yuan Li-chen, an assistant of the Yanjan viceroy, sent a messenger to deceitfully invite Uge, promising to make him a chief commander. Uge, not suspecting a deceit, arrived to give thanks: so his head was chopped off, and posted on display. The emperor, afraid that other generations (tribes) would waver in their minds, sent a president of Military Chamber Tsui Dun-li with bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top) - to calm them down; bestowed Tumidu with a military rank 1) and sent rich assistance for the funerals; to his son Pojun he gave a military rank, 2) and approved him as a successor his father's aimak. Guilobo, after his arrival to the Court, was detained in the capital. When Ashina Helu (Aru Kagan, Western Türkic Kaganate) plundered Bei-t'hin ("Northern commissariat" of Chinese occupation system, 43.7° N, 92.7°E), Pojun with 50,000 cavalry helped Kibi Heli and others to crush Helu and take back Bei-t'hin. Then, joining with Jen Ya-syan, a chief commander on the road to Ili, again crushed Helu (Aru Kagan) in Gin-ya-shan mountains; 3) being raised in rank, 4) rendered more services, being with the sovereign to the war with Korea. Upon a death of Pojun succeeded his son Bili. During the reign of Lun-sho, 5) Oikhor (Uigur) was subordinated to the Yanjan office of chief commander, and this office was renamed Baikal viceroyalty, and the Great sandy steppe (western part of Gobi desert) was set as a border line.
1) Upon his death he was given a rank: Tseo-wei Da-gyan-gun.
Generally, almost all northern foreigners were subordinated. 1) Upon a death of Bili his son Dugyaichjy (Toghuchi, 681 - 715) succeeded. During a reign of empress Wu-heu, Dulga Moch-jo gained strength and captured former Tele lands: for this reason Oikhor (Uigur) with three generations (tribes): Kibi, Syge and Hun crossed over Great sandy steppe (western part of Gobi desert), 2) and occupied lands against Lyan-chjeu and Gan-chjeu. House of T'han frequently took from them strong riders for reinforcing Chi-shui division. Upon a death of Dugyaichjy (Toghuchi) his son Fudifu (Utibeg, 715 - 719) was installed.
663 The next year, 663, Fudifu (Utibeg), helping House of T'han, went against Mochjo, and killed him: 3) so from another generation (tribe) Igyan Gelifa (Sylifa?), together with Tunlo and Baisi came to the border. Was directed to place these generations (tribes) from the corps of Da-wu-gun to the north. Upon a death of Fudifu (Utibeg) his son Chentszun (Chinzon 719 - 727?) was installed. Wan Gun-cho, chief commander in Lyan-chjeu, slandered him: so Chentszun was banished to Нан-chjeu, where he died. During that time Oikhors (Uigurs) became agitated. Their kinsman, a Baikal military governor Hoshu, using popular wrath, attacked Wan Gun-cho and killed him.
1) I.e. to the Baikal commandery.
727 Wan Gun-cho presented, that four generations (tribes) are contriving to secede. The sovereign sent an official to investigate. The generations could vindicate themselves; so their elder, Oikhor Chentszun (Chinzon 719 - 727?), was banished with others to the south. Chentszun's son Hoshu gathered people to revenge. It happened that Wan Gun-cho went against Tibetans in Су-chjeu. Hoshu killed him in an ambush. See year 727.
The road that went from An-si posessions (south of province Futsyan? Persia?) to pay tribute to the Court was again blocked. After extended time Hoshu fled to Dulgans (Second Türkic Kaganate), where he died. His son Guli Peilo (Etimish Kagan, 742-747) was installed. It happened that in the House of Dulga erupted disturbances.
742 In the first year of T'hyan-bao rule, 742, Peilo and Gelolu (Karluks) proclaimed themselves, the first an eastern, and the second a western She-hu (Yabgu), and helped Basimi to nail Usu-khan.
744 In the third year (of T'hyan-bao rule) Oikhor (Uigur Etimish Kagan), unexpectedly attacking Basimi, beheaded Gede-Ishi-khan, sent an envoy to the Court with a report, and proclaimed himself Gudulu-bigya-gue (Bilge Tengrida Bolmish El Kutlug Bilge Kagan) khan. The son of Sky bestowed him with a title I-wan. 1)
1) Just sovereign, that is, from awe to emperor recognized to be a vassal of
China. Because justice is giving a proper credit to everyone.
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1. KHAN PEILO (Etimish, Bilge Tengrida Bolmish El Kutlug Bilge Kagan, 742-747). Peilo lived in the south in the former Dulga's land; and now stationed his horde between Udegyan (Utuken/Otuken) mountains and river Gun 1) (Orkhon) toward south, 1,700 li from the western wall (during Han dynasty, fortified line Gao Kue-Sai was called Western wall); from north to south reaching Great sandy steppe (western part of Gobi desert) for 300 li, all these lands belonged to nine clans. 2) The nine clans are following:
Iologa (Yaglakar) is the name of the House of Oikhor (Uigur). Among them can't be Pugu, Hun, Baegu, Tunlo, Syge, Kibi. These six Houses were equal with Oikhor (Uigur). Later, when Oikhor (Uigur) won Basimi and Gagodu, with these were accounted eleven clans, which were renamed into eleven governorships under the name of eleven aimaks. 3) Since that time the mentioned two outside generations (tribes) (Basimi and Gagolu) in battles were always in front. The sovereign directed to stage in front of the front throne room 4) a cortege of ceremonial guards during bestowing on Peilo the title: Gudulu Bigya Kue Huai-jen khan. A President of the State Council handed papers to the envoy.
The envoy, after an exit from the gate, sat on a chariot and stepped down at the Huan-chen-myn gate; then mounted a saddle horse, and followed a herald with a flag and bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top). This ceremony was always observed at raising to the khan's status.
715 The next year Peilo also attacked Dulga Baimei-khan, and, killing him, sent Duncholo Dagan (Tarkhan) to devote achievement to the emperor, for which was honored with a highest military rank. 1) Peilo enlarged his possession even more - to the east to Shiwei, to the west to Altai mountains, in the south to the Great sandy steppe (western part of Gobi desert); i.e. gained all lands, previously occupied by Huns. Upon a death of Peilo 2) his son Moyanchjo was installed under a name of Gele-khan.
2. GELE-KHAN MOYANCHJO (Bayanchur, Ay Tengrida Kut Bolmish, Tutmish Bilge Kagan, 747-759). Gele khan was brave, and a skilful commander. <He> was sending an envoy annually to the Court.
756 After sovereign Su-tszun entering the throne, 756, arrived 3) envoy from the (Gele) khan to ask about acceptance of help against rebel An Lushan. 4) An Lushan descended from the Huns that joined China in ancient times; <he> served in the army on the north-eastern border.
736 In 736 year he went with his division against Kidans, and for a defeat in battle was sentenced to death: but with a brave turn right before execution brought to himself the attention of the emperor, and was forgiven. An Lushan was a skilful hypocrite, and a tacit flatterer. The courtiers were bribed by him, and praised him to the skies in front of the emperor: so his rise <in ranks> went fast.
1) Tsao Kyao-Wei Yuan-wai Da-gyan-gun. The head of Baimei-khan was sent to capital.
In 741 An Lushan received a command of a corps in In-chjeu. In 742, when border army was converted into ten corps called Tsze-du, An Lushan received a corps in Phin-lu; in 774 <he> received a command of a corps in Fan-yan, and in 751 of a corps in He-dun. But after receiving three corps under his command, in 754 <he> also still exacted a main command of the state herds. (For details on scope, size, and erstwhile mysterious suppliers of the state horse inventory, see Yu.Zuev) Minister Jan Go-chjun strongly suspected him in contriving against the throne. An Lu-shan, summoned to the capital, so skillfully feigned loyalty to the throne that emperor personally defended him in front of the state officials. Before departure from the capital, An Lu-shan exacted extraordinary awards for 2,500 upper officers, which was needed for him in case of prospective uprising. In 755 he proposed to place foreigners, i.e. Mongols (i.e. Türks), on 32 highest positions, instead of Chinese. Yan Go-chjun submitted that no doubt remain of contrivance: but emperor, in spite of that, directed to replace Chinese military chiefs.
In the seventh moon (of 756?), An Lu-shan asked permission to present to the Court 3,000 horses attended by 6,000 troops under command of 22 officers from foreigners. The emperor <now> saw his mistake, and with a decree of his own hand blocked the shipment of the horses. From that, An Lu-shan saw that the ministry became certain in its suspicions against him: so he hastened to initiate the uprising, and at the end of the year (756?) set out toward the capitals, with 150,000 of border and foreign troops. In the beginning of 757 An Lu-shan proclaimed himself emperor. His main advisers were Yan Chjuan, Gao Shang and Ashina Chen-tsin.
Extracted from Gan-mu.
386 (438 PDF)
Emperor directed prince 1) Chen-tsai to conclude a deal with the (Uigur Gele) khan, 2) and prince Pugu Huai-en was ordered to accompany Chen-tsai to the horde. And so, the Oikhor (Uigur) army was invited. The Khan, delighted with that, gave out for Chen-tsai his younger sister-in-law, and sent an elder to ask for peace and kinship. The emperor, wishing to sustain a good mood of the (Gele) khan, raised the Oikhor maiden (Uigur Khan's younger sister-in-law) to the status of Bigya (= Bilga = Tr. "wise") princess. After that, (Gele) khan himself led his troops. Joining with Go tszy-i, a chief commander in Sho-fan, he crushed Tunloans at Yellow river, and converged with Tszy-i in Hu-yan-gu. 3) The (Uigur) Khan, proud of his force, staged his army, brought Tszy-i to bow to the wolfish standard, and then met him. The emperor had his stay in Phyn-yuan. Envoy Gelochjy was ashamed that he was placed in the ranks below anybody. 4) Th. The emperor, wishing arrest the vexation constricting the envoy, ordered to bring him to the throne, and petted him. Soon arrived the commander-in-chief Dolan with others, and successor Shehu (Yabgu) with 4,000 cavalry came for his orders . 5) So the emperor raised Bigya-princess to a status of a prince spouse, made prince Chen-tsai a president of the Prince Council and a khan; above that, <he> elevated him (Chinese prince Chen-tsai) to the Shehu (Yabgu) status with four bunchuks (stuff with horsehair on the top) and ordered him, together with Shehu (Yabgu), to lead the (Uigur) army. The emperor directed prince 6) Chu during a meeting with Shehu (Yabgu) to resolve to be brothers (exploiting the Türkic sacred custom of blood be-fraternizing).
1) Dun-hun Gun Wan.
Shehu (Uigur Yabgu) was extremely happy, and ordered the elder Dagan (Tarkhan) with others first to go to Fu-fyn to meet Tsey-i. Tszy-i was feasting them for three days. Parting with him, Shehu (Uigur Yabgu) said: the Court is in a great difficulty. I came to help with suppressing the rebels. Do I dare to feast? But by convincing prescript 1) I remained. Annually he should be given bulls 40 horns, rams 800 legs, 2) rice 40 bags. The troops were positioned to battle along the river Fyn-shui. 3) The rebels hid cavalry in an ambush on the eastern side of the imperial army, to attack us unexpectedly. Pugu Huai-en with Oikhor cavalry discovered ambush, and slew them up to the last rider, after which he went to the rear of the rebels and with Li Sy-e 4), a former chief commander in Bei-t'hin, struck from the front and from the rear. The rebels were completely crushed. 5) Chan-an was retaken. Huai-en (Pugu) with Oikhors (Uigurs), southern Mans (Indians) and Dashi (Arabs) surrounded the capital and dug in on its southern side on the east bank of the river Chan-shui; then stopped on the western side of the city Shan-chjeu, and gave battle at a lounge Sin-dyan. In the beginning, as Oikhors (Uigurs) came to Kui-vo, Shehu (Uigur Yabgu) sent a leader Bishitubo Peilo to go east near the southern mountains and mop up ambushes in mountain the valleys, which he accomplished, and stopped on the northern side of the mountains.
1) I.e. under a request.
Tszy-i entered a battle with rebels, but soon his army stalled, and started retreating. Oikhors (Uigurs), seeing that, immediately crossed western mountains, have unwrapped their flags, and swiftly struck rebels in the rear. The rebels looked back, and came to great disarray. They were pursued for some tens li. Horses were exhausted; people trampled each other. A great multitude were killed: weapon laid in piles. Yan Chjuan, after taking An Tsin-sui, left the eastern capital 1), and crossed to the northern bank of the Yellow river.
From the time when he started the war An Lu-shan began to loose sight so badly that now he could not discern objects. In this illness he become irritable and crueler. If the attendants did something a little different from his ideas, he inflicted corporal punishment, and sometimes executed. Yan Chjuan, though he run affairs for him, also was not absolved from punishment by sticks; and the main eunuch Li Chju-err was beaten more then others. The courtiers were fearful every minute. When his son was born, An Lu-shan wanted to make him a successor instead of the senior son An Tsin-sui. Chju-err and Chjuan at night with weapons stood by the tent. Chju-err entered tent with a saber, and punched Lu-shan in his belly. Lu-shan wanted to grab a sabre that was laying near him, but the sabre was not there. These are domestic villains, said Lu-shan, and died. Chjuan notified the ranks that Lu-shan is dangerously sick, and declared Tsin-sui as a successor to the throne. This false successor gave Lu-shan a title of supreme emperor, and only then anounced his death.
Tsin-sui was by nature week-minded; even his words were disconnected. Chjuan did not allow him to meet people. Tsin-sui spent days in drunkenness and amusements, made Chjuan a minister, and delegated to him all decisions without exception. Lu-shan was killed in the first moon of 757 years. Gan-mu year 757.
In the eastern capital Oikhors (Uigurs) went out on great plunder for three days. Villains 1) served them as leaders. The state kazna (treasury) become completely empty. Prince Chu wanted to stop robberies, but could not do it. Old men presented Oikhors (Uigurs) 10,000 pieces of silk fabrics, and they ceased plundering. Shehu (Uigur Yabgu) returned from the eastern capital 2). The emperor directed the ranks to meet and to feast him. Sited in the front throne room, he invited Shehu (Uigur Yabgu) to come up the porch. The elders were seated below and dined. Each of them was presented with silk fabrics and dishwares. Shehu (Uigur Yabgu), bowing to the emperor, said: leaving the army in Sha-yuan, I am going to fatten horses, in order to take Fan-yan and to exterminate the remains of the rebels. The emperor answered to it: you only with your efforts could, having exhausted for me your justice and bravery, to accomplish a great deed. So he directed to give him (Uigur Yabgu) a title of the president of the Building chamber and princely status, 3) and to annually afford him 20,000 pieces of silk fabrics, to receive which <they> should come to the Sho-fan corps.
758 In the first year of Kyan-yuan rule, 758, Oikhor envoy Doyan Ebo at the entrance to the palace got into dispute with Gech-jy, a head of black caftan (long outer coat) Dashi (Arabs) 4), about a seniority. They were led inside at the same time, but through different gates.
1) From Chinese.
Oikhor envoy also asked about marriage, and a word was given. The emperor gave out for (Gele) khan his juvenile daughter princess Nin-go; and gave Moyanchjo a title In-wu-wei-yuan 1) Bigya-khan. He directed to appoint prince 2) Yui an envoy with document, and a nobleman Sun his assistant; junior minister Phei Man to see them to the border. The emperor addressed exhorted the princess, and for that undertook a trip to Syan-yan. He consoled her a few times. The princess in tears said: our house now has a lot of troubles; I am ready to die without regret. When prince Yui arrived to the horde, (Gele) khan in a Türkic kolpak (bonnet cap) and a red caftan (long outer coat) sat in his yurt (lodge type tent). In front of him <stood> magnificent retinue. Prince Yui was brought and positioned in front of the yurt. He was asked: 3) Prince (Gele) and Celestial khan 4) how are between them? We are cousins, answered Yui. At that time eunuch Lei Lin-tszun stood higher then prince Yui. <He> was also asked: who is this standing above the prince? An eunuch, answered Yui. The eunuch is a slave, (Gele) khan said; can he stand above a noble? Lei-tszun immediately moved to a lower place. After that Yui was led into yurt. Yui did not bow. (Gele) Khan told him that courtesy demands to bow in front of the sovereign: Yui answered "The Son of Sky, out of respect for services of the (Gele) khan, through his favorite daughter concludes a friendship. Earlier, the Middle Court, entering marriage relationship with northern foreigners, gave out for them princesses from their clan, princess Ninngo is a daughter of the emperor, virtuous, beautiful, given out 10.000 li away.
1) First four words are Chinese.
(Gele) Khan as a son-in-law of the Son of Sky, is obliged to meet with politeness: how it is possible to accept "decree" sto gong? Khan became ashamed, and, rising from the place, with a bow received the decree and the letter; and on the other day honored the princess with a title of Quinn Khan. All gifts, presented by prince Yui, the (Gele) khan dispensed to the elders in his service. After the prince returned, he presented to the emperor 500 horses, sable fur, and a white thin woolen fabric, sent young prince Guchjo Dede (dede = lesser member of dynastic clan) and minister Dide with 3,000 cavalry to aid with suppression of the rebels: so the emperor ordered Pugu Huai-en to accept this division under his command. Khan also sent an important elder and a commander with three maidens and to thank for the marriage, and also to inform about conquest of the Gyangun (Khakas, Enisei Kipgiz) possession. 1)
759 The next year, 759, Guchjo, joining nine chief commanders, gave a battle the rebels under Syan-chjeu. 2) The Imperial army was crushed. Dide with others fled to the capital.
1) From this place is visible that possession Hagas was subjugated by Oikhors
(Uigurs) in 758.
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The emperor generously rewarded him (Dide), calmed him down, and released to return back. Soon the (Uigur Gele, 715-759) khan died. Nobles also wanted the princess to accompany him. The princess said them: in the Middle state if a son-in-law by the daughter would die, the wife is obliged stay by the coffin in the morning and in the evening for three years. That terminates the rites. The house of Oikhor (Uigur), concluding a marriage union <at a distance of> 10,000 li, has done it out of fidelity to the Middle Court: hence I should not accompany the khan. And so was concluded; nevertheless, she had by their custom to incise her face and cry. But because from the princess were no sons, she returned to China. 1) The former Shehu (Uigur Yabgu), a successor to the throne, for one crime suffered a death penalty; so was installed a next son Idigyan, under a name Meuyui-khan.
3. MEUYUI-KHAN IDIGYAN (759-778). Meuyui khan was married to a daughter of prince Pugu Huai-en. The late khan asked for a marriage for the youngest son. The Imperator gave out for him the mentioned princess, and now she became a Quinn Khan (this embellishing line simply records the Türkic levirate tradition, a younger member of the family marrying a widow, and thus ensuring her status and livelihood; this is an obligation of a man, the widow is free to decide).
760 The next year, 760, (Uigur) khan sent to the Court a noble Guila Mohe Dagan (Tarkhan) with others, and charged him to enquire about the health of the princess. The envoy introduced himself to her in the throne room Yan-in-dyan. As Shy Chao-i was not exterminated yet, Dai-tszun, after succeeding to the throne, 760, again sent eunuch Lu Tsin-t'han to conclude a friendship and to appeal about sending an (Uigur) army.
1) She returned to the capital in August.
Even before the envoy's arrival to Oikhor (Uigur), Chao-i notified them that the House of T'han sufferred a heavy loss, the state has no sovereign, and besides is in confusion, and asked khan to come to China to take away state treasures, and he has no need in them. The (Uigur) Khan was planning to lead troops to the south.
Shy Sy-min was mistrustful and bloodthirsty, and his subordinates were always in danger. Shy Chao-i, his senior son, was not liked by him. Shy Sy-min loved a junior son Shy Chao-tsin, and left him to guard Fan-yan. He constantly wanted to kill Shy Chao-i, and to declare Shy Chao-tsin his successor; and when he crushed Li Guan-bi; than taking advantage of the victory, attempted to enter Guan. He sent Shy Chao-i against Shan-chjeu, and himself followed him with a large army. Shy Chao-i was a few times defeated. Shy Sy-min became angry, scolded him and wanted to execute.
761 Shy Chao-i, as soon as he sat on the throne, sent people to Fan-yan to inflict death on Shy Chao-tsin and those who did not submit to him, in total a few tens of people. This incident happened in the third moon, i.e. in April 761. Gan-mu. 761.
762 In the first year of Bao-in rule, 762, in the eighth month Lu Tsin-t'han came to the court of the (Uigur) khan with a decree. Khan asked him: it is said that the House of T'han peished; whence is the envoy? " Tsin-t'han answered him "The late emperor, though has left the celestial, but prince 1) Chu already has entered the Son of Sky throne. With his clemency, sanctity, and bellicosity he is like the late emperor: and consequently jointly with Shehu (Uigur Yabgu) could take both capitals; and as a victor over the rebel An Tsin-sui, <he> is already familiar enough with you. In addition, he annually gives to Oikhor House silk fabrics. How is it possible to forget him?"
1) Guan-phin Wan.
By that that time the Oikhor (Uigur) have already passed three cities. Seeing, that provinces and districts are overgrown with wild bushes and grasses, mail guardhouses are without karauls (sentries), neglects started showing disrespect to the House of T'han. And so they sent messengers to the north to take from Khan domains an army and state property, and a few times offended Tsin-t'han with insulting words. Tsin-t'han secretly reported to the Court that Oikhors (Uigurs) are going to the border with 100,000 army. The court was horrified, and sent a nobleman 1) Ie Tszy-mao to meet and feast them, and with that to spy on the army. Tszy-mao met them in T'hai-yuan, and surreptitiously found out that their army reaches 4,000, 2) and with them are up to 10,000 of weak <people>, that they are driving 40,000 horses, and that Khan with Quinn Khan are with the army. The emperor ordered Pugu Huai-en to meet with Oikhors (Uigurs). In consequence of this meeting, Oikhors (Uigurs) sent an envoy with a report which asked for permission to assist the Son of Sky in suppression of the rebels. Oikhors (Uigurs) wanted to enter Phu-guan, pass through Sha-yuan, and then turn east. Tszy-mao told them: from the time when robberies and disturbances begun, provinces and districts are devastated; there is no place to receive huge subsidies for maintenance; besides the rebels lounge in eastern capital; and if to travel through Tszin-hin, aiming to take Hin-lo-wei, the rebels' treasures can be seized. And so to go with drumbeat to the south is there a best plan. He was not listened to. However, spoke Tszy-mao, if to hasten on the road through T'hai-khan; and in the south to capture He-yan, it is possible to pinch a throat to the rebels.
Again <they> have not listened. Then be content with millet from baker's shops in T'hai-yuan, said Tsey-mao, and settle in Shan-chjeu and unite with the army from Tsze-lu, Henan, and Huai-chjen. Oikhors (Uigurs) agreed to that. It was directed to the prince Yun-wan 1) to accept the supreme command over the army in the empire, to promote Tszy-mao, 2) and with the military leader 3) Wei Kui to be assistants to him (Yun-wan), the first a senior, the second a junior; the nobleman 4) Wei Shao-hua a public prosecutor, 5) Li Tszin a managing director for the supreme leader. In the east they came together with Oikhors (Uigurs). It is prescribed to the supreme commander to be in the head of the army, and in Shan-chjeu to unite with all corps' chiefs. During that time the (Uigur) khan stood in entrenchments on the northern side of the city Shan-chjeu. Prince went to him for a meeting. The (Uigur) Khan gave him reprimand that he did not mimic in front of him. Tszy-mao said that the prince is a grandson of emperor. Both emperors passed away, and rites do not require to do mimicry. Oikhors (Uigurs) said, the (Uigur) Khan is a younger brother of the Son of Sky, an uncle of the prince: is it possible to admit that he would not made mimicry? Tszy-mao objected, the supreme commander is a successor of the Houses T'han, having to reign in the Middle state; should he make mimicry for the Khan? The (Uigur) Khan, seeing impossibility to convince them, ordered to take Tszy-mao away, and give a hundred canes to the nobles Wei Shao-hua and Bei Kui, from which both died in the same evening. Prince returned to the camp.
1) A successor of the throne
The imperial army, seeing the prince imprecated, contemplated to exterminate Oikhors (Uigurs) by joint forces. But prince stopped them; because inner disturbances have not been stopped yet (Tang Empire broke into three parts, An Lushan Yan Empire, 756-763, Shi Siming Suzong Empire, 759-763, and remnants of Tang Empire). After that Pugu Huai-en with Oikhor (Uigur) eastern Sha (Sha = Shad, blood prince; Eastern = Tolis, eastern wing of the Uigur Kaganate; eastern Sha = Tolis Shad of Uigur Kaganate) pranced forward. East Sha (Shad) seized spies sent by Shy Chao-i and presented <them> to the emperor. He struck the rebels simultaneously with others leaders. The battle was very bloody. 1) At last <they> took the eastern capital. (Uigur) Khan sent Bahenu to congratulate the Son of Sky and to present him Chao-i flags. Yun-wan returned to Lin-bao; the (Uigur) khan settled down on the southern bank of the Yellow river, and was staying there for three months. The inhabitants of the neighboring places badly suffered from robbery and fury of Oikhors (Uigurs). Pugu Chan with Oikhor (Uigur) army continued to fight with Chao-i, and blood flowed for 2,000 li of space. Finally, Chao-i head was hung out, and in Hebei settled calmness.
1) The rebels lost 60,000 killed and 20,000 captured. Gan-mu 762. Battle happened in
Huai-syan took his head and presented to the Court. So was terminated the internal war in China that lasted for seven years. The cruelty of that war can be judged by the loss in the population. By the census conducted
So during ten years, the loss in people reached 6,611,000 families. Extracted from Gan-mu.
Pugu Huai-en on the road to Syan-chjeu returned to the camp by the Go-kheu pass in the western mountains 1). The (Uigur) Khan went againt Tsze-lu, and on the road to T'hai-yuan met with Huai-en (Pugu). When Oikhors (Uigurs) for the first time came to the eastern capital, <they> let the army to plunder. Inhabitants fled to the Buddha monasteries, Shen-shan-sy and Bai-ma-sy. Oikhors (Uigurs) became upset, burn the monasteries and killed up to 10,000 people. Now they acted at will even more; defamed officials, and even with weapons broke into Gu-an-lu-sy at night. 2) Go In-i, chief commander in Shan-chjeu, and Yui Chao-en, temporarily left to control the eastern capital, and a corps from Sho-fan fell to act at will. Seeing, that Oikhors (Uigurs) make mischief, they also plundered Ju-chjeu and Chjen-Chjeu. In the settlements remained no intact hut; inhabitants instead of attire covered with sheets of writing paper.
1) In Yai-myn.
<Their> acts more inhumane than rebels. The emperor, remembering the death of the nobles Shao-hua and Kui, posthumously promoted both in ranks, 1) and for each promoted one son to sixth class 2). After that with a certificate gave (Uigur) khan a title: Gedu Dynli Guchjo Mishi, in connection with the title In i gyan gun Bigya-khan; Quinn Khan gave a title Somo Guan-tsin Hua-li 3) Bigyai Quinn Khan; military noble nobleman 4) Wan I send with a document to the horde. From khan to Tszaisyan 5) everybody was allotted 20,000 families; also are given princely statuses to the eastern Sha (Tolis Shad of Uigur Kaganate) with title Hun-sho Wan, western Sha (western wing = Tardush, Tardush Shad of Uigur Kaganate) with title Nin-sho Wan, Hulu chief governor with title Gin-he Wan, Balan chief with title Tszin-mo Wan, to all ten chief governors of generations (tribes) 6) with title Go-gun. 7)
765 In the first year of Yun t'hai rule, 765, Huai-en (Pugu) started revolt. 8) He persuaded Oikhors (Uigurs) and Tibetans to invade China, but soon died, and two antagonists 9) started contention for superiority.
This incident, which surprised everybody with its unpredictability, was a consequence of a reason concealed for a long time under a curtain of secret. When Pugu Huai-en received from the emperor an assignment to meet with Oikhor khan in T'hai-yuan, a corps commander of that country, mindful that Huai-en (Pugu) may contrive to seize his place, refused to admit him to the city, and did not organize a feast customary for the army invited from abroad.
1) The first is given rank Tszo-syan-ki Chan-shy, the second: Yan-chjeu
Huai-en (Pugu) brought a complaint to the emperor, which was not answered; and one of the upper eunuchs was sent to T'hai-yuan to scout about the case. The eunuch, bribed by the corps commander, upon return informed the emperor that a mutinous plan of the Huai-en (Pugu) prince was very obvious. Huai-en (Pugu), having learned about that slander, asked emperor to execute both the eunuch and the corps commander for a false accusation: but the emperor wanted to reconcile them, and after the end of the war he summoned Huai-en (Pugu) to the Court.
Huai-en (Pugu) was an Oikhor (Tele) sovereign prince from the Pugu generation (tribe). After entering allegiance with China, he served him (emperor) with complete fidelity; in force and bravery few commanders could equate with him, and in the past internecine war always commanded and fought in the front corps, which consisted of elite troops. Forty six men from his house fell in battles in that war. He executed his son in front of the troops for surrendering in capture to the enemy; gave out two daughters to the far land (China) as princesses, and twice convinced the Oikhor (Uigur Kagan) khan, his son-in-law, to return the capitals. That way he really rendered to China great services. But when the emperor demanded him into the capital, Huai-en (Pugu) clearly saw, that his head inescapably will be a victim the eunuch intrigues; so he turned to the weapons for safety. Extracted from Gan-mu.
Oikhor highest elder came covertly to Gin-yan (how can a Türkic
Uigur come unnoticed to a Chinese town?), and, having met with Go Tszy-i, offered him
his services. Tszy-i with his retinue approached the Oikhor camp. We wish to see you,
said Oikhors (Uigurs).
Tszy-i entered the gate
of the camp. Will you take off your armor, said Oikhors (Uigurs)? Tszy-i changed
his dress. The elders glanced at each other, said: it is surely him.
At that time Li Guan-tszin and Lu Sy-gun held the horse from the sides. Tszy-i told the elders: this is a chief commander on northern side the rivers Zei (Zeya); this is such and such, in charge of the corps grain stocks in Sho-fan. The elders dismounted their horses and bowed. Tszy-i also dismounted from the horse. A few hundred foes surrounded him to gaze at him. His retinue also drew close. Tszy-i ordered those surrounding him to step back; ordered to serve wine and to lay out 3,000 pieces of silk fabrics for headbands, 1) called up the junior brother of the (Uigur) Khan He Hulu with others, and taking his hand, said loudly: "The sovereign, remembering Oikhor (Uigur) achievements, expressed generously his gratitude to you. Why you turn out ungrateful and came here? Now I want to fight with you. Why you do not submit? I alone entered your camp. Suppose you would kill me; but my commanders and troops can strike on you." The elders were dumbfounded and said submissively: Huai-en (Pugu) has deceived us. He said that the Son of Sky from the House of T'han fled to the south, and that you are deprived of the posts. Now, if the heavenly khan is alive, and you are safe, we wish to better return and strike on Tibetans, to thank for the great benevolence. But because the sons of the late Huai-en (Pugu) are younger brothers of the Quinn Khan, we wish that they were relieved of a death penalty. After this, Tszy-i accepted wine, and the He-Hulu asked him to sware an oath and to drink. Tszy-i said: "To the Son of Sky from House of T'han 10,000 years; to the Oikhor (Uigur) khan also 10,000 years. Let the two sovereigns be in mutual accord.
1) This oath ceremony is unknown.
Who of them will breach this accord, shall he perish in battle; shall his family be exterminated." During that time the Oikhor (Uigur) Tszaisan (yes, the same "zaisan" which Russian cossacks have met with the same title in Western Siberia in 1650) Modu Mohe Dagan (Tarkhan) Tun and others, hearing the oath words, lost their train of thought; and said when the wine affected them: we swear with your oath.
Bai Yuan-guan, a head of the forward corps in the Sho-fen, joined Oikhors (Uigurs) at Lin-t'hai. It happened that light snow started to fall and became very dark. Tibetans locked up the camp, and relaxed safeguards. At that high time (allies) attacked them and slaughtered up to 50,000 men; captured up to 10,000 men; as a bounty received a multitude of horses, camels, bulls and rams; freed up to 5,000 families of captured Chinese. 1) Pugu Minchen submitted. Helulu (He Hulu?) chief governor and up to two hundred of other Oikhor (Uigur) elders came to the Court. An extraordinary multitude of things was given them in reward. Tszy-i introduced Minchen. Minchen, a nephew of prince Pugu Huai-en (Pugu) from his senior brother, was a brave commander.
768 In third year of Da-li rule, 768, Guan-tsin Quinn Khan died. The emperor sent
a court nobleman 2) Syao Hin
(stuff with horsehair on the top) for ugesheni and sacrifices.
1) This incident is described in Gan-mu under year 765.
During that time the state collections were insufficient for expenses. The highest officials were delivering travel <supplies> on camels . Ministers preached at Chjun-wei-tsyao bridge. 1) Oikhors (Uigurs) that remained in the capital were seizing maidens in the markets, attacked with cavalry Han-guan-myn. Huan-chen 2) was always locked up. Eunuch Lu Tsin-t'han was directed to stop that. Oikhors (Uigurs) continued acting up in the markets; seized horses from Shao Yue, the district governor in Chan-an; the government did not dare to remonstrate.
758 Since the time of Kyan-yuan rule, 758, they became very impudent. Each furnished horse was priced at forty pieces of silk fabrics. In a year <they> demanded tens of thousands in payments. Envoys came one after another, and lived in Hun-lu-sy. <They> were delivering weak, unusable horses. The emperor was rewarding generously, hoping to let them to feel: but Oikhors (Uigurs) did not get it, and finally brought 10,000 horses, the emperor felt badly to burden his people, and he paid for only 6,000 horses. 3)
778 In the thirteenth summer, 778, Oikhors (Uigurs) unexpectedly draw close to Chjen-wu, attacked Dun-hin, and invaded T'hai-yuan. Bao Fan, chief governor in He-dun, joined a battle with them at Yan-kui, and was completely crushed. He lost up to 10,000 killed and wounded. Chjan Guan-shen, chief commander in Dai-chjeu also gave a battle in the Yan-hu-gu valley and crushed them. The Oikhors (Uigurs) have left.
1) Т. e were feasted at departure jamborees.
778 De-tszun, on entering the throne, 778, sent an eunuch with news about the death 1) and to conclude friendship <accord>. At that time the Hu nine clans 2) were inciting the (Uigur) khan for a raid, and khan wanted with the whole army to go to the border: so the envoy was received coldly. Tszaisan Dun Mohe Dagan (Zaisan Dun? Baga Tarkhan) told him "T'han is a great power and peaceful toward us. Earlier we raided T'hai-yuan, and seized tens of thousands of sheep, which almost all died on the road. Now with all our forces we shall go to a remote war. But if we should not win, how shall we come back?" Khan did not listen to him. Dunmohe in anger attacked khan (Meuyui-khan, 759-778) and killed him; and exterminated together with him his advisers, and up to 2,000 Hu men, belonging to nine clans, and he himself entered the throne under a name Hegu Dulu Bigya-khan.
1) Late sovereign.
Dynli-khan heeded them. Minister, Dunmohe, bribed by an envoy who arrived from China, advised against it; but the khan did not listen. Using popular opposition to the attack on the south, Dunmohe raised his weapon, killed the khan and himself entered the throne. He sent to the Court an envoy to ask for endorsement. The capital's junior town governor Yuan Hu was directed to go with with a certificate to raise Dunmohe on the throne under a name Wu-i Chen-gun-khan 1).
4. HEGU DULU BIGYA KHAN (778-789). Khan Dunmohe sent with the Chinese envoy Chavgyan-Dagan (Tarkhan) to the Court.
780 In the first year of rule Gyan-chjun, 780, the capital governor 2) Yuan Hu was directed to go with bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top) and with a certificate, which recognized Dunmohe as Wu-i Chen-gun 3) khan. Earlier, the Oikhors (Uigurs) coming to the Middle state, almost always numbering 1,000 people, only from the nine Hu clans remained in the capital, 4) and were attaining there large wealth. It happened that elder Tudun Imisha, and accompanying him great and lesser Meilu, coming back to homeland with saddlebags, 5) stopped for three months in Chjen-wu. The provided sustenance for them good and sufficient, and was a considerable expense. A military chief Chjan Guan-shen covertly learned that in the bags were hidden girls: so he sent a station inspector to pierce bags with a long awl; after which he was really reassured.
1) This title is all in Chinese, and the following in Mongolian
(i.e. Uigur Türkic)
Soon was received a news that Dun-Mohe ascended the throne, and executed many from the nine clans. The scared Hu did not dare to return, and many fled. Tudun supervised very strictly.
Hu 1) presented military chief Guan-shen a pretext and asked to execute all Oikhors (Uigurs) of nine clans. Guan-shen gave them a word, and meanwhile presented sovereign the following: "Oikhors (Uigurs) 2) are not as strong as we think; only nine clans support them. In the Horde now arose disarray, and the army is split. Nomads, seeing profit, advance, seeing riches, join; without opportunity, without riches - once they come in disorder are not fearful. If to miss the present opportunity and let people leave with property, that would give to rebels chances, to robbers bread." And so Guan-shen taught one official to treat Tudun rudely. 3) Tudun really got upset and punished by whipping. On this occasion Guan-shen lined up the army and killed all Oikhor Hu. 4) He collected a few thousand camels and horses, and 100,000 pieces of silk fabrics, and above that he declared, that the Oikhor military chief was contriving to take Chjen-wu: so he was executed. Girls were taken back to Chan-an.
1) From a horde.
Emperor recalled Guan-shen, 5) and in his place placed Phyn Lin-fan; on top of that he sent with Oikhor (Uigur) envoy Luichjy Dagan (Tarkhan) an eunuch to explain circumstances of the case: after that he wanted to break connections with the nomads, and ordered Yuan Hyu to wait for orders in T'hai-yuan. 1)
781 And so (Yuan) Hyu went in the next year, 781, and on that occasion returned remains of Tudun and three more people. Tudun was a (Hegu Dunmohe) khan's uncle by his father. After Hyu's arrival, khan ordered the nobles to come forward with carriages to meet him. A first minister Gegyangas, sitting on a raised place, reprimanded Hyu for the Tudun's murder. Hyu said that Tudun himself began a quarrel with Chjan Guan-shen and was killed in a brawl, and not on an order of the Son of Sky. 2) He also said: envoys by their fault deserved death: but the House of T'han could not execute them, and should turn it over to us. After extended time have Hyu was let go. He with others was close to death: he stayed in the horde for 50 days and did not see the khan. Khan ordered to tell him: all nobles want you dead; I alone am of opposite opinions. Tudun with others has already died. Now avenging death means to wash off blood with blood, and that would not benefit me. Would not it be better if I wash off the blood with water. I was informed that raised (? подъемныя) horses cost the government 1,800,000. 3) Pay me quickly. He sent with Hyu to the Court a military official Kangisan with others.
5) On complaint of Oikhors (Uigurs), Guan-shen was recalled for demotion
to another post. Gan-mu. 780.
Emperor internally swallowed it, and awarded envoy with gold and silk fabrics.
783 In two years, 783, khan sent an envoy to present local products and to ask about peace and kinship. The emperor, recollecting previous displeasures, felt chagrin, and in a conversation with minister Li Mi said: I cannot think of peace and kinship and relative hostages. Li Mi continued, really, <my> sovereign, are you influenced by the events in Shan-chjeu? The emperor said, precisely so, I had many difficulties in the empire then, and consequently was not able to revenge; besides I did not think of a peace. Who disgraced Shao Hua with the others was Meuyui khan, said Li Mi. Figuring that you, sovereign, after ascension to the throne would not fail to pay him back for the insult, he planned to attack <our> borders first; but the troops did not yet move as the present khan killed him. This (Hegu Dunmohe) khan just ascended the throne, he immediately sent an envoy with a report, and, pending a rescript from the Son of Sky, did not cut his hair 1). When Chjan Guan-shen killed Tudun with others, though they detained the envoy for a long time, but at last they released him harmless. And so he is not guilty. You speak the truth, minister: but I should not remain guilty in front of Shao-hua with others; is it so? Li Mi continued, Sovereign, in my opinion not you are guilty in front of Shao-hua, but Shao-hua is guilty in front of you.
1) I.e. did not declare himself a khan. However, this custom is not known in history
(Just the opposite, this Türkic custom is described in
innumerable number of sources, including in the Bulgarian Khans' Shedjere Nominalia "with
shaven heads we reigned on the eastern side of Danube for 515 years", and any ethnological
literature that mentions traditional hair style).
The nomadic elders from the north personally came to help us in difficult circumstances; you, sovereign, were then among Princes not yet mature in age; and without thinking to cross the Yellow river and to enter their camp meant to enter a leopard or a tiger lair; and that was a plan of Shao-hua with others. It was necessary to first agree about the ceremony of the meeting. Even now I am wondering, why was to go in obvious danger? It is better to agree to the marriage and set in the accord the conditions of Khai-yuan rule, 713:
1) if the khan, like the Dulga (Ashina Türks) khan would recognize his
- Then would not be any obstacles to the accord.
Alright, said the emperor, and promised to give out a princess <into marriage>. Oikhors (Uigurs) agreed to the suggested conditions. For the (Hegu Dunmohe) khan was directed to give out a princess Syan-an.
Also was directed to present Oikhor envoy Hekue Dagan (Tarkhan) to the princess in the throne room Lin-de-dyan, to the eunuch to make a portrait from her and to send it to the (Hegu Dunmohe) khan.
788 The next year, 788, (Hegu Dunmohe)
khan sent a chief governor minister Gyade with others, total 1,000 men,
and also sent his younger sister princess Gudulu Bigya
with spouses of the main elders among 50 members to receive the (Syan-an)
princess and deliver matchmaking gifts. Gyade, upon arrival to Chjen-wu, was robbed by Shiweians. Many
were killed in fight. It was directed the remaining 700 person to bring to the capital and to
place them in Hun-lu. The emperor received the envoy at the gate Yan-si-myn.At that time
the khan presented a letter in very respectful expressions. He wrote: before we were
brothers; and now a son-in-law by the daughter constitutes a half-son.
If you, sovereign, are concerned about western Juns, 1) then the son asks for permission go with an army against them. Also asked the folk name Hoihe to change to Hoihu, 2) because hoihu in an attack are like falcon.
The emperor wished to treat Hoihu princess with a dinner, and asked Li Mi about ceremonial. Li Mi said: Su-tszun was a senior relative to prince Dun-huan-wan. The Hoihu House has given out for Dun-huan-wan his daughter. 3) At introduction to the emperor in Phyn-yuan, she bowed in front of the hall. The emperor called her spouse, in Chinese Fu, instead of daughter-in-law Sao. In the days of difficult circumstances was used this ceremony, and with that subordinated to themselves, and even more at present. And so Hoihu princess was led through the gate In-t'hai-myn. Three servants of the senior princess waited inside. Was brought a translator. To deep bows answered with ordinary bows 4) and forward. 5) Emperor came to the secret throne hall.
1) Are meant Tibetans.
The senior princess entered first. Hoihu princess at the entrance made deep bow. The inner master of ceremony 1) brought her to the room of the senior princess. Again <they> asked for a translator, and then everybody left. When the dinner time came, Syan-fei 2) stepped down from the porch and waited. Hoihu princess deeply bowed; Syan-fei answered with ordinary bow. After end of bowing ascended by western staicase, and sat down. If <she> was granted, 3) descended and bowed. If <she> was granted not on behalf of the emperor, <she> stepped a little from the seat and bowed; Syan-fei and princess answered her with ordinary bows.
Before the departure were two of those dinners. The emperor in princely office inspected all officials appointed to the retinue of the princess; appointed prince 4) Chzhen to perform the marriage ceremony; appointed junior minister Guan Wo to accompany the princess and to hand over to the khan a letter for the title Idulu Chan-sheu T'hyan [tsin] Bigya Khan. And princess: Chji-hoi Duan-chjen Chan-sheu Syao-shun Quinn Khan. 5)
789 In the fifth year of Chjen-yuan rule, 789, (Hegu Dunmohe, 778-789) khan died; his son Dolosy ascened. The nobles gave him a title Pantuan Dele (Tegin, a "derelict prince by blood" not eligible for the ascension to the throne).
5. PANTUAN DELE-KHAN (789-786). Go Fyn, chairman in Hun-lu, is sent to the khan with bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top) and a letter for the title: Dynli Loimu Mishi Guilu Bigya Chjung-chjen 6) khan.
755 In Bei-t'hin and An-si from the last years of Thjan-bao rule, 755, when Guan-lun was lost, 7) the road for travel to the Court was cut off. Li Yuan-chjun, chief governor in Bei-t'hin and Go Hin, temporary in the post of chief governor of four fortresses, sent reports to the Court a few times, but none has reached.
1) The eunuch.
786 In the second year of Chjen-yuan rule, 786, Yuan-chjun and others sent reports through the Oikhor (Uigur) possessions, and all these reports reached Chan-an. The emperor has promoted Yuan-chjun to a Great viceroy in Bei-t'hin, Hin a Great viceroy in An-si. Since that time the road at least was open: but the demands of the nomads had no limits. There was a separate generation (tribe) Shato, numbering 6,000 wagons. It was in the neighborhood of Bei-t'hin (lake Barakul, Dzungaria, 43.7° N, 92.7°E), and also complained of heavy exactions, robbers. As to the generations (tribes) of Gelu, Baiyan and Dulga, subjugated by Oikhors (Uigurs), they languished even more, and covertly were loyal to Tibetans: for this reason Tibetans, with assistance of Shato, attacked Bei-t'hin. Gegyangas fought with them, but without success, and Bei-t'hin was taken: so viceroy Yan Si-gu with his army fled to Si-chjeu. Oikhors (Uigurs) with several tens of thousands strong soldiers invited Si-gu to return to take Bei-t'hin; but were completely crushed by Tibetans and lost two thirds of the army killed. Gegyangas fled back to Si-gu, and, gathering the rest of the army, wanted to enter Si-chjeu. Gegyangas, deceiving Si-gu, said: we are going back, and you, (my mister?) should return to China. Si-gu, after returning to the court, commited suicide. Gelu captured Shen-tu-chuan. Oikhors (Uigurs) were strongly frightened and evaded a little to the south.
786 In that year the lesser Quinn Khan She-princess poisoned the
(Dolosy Pantuan Dele) khan. The Quinn Khan was a grand
daughter of Pugu Huai-en. His son was Oikhor Shehu
That's why his daughter received the title She-princess.
The younger brother of the khan ascended the throne. Gegyangas then was continuing the war with Tibet. The upper nobles with upper courtiers killed the throne predator (younger brother?), and proclaimed a juvenile son of the khan Achjo a successor (in essence a palace coup, violating the law of lateral succession. Legally, the son Achjo is an usurper - in Türkic law. In Chinese eyes that tradition is crazy). When Gegyangas returned, the (new) khan with others went out to treat him. Squinching to the ground, they told him about the circumstances of his ascension to the Khanship, and said that their life and death depends on him. They brought the things sent from the emperor with Go-fyn 1) and offered them to Gegyangas. Khan, giving a deep bow, said in tears: now fortunately I am made a successor, and I am getting livelihood from my father. Gegyangas was touched by his youth and humility, embraced him and begun crying; after this began serving him as a vassal, and all things turned over to the army, not leaving any for himself, and that way the horde calmed down. Dabei Dele (Tegin = prince by blood ineligible for succession), Mailu leader, was sent to the Court with a report to wait for orders. 2) Seu Shan, a junior chairman in Hun-lu, was directed to go to Achjo with with a title certificate Fyn-chen-khan. 3)
6. FYN-CHEN KHAN (786-795). Shortly Luichjy Dagan (Tarkhan) has arrived with a report about a death of the junior Nin-go princess. This princess was a daughter of prince Yun-wan. When princess Nin-go was given in <marriage>, the princess was given as her dowry. After <senior> Nin-go princess returned to China, the <junior> princess remained in the horde, and was made a Quinn Khan with a title of junior Nin-go princess, and in succession (or at the same time) <married> to two khans In-wu and In-i. During T'hyan-tsin time she has left the horde and lived separately.
1) I.e. a payment for alliance in the war against Tibet.
With In-i khan she gave birth to two sons, T'hyan-tsin khan killed both of them.
786 In that year Oikhors (Uigurs) attacked Tibet's Gelu in Bei-t'hin (Barkul), were victorious, and presented captives to the Court. 1)
787 The next year (Uigurs) sent Iologe-Gyn to the Court. Gyn was a Chinese, by the name Lui, he was brought up by the (Dolosy Pantuan Dele) khan as a son; so he adopted Khan's name. The emperor used him, showered with rich awards, and made him a second minister.
795 In the eleventh year, 795, (Dabei Tegin) khan died, without leaving hair sons. The (Uigur) Court nobles raised to khanship a minister Gudulu, and sent an envoy with a report. A nobleman 2) Chjan Tszyan was directed to go with a bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top) and with a title certificate: Ai Tynli Louilu Mu-mishi Hehulu Bigya Huai-sin 3) khan.
7. HUAI-SIN KHAN GUDULU (Kutlug, Ay Tengride Ulugh Bolmish Alp Kutlug Bilge Kagan, 795-805). Gudulu (Kutlug) had a nickname Gyade. He became orphaned in his childhood, and was brought up by one of the main elders; was reasonable and gifted with military abilities; during T'hyan-tsin-khan time a few times headed the army; the elders respected and were afraid of him. Under a name Iologe rendering вариоус services, he did not dare to promote his relatives, but collected khan's sons and grandsons and placed them at the (Uigur?) Court.
805 In the first year of Yung-chjen rule, 805, (Gudulu) khan died. Sun Go-lin, a junior chairman in the Hun-lu, was directed to go for consolation and delivery to the newly elected khan of a letter with for a title: Tynli Ehe Tuilu Bigya khan. 4)
In Gan-mu Oikhors (Uigurs) crushed Tibetans
under Lin-chjeu (41° N, 106°E) and in October sent an
envoy to present captives to the Court. See (Gan-mu) 791.
8. GYUILU BIGYA-KHAN (Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Qutluq Bilge Kagan, 805-808).
806 In the first year of Yuan-ho rule, 806, (Uigurs) came to the Court with gifts twice. Then for the first time Moni brought their law (to China) - to eat vegetables daily, to drink water and also koumiss. 1) The Khan was giving them a state support: Moni penetrated into the (Chinese) capital. Through them the merchants of the western markets, at delivery and export of the goods, made many falsifications in road cargo.
808 In the third year, 808, (Uigurs) came with a report about the death of Syan-an princess. The princess was in succession (or at the same time) <married> to four khans; she lived for twenty one year in the Oikhor (Uigur) horde. Not long later and the (Gyuilu) khan also died. Syan-tszun appointed prince Li Hyao-chen, a junior president in the princely Council, with a title certificate: Ai Dynli Lou Mishihe Bigya Bao-i 1) khan.
9. BAO-I KHAN (Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish, Alp Bilge Kagan, 808-821). In three years were two embassies to the Court. Inanchju was sent twice to ask for a marriage. There was no answer. Khan sent 3,000 cavalry to the Goose spring; so from Chjenvu was sent an army detachment to the Hei-shan mountains (Black Mountains, NE of Huanhe bend), where for protection from the enemies was built a small town T'hyan-de-chen.
1) Gan-mu under 806 says: Oikhors (Uigurs)
arrived to the Court with tribute: with them for the first time arrived Moni for
whom a monastery was built. An explanation says: Moni is a name of people observing
Buddhist law. They were Oikhor subjects. They came annually, and made various transgressions; so in
the twelfth year, in 817, they were expelled to their state. Historians do not always write
about arrival of the nomads with tribute. Why this case was brought in the History? Moni
arrived for the first time, and for them a monastery was built. From that
time Syan-tsaun strongly attached to the false doctrine: so this case is
purposely brought into the History. Moni were Mongolian llamas, in 806 for the
first time appearing in the Chinese capital.
When Oikhors (Uigurs) asked for marriage, the ministry estimated costs for the marriage in five millions. The emperor then was occupied inside with the suppression of the chief governors: 1) so he sent prince Li Chen, a junior president in princely Council, and In Yu, office heads in T'hai-chen to announce to Oikhors (Uigurs) about impossibility to agree to a marriage.
821 After the ascension of sovereign Mu-tszun to the throne in 821, (Uigurs) again was sent in He Dagan (Tarkhan) with others to insistently ask for a marriage. The emperor agreed, but soon the (Bao-i) khan died. 2) Envoy received a letter, which gave the future khan a title: Dynli Yuilumu Mishi Gui-chju Bigya Chun-de khan. 3)
10. CHUN-DE KHAN (Kun Tengride Ulug Bolmish Kuch Kuchluk Bilge Kagan, 821 - 824). Khan, after ascension to the throne, sent Inan, Chuguilu chief governor with others to receive Shehu (Yabgu)-princess. In the embassy were up to 2,000 women, 20,000 horses and 1,400 camels. Never before the foreigners sent so numerous embassy to the Middle state. Was directed to admit in Chan-an only 500 people, the others to leave to T'hai-yuan. Was directed to give out princess T'hai-ho. 4) This princess was a daughter opf the late emperor Syan-tszun. The emperor constructed a mansion 5) for her. The military leader 6) Hu Chjen and the nobleman 1) Li Syan were appointed to accompany the princess with bunchuks (stuff with horsehair on the top).
1) Military governors of border areas, known under a name Tsze-du-shy.
Prince Li Yue was appointed a master of ceremony at the wedding. To the princess with a certificate is given a title Jen, Syao, Du-an, Li, Min, Chji, Шанъ-шeу Hatun (Hatun = Quinn Khan). 2) It was publicized in the temple to the ancestors. The son of Sky ascended the gate Thun-hua-myn to advise the princess. The officials of all offices bid farewell, linig up on the sides of the road. After departure of the princess abroad, 100 li before the Oikhor horde, the khan wished to preliminary privately see the princess across the road. Hu Chjen refused him. The nomads notified him that princess Syan-an has done it. Hu Chjen said, the son of Sky directed to me to accompany the princess and to hand her over to the khan; without seeing the khan, I can not admit the princess to a meeting. And so the meeting was cancelled. After that, khan entered the terem (residential tower) and sat, turning to the east. In a bottom were placed felt yurts for the embassy. The princess wished to wear an Oikhor dress, stepped out with her wet-nurse, bowed to the west, 3) and came back. At the last stop she donned a dress of Quinn Khan: got into a red tube caftan (long outer coat), over it a short dress, a golden headdress, tipped in front and at the back; 4) stepped out again and bowed; then sat down into a stretcher; nine ministers, on the shoulders, carried her nine times around the horde to the right 5); then she stepped off the stretcher, entered the terem (tower) and sat next to the khan, facing east. The ranks in order introduced themselves to her. The Quinn Khan also built therself a horde, and in the yurt posted two ministers. Before the departure of envoy Hu Chjen, Quinn Khan organized a big feast, cried bitterly about her relatives and favorites.
2) Excluding Hatun,
all other words are Chinese.
Khan generously rewarded envoys. During that time Phei Du-fan attacked Yu-chjen. 1) Oikhors (Uigurs) sent a commander Li I-tsze with 3,000 cavalry to aid the Son of Sky to suppress Hebei country. 2) The Council, remembering past problems, did not accept the khan's offer. The army already came to Fyn-chjeu, 3) but the envoy was generously rewarded and dismissed.
824 In the same year in which Gin-tszun ascended the throne, 824, the khan 4) died; his younger brother Gesa Dele (Tegin) was raised <on the throne>. The emperor sent an envoy 5) with a certificate, which gave to the <new> khan a title: Ai Dynli Loumu Mishihe Bigya Chjao-li 6) khan, and bestowed on him twelve carts with gifts.
11. CHZHAO-LI KHAN ( Hazar Tekin, Tengride Kut Bolmish, Kuch Bilge Kagan, 824 - 832).
827 In the first summer of Wyn-tszun sovereign, 827, also granted 500,000 pieces of silk fabrics in payment for horses.
832 In the sixth year of T'hai-ho rule, 832, khan is killed by his subordinates. His second nephew Hu Dele (Tegin) succeeded. He sent an envoy with a report.t.
833 The next year, 833, emperor sent a military commander 7) T'han Hun-shy and prince 8) Yun with bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top) and with a certificate, which gave the khan a title: Ai Dynli Loimu Mishihe Guilu Bigya Chjan-sin khan.
12. CHZHAN-SIN 9) KHAN ( Kho Tekin, Tengride Kut Bolmish, Kuchluk Bilge Kagan, 832 - 839).
839 In the fourth year of Khai-chen rule, 839, minister Guilofu rebelled against the khan, and attacked him with Shato troops.
1) A fortress in Yu-chjeu.
The Khan commited suicide. The nobles raised a juvenile Kesi Dele (Tegin) as a khan. 1) That year was a famine, and after that was a bad epidemic disease and fell deep snows, from which killed many sheep and horses. 2)
840 The letter has not been delivered yet as Wu-tszun ascended the throne, 840. He sent prince Yun with a news, and from him learned about turmoil in the horde. At that high time an (Uigur) elder Guilu Mohe, joining the Hagases, with a 100,000 cavalry attacked the Oikhor city, 3) killed the khan, executed Guilofu and burnt his corrals. The Oikhor generations (tribes) dispersed. 4) Minister Sichji Pan-dele, only with fifteen aimaks, fled to Gelolu (Karluks); the others left for Tibet and An-si. After that, the thirteen clans of the khan's aimak proclaimed Uge-dele a khan, 6) and settled in the south near the Tso-tszy-shan mountains (districts Urumchi and Kur-kara-usu in Dzungaria, and principalities Khami, Pichan, Karashar, and Kucha in Eastern Turkistan).
13. KHAN UGE DELE. Hyagases (Khakasses, Enisei Kirgizes) after the defeat of Oikhors (Uigurs) took T'hai-ho princess; and because they originate from Li-lin, they held themselves related to the House of T'han, and sent Dagans (Tarkhans) to deliver the princess to the Court. Uge was angered, caught up Dagans (Tarkhans) and killed them all; took princess and crossed the Great sandy steppe (western part of Gobi desert) to the south. The border inhabitants were extremely frightened. Oikhors (Uigurs) besieged the fortress T'hyan-de. The emperor sent to the border an official 6) Li Shi to figure circumstances at the place.
1) Kesi is a name. Dele (Tegin = prince by blood)
means a junior relative. Gan-mu.
After that minister Chisin, Princes Umus Dele and Nasechjo 1) with their generations (tribes) expressed a desire to submit, and the princess from her side sent an envoy with a report that Uge has already ascended the throne; so she asked to recognize him as khan. In addition, the nobleman Gegangyas in his report asked for fortress Chjen-wu for the princess with the khan. And so the emperor directed the military nobleman 2) Wan Hoi to go with bunchuk (stuff with horsehair on the top) to calm their people, to give them 20,000 bags of bread grain, not borrowing from Chjen-wu; and sent the eunuch Hai Yui for explanations. Also directed to send a messenger with a certificate to surreptitiously review the course of events.
841 In the next year, 841, Oikhors (Uigurs) with princess came over to the southern side of the Sandy steppe 3), and entered Yunchjeu and Sho-fan, devastated Hyn-shui, clobbered and seized a multitude of people; shuttled between T'hyan-de and Chjen-wu, and at will plundered pastures. And so was directed to the troops of different roads to gather to pacify them. Umus, seeing that with slyness and malevolence of Chisin is difficult to reach a desirable outcome, secretly agreed with T'hyan Meu, a chief of T'hyan-de garrison, to lure Chisin and execute him in front of the office. Nagechjo collected up to 7,000 wagons of Chisin's people, left to the east to Chjen-wu and Da-thun, and accross the Black sand to Shi-wei extended his appetites to the south. Chjan Chjun-wu, chief governor in Yu-chjeu, crushed him and seized all of his people. Nagechjo fled to Uge, was detained and killed.
1) Chisin is a name of the minister, Umus is a name of the khan younger brother.
Nagechjo is also a name of the Oikhor minister. Gan-mu. 840.
However, Uge still had a strong army under a name hundred thousands (actually, the count is in Tumens; one Tumen standing for a nominal ten thousands; each tumen representing a strength of a tribe or a tribal subdivision; thus Uge had ten tribal units under his hand; the actual count in each tumen could be much less then a nominal); <he> staioned his horde from Da-t'hun in the north at Lui-myn-shan mountain (Ordos, eastern bank of the Huanhe loop, 38° N, 111°E), and Dele (Tegin) Panguichje, Adunnin and others, total four generations (tribes) and leader Tsaomoni with about 30,000 peoples submitted to Chjan Chjung-wu. Umus also sent an envoy with an offer of affiliation. 1) The emperor wanted to facilitate khan's return to his possessions: but the (Uge) khan has already attacked Yun-chjeu. Lu Myan joined a battle with him, and was completely crushed. Umus with three generations (tribes) and 2,000 cavalry of Dele (Tegin), a senior elder, came to Chjen-wu and submitted. Was directed to give Umus a military rank and a princely status 2) Huai-hua gun-wan, and T'hyan-de to rename to Gui-i-gun. asked to leave him with all his clan in T'hai-yuan so that, serving the Son of Sky, <he would> protect borders. The emperor ordered Lu Myan to disperse his (Umus) clan in different places in Yun-chjeu and Sho-chjeu.
(Uge) Khan sent an envoy, to ask emperor for an aid army to return to his former horde, and for a time to yield the city T'hyan-de. The emperor refused. From disappointment, the (Uge) Khan plundered Da-thun-chuan, and, continuing to fight, attacked Yun-chjeu. The governor entrenched with trenches and did not dare to jut out. Was directed to move troops from different corps and spread them from T'hai-yuan to the north.
As soon as Umus with others came to the Court, everyone was given a name Li; 3) Umus was renamed Sy-chjun, Ali-chjy renamed Sy-chjen, Sivuchjo renamed Sy-i, Ulosy was renamed Sy-li, Ay-yevu renamed Hun-shun; the last is assigned as an assistant to the chief of the Gui-i-gun corps.
1) In Gan-mu in May 842.
After that, Lu Myan was directed to be an Oikhor's caretaker on the southern side, Chjan Chjun-wu a caretaker on the eastern side, Sy-chjun a governor over the western Dansyans and a commander-in-chief against the (Uigur Uge Khan) rebels, to commander Lu Myan to camp in the south-west in Yai-myn. Also He Tsin-chao, the governor in In-chjeu, and Kibitunu, the governor in Yui-chjeu, directed to set out with foreign army to Chjen-wu, and to join with Myan and Chjun-wu, approaching a little to Oikhors (Uigurs). Sy-chjun a few times came deep in the Oikhor pastures, to bend his subordinates to submission. Myan detached a part of Shato troops for reinforcing Sy-chjun. The He-chjun-gun corps with five hundred cavalry reinforced Hun-shun. Myan advanced forward and entrenched in Yun-chjeu. Sy-chjun holted to guard a large palisade. Hei Bin, with He-chjun-gun corps, joined a battle with Oikhors (Uigurs) and crushed them.
842 The next year, 842, Hun-shun crushed them. Myan and Shi Hun, an assistant chief commander in T'hyan-de, with strong cavalry and nomads of generations (tribes) Shato and Kibi 1) set out at night from Yun-chjeu, went to Ma-i to the border fort An-chjun-sai; encountering the enemies, joined a battle and crushed them. 2) Uge then was approaching Chjen-wu. The Hun hastened to enter that fortress; in the night punched a break in the wall, came out through it, and joined a hot battle. Uge retreated in fear.
1) In Gan-mu of three generations (tribes):
Shato, Chjuse and Chisin.
Hun pursued him to the mountains Sha-hu-Shan (Hei-shan, Black Mountains, 200 km NE from Huanhe loop southern bend). Wounded Uge took to flight. Hun met with princess (Uigur Quinn T'hai-ho of Chinese extraction) and returned with her. He subdued Dele (Tegin) and others, numbering a few tens of thousands, took all cargo, and the emperor's letters. The Khan, gathering other people, left to the Black Wagon traibe. 1) Commanders Hun-shun and He Tsin-chao were directed to pursue as far as possible. Hun-shun flattered the Black Wagon with rich gifts, and killed Uge. 2) In the beginning those who fled with the khan could not rejoin any more; one after another they came to Yu-chjeu and submitted; and from those wandering a few thousands perished from cold, famine and illnesses; the Black Wagon <tribesmen> captured the others. After Uge was killed, his subjects installed as a khan his junior brother Enyan Dele (Tegin). 3)
14. KHAN ENYAN DELE (Inen Tekin, 845-846). The emperor directed De-ui to describe the feats of this war, and to transmit to posterity, to carve <a text on> a stone monument and to install it in Yu-chjeu. Because the Oikhor reigning House (Yaglakar) has perished, Sy-chjun and others expressed a wish to come to the Court, and then they returned to Gui-i-gun. Sy-chjun (Umus) received a military rank 4) and a house in a part of Yun-lu-fan, and his army is dispersed in different border corps. The nomads, not wishing administratively belong to different corps, occupied the river Hu-tho-he and seceded. Lu Myan killed 3,000 of them. It was directed to give all Oikhor (Uigur), who distinguished themselves in the war and remained in both capitals, hats with belts. 5) The Government gathered Moni's books and idols, and all that was burned on the road; and the property was taken into treasury.
1) In Ch. Hei-che-tszy, a name of a generation (tribe).
847 Enyan khan with 5,000 souls from the desintegrated generations (tribes) received livelihood from Shoshelan, the main Hi elder (Hi or Kumohi, descendents of Syanbi, pinyin Xianbei, at that time vassals of China, later incorporated with Kidanes. The presence of Türkic-speaking Toba/Tabgach, who were a main tribe of Syanbi, among the Hi population has not been addressed, but may be a main reason for sheltering Enyan Uigurs).
847 In the first year of Da-chjun rule, 847, Chjun-wu crushed Hians. The Oikhors (Uigurs) were almost destroyed. Remained eminent Princes and the upper officials numbered up to 500 people, with their only hope in Shiwei. Chjun-wu offered Shiwei to turn over the khan. Enyan started to fear. He took his wife Gelu and son Dele (Tegin) Dusa, and at night with nine riders fled to the west. His kinsmen bitterly sobed. Seven Shiwei clans have divided Oikhors (Uigurs) between themselves. Hyagas (Khakas, Enisei Kirgiz), angry with that, with a minister Abo and 70,000 army attacked Shiwei and, taking away the remaining Oikhors (Uigurs), returned to the northern side of the Sandy steppe (Gobi). The remaining Oikhors (Uigurs), hiding in mountains and forests, sustained on robberies, and gradually returned to Pan Dele (Tegin). At that time Pan Dele (Tegin) already proclaimed himself a khan; he lived in Gan-chjeu, and posessed the cities further west beyond the Sandy steppe (Gobi). Suan-tszun, trying to calm down the remote peoples, sent an agent to Lin-chjeu to spy on the position of Oikhors (Uigurs). An elder of the Oikhors (Uigurs) sent to the capital with a Chinese envoy also his envoy. The emperor with a certificate gave him a title: Ulu Dynli Loimu Mishi Heguilu Bigya Huai-gyan khan. 1) During the next ten years he presented twice the local products.
860-873 During a reign of the sovereign I-tszun, 860 - 873, the мain elder Pugu-tszun from Bei-t'hin 2) attacked Tibetans, killed Lun Shanjo, and took from them Si-chjeu and Lun-t'hai. 1)
1) Huai-gyan are Chinese words.
He sent Dagan (Tarkhan) Mihuayui to the Court, and with him presented captives; and so asked for endorsement in the Khan status. The emperor agreed. 2)
Subsequently, disturbances happened in the imperial House. The visits to the Court and presentation of tribute became rare. Historians ceased taking notes.
The emperor Chjao-tszun undertook a travel to Fyn-tsyan. Han Sun, a chief governor in Lin-chjeu, reported to him that Oikhors (Uigurs) are asking for a permission to come to him with an army to aid in the present difficult circumstances. A nobleman 3) Han Vu spoke against this, that the nomads are the old enemies of the Middle state. Since the time of the Hoi-chan rule, from 841, <they> are looking at the border: but their wings are not completely feathered yet; so <they> cannot do anything. Now, using disturbances in our position, <they> hope to succeed. Should not let <them in>. And so there was no response. However, the Oikhor (Uigur) kingdom could not come into a large force. From time to time <they> came to the border areas to exchange nephrite and horses.
1) In east Turkistan Harashar (Karashar), Bugur and others.
|Contents||<= Part 1 Division 5 Hoihu||Part 1 Division 7 Hoihu||Part 1 Division 7 Tele =>|
Yu.Zuev Ethnic History of Usuns
Yu.Zuev Early Türks: Essays of history
Yu.Zuev The Strongest Tribe - Ezgil
Yu.Zuev Tamgas of vassal princedoms
Yu.Zuev Ancient Türkic social terms
Yu.Zuev Seyanto Kaganate and Kimeks
|Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz||