In Russian
Tengri, Khuday, Deos and God


Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline


Rafael Bezertinov
Naberejnye Chelny, 2000
Chapter 2, pp. 4170


  From the author 3
Chapter 1 War of world religions against Tengrianism 5
Chapter 2 Ancient Türkic cosmological views 41
Chapter 3 Deity 71
Chapter 4 Spirit hosts of localities 96
Chapter 5 Views about spirits 127
  Türkic funeral rituals 143
Chapter 6 Natural and unnatural perception 153
Chapter 7 Ritual attributes during sacrificing 168
Chapter 8 Alkyshlar, Dogalar, Telekler 193
Chapter 9 Clergy and its role in world religions 208
Chapter 10 Chosen by spirits 330
Chapter 11 Türkic names 397
  Sources and Literature 447


The first aspect that attracts attention in this chapter is its Bibliograhy section. Among the referenced sources are 3 sources next to unimaginable in their inaccessibility prior to the time of the publication of the book in 2000. These are 1894 publication of  N.F.Katanov from the abolished in 1931 during Stalinist machinations OAIE (Society for Archeology, History, and Ethnography in Kazan, Tatarstan) storage, never published Ancient Manuscript Collection from NA IYALI K FAN USSR ([NA(?)] Institute of Language and Literature of Kirgiz branch of USSR Academy of Sciences), and conspectus of lectures by acad. W.W.Bartold, never published in the Imperial Russia, inaccessible in the Russian USSR, first published in 1956 in English in Netherlands, and recently, in 1998, reprinted in freshly liberated Kazakstan. A reader may be grateful to R.Bezertinov for assembling the material into a concise description.

Page numbers are shown in blue at the beginning of the page. Added headings for the subsections are shown in blue

Rafael Bezertinov
Chapter 2. Ancient Türkic Cosmological Views

Ancient Türks' vision of universe

The culture of every people is not only a material life, lifestyle, folklore songs and dances, with which is usually associated the revival process of ethnoses, but also the traditional and spiritual views, including myths about the origin of the universe, men, everything alive in this world, understanding of life and death, concept of the mankind, time, space, their genealogical legends, their traditions, ceremonies, and customs held in the past among these tribes and peoples.

The cosmogenic ideas of ancient Türks are reconstructed from the not too numerous texts of different types: as independent mythological storylines and as preambles of many epic poems. These texts narrate of the events that resulted in the creation of the world, i.e. about the emergence of the cosmic order that replaced the primordial chaos. The creation of the world is an amazing epoch, remote in undefined antiquity. The time of the creation act is indicated obscurely. The creation of the world was understood as a beginning of time and space, and treated as an infinite cycling of the beginnings. The end does not exist. Let us turn to the texts and the known cosmogenic myths.

Water/Duck myths, birch  tree of life, Universe zones

Khakases have a legend, which begins with a dialogue of two ducks. "One of them sends another duck for a sand on the river bottom. The sand, which the first duck received from the second, she pulverized for nine days, and as a result was formed the earth. The sand, which the second duck hid for herself, turned into high mountains, As a punishment for concealment, the first duck did not give her a land to live on. The guilty duck at the end scrounged a piece of land the size of a print from a cane stem, pierced the land and squeezed through the hole. So they divided the living spaces and spheres of influence. Then the first duck created from the soil a man, and from his rib a woman, gave them cattle and bread. The participants are called ducks only in the beginning of the legend. At the time of creation of the man the story-teller calls the first duck a god, and the second - Erlik-khan". 1

One of the variations of a similar cosmogenic legend was among Tatars, though it was strongly influenced by Islam, its storyline develops on the same base: "By the power of God was formed a bottom of a lake. The God ordered the duck: "The Sand at the bottom of this lake, you swallow!". The duck has swallowed all the sand. After that, the God ordered: "The Sand in your stomach, throw out into the world". First shedid, as the God ordered. Thinking hidden that the sand will be a food for her, she kept from the God a part of sand. From that, the duck began to swell. Then she understood: "This sand is harming me", and "threw up" the sand that remained in her stomach into the world.., " 2

In these primogenital legends a prime role plays the water element. It is known  that among many peoples of the world the water in mythology is a "primordial, initial condition of everything existing, an equivalent of primordial chaos... Water is a media, an agent and a principle of global measure and genesis. Among Türks, water consistently equate with foregn, hostile. It is a possession of spirits and an entrance into the other world. Not accidentally it is that to wash the face with water in the mythological tradition is equivalent to the notion "to die". 3 

The storyline about creation of the world is also known from the ancient Türkic mythology. It is proclaimed in the famous inscription in honor of Kül-tegin: "When the blue sky (tengri) above, and the umber earth below were created, between (both of) them were created human sons".

The cosmic matrix is confirmed by introduction of objects, corresponding with the center of the world or a world axis. Such a center appears as a world tree ("a golden birch") or, as in the Türkic heroic legend "Kan Kes", a world mountain:

"It was a time when the mountains were divided with a mixer.
When the water was divided with a ladle.
Bursting, the white sea flew.
Heaping up, the gold mountain grew" 4.

"In this way, the key parameters of the world are defined. The organized space, with a center (middle), naturally also has areas removed from the center. With consecutive introduction of the basic binary oppositions (top - bottom, sky - earth, etc.) the structure of the world is disclosed at different levels, which are closely interconnected.

The primogenesis epoch is not only the emergence of the ordered space, but also a transition from timeless to time. In the primogenesis was established the rhythm of time flow. So, in the world originates a measure, and together with it emerge space and time of different characters, different fill" . 5

The spatial model of the world is disclosed through the main cosmogenic objects, relative with its center. The vertical structure of the world suggests a presence of a middle, a top and a bottom, is most fully visualized in an image of a world tree (world mountain), with different zones of which are correlated various classes of the phenomena, both natural, and social.

The top is a crown of the tree, the sky, stars, a top of a mountain, a source of the river, a bird, the upper world. The bottom is the roots of a tree, a cave, gorge, water, the animals living in burrows, and the horned animals, the lower world. The middle is a tree trunk, a valley, mankind, animals with "warm breath".

As analogue of the world tree in the view of the Türks usually serves a birch (bai kaien or "sacred birch"). In epic compositions a version of a world tree is mostly a poplar . A tree is a backbone beginning in the Türkic picture of the world. This epitome connects of all spheres of life on a vertical. The tree serves both as an axis of the world, and its center. It is a reference point for coordinates, both of time and spatial. "The world tree", "heavenly tree", "tree of life" personifies the most different, but at the same time closely linked mythological concepts, for example, a source of life, location after death or before the birth of a human soul. A tree, especially a tall tree, in the eyes of the Huns was a connecting link with the supreme deity Tengri, who lives in the Sky. The beliefs about "tree of life" also echo in the Kul Gali poem "Kyssa and Yusuf". In it as a literary allegory is used an image of  a "branchy high tree" - a tree of a clan, of a tribe. At the same time it is also connected with Tengri. When Yakub, exhausted from a separation from his favorite son, was sitting under a high branchy tree - "kobbe iygach", reached him from the sky a voice - timing of the forthcoming reunion. 6

In the eyes of the Türks the tree is closely connected with the life of the clan members. In the folklore of all Türkic peoples a tree brings up (gives birth) children, it is a symbol of life and a security for the well-being of the clan members. To pull out a tree with its roots means to sentence to death the people who are connected to it by the ties of relationship. On the branches of a tree hang the cradles of the future children. A tree has numerous symbols. A tree is a cosmic axis; a tree giving life, etc.

Kam, travelling during the kamming to the Sky, overcomes its branches (layers). Branches The sources of also are called branches, in the mytho-poetical concept of the world, the rivers flow from above (from the sky), like the branches of a tree.

Alongside with tri-partite vertical structure of space the Türkic tradition has a horizontal partitioning of the world (by the sides, "right - left", "forward - back"). In the traverse center is also a tree (or even a tree growing on a mountain).

 Combination of vertical and horizontal structures of the world enables description of any of its conditions and spheres. The coordinates of the world converging at its center, have a numerical expression. So, in the inscription in honor of Kül-tegin are mentioned peoples located in all four corners (four sides) of the world. In that, the linear definition of the cardinal points is supplemented with indication of the sun position on the sky coupola: "... in front, where the sun rises, on the right, where the sun is in zenith, behind, where the sun sets, on the left, where night is in zenith, peoples living there are all subjected to me". The cardinal points there are listed in the direction of the sun travel. Among the Türks the main and prevailing was orientation toward the rising sun: the main position of the observer is with the face toward the east. In the eyes of the Türks the East is a front, the West is a back, the South is a top, the North is a bottom.

Horizontal and Vertical zones. Middle zone is our visible world

"The east among Türks was associated with positive qualities. It is a side where the sun ascends. The western side of the sky was always associated with the sun regularly disappearing there. The Türkic reverence of the east side of the sky is well known, also is known that the western side of the sky was traditionally associated with the motive of leaving the life, with the country of ancestors. The south and north among the Türks are opposed to each other. With the face oriented to a rising sun, the north is on the left, and the south is on the right. When the position in a locality is described by a vertical, the south is treated as a "top", and the north as a "bottom". The orderliness of space and time is a major characteristic of the middle world, or strictly speaking, of the real world. And with the help of such oppositions (top - bottom, right - left) is described the whole world". 7

The ancient Türkic falk cosmogony had mostly mythological character. Once arisen, the mythological Space was unfolding, developing in a cyclic scheme. Again and again it was returning to the Chaos, to again turn into a harmony in accordance with natural rhythms and rituals. Built on oppositions and at the same time without distinct borders, this world was in a condition of perpetual change. It was continuously created and nevertheless uncompleted. The cosmos was constantly transforming, pulsing. In the act of creation the birth and death, the beginning and the end, top and a bottom intertwined together. Those elements of the universe, which had a creative, birth giving force, were especially prominent. Not accidentally in the ancient Türkic perception the gorges, passes, rivers, springs, caves - in a word, all deviations from routine terrestrial landscape were noted: there the worlds intersected, they were interchanging. In the mythological texts the created world is the world of the order, light, warmth, sound, and finally of the Life.

This world is made for a man. The human world is visible, sunny, alive world. Not by chance the ancient Türkic monument says: "I stopped feeling the sun and the moon in the blue sky, sorrow that from mine yourselves, and from mine land I separated (i.e. have died)." 8 The cosmogony was created by practical reality, practical sensuality, sensually specific perception of the surrouning world. The Earth, sky, sun, moon, stars, constellations, natural phenomena were spiritualized and perceived by tools of imagination and personification. Thus, the Universe construed into separate worlds, faces of the world, layers of the sky, which made the world cognizable.

All three zones of the universe, i.e. the heavenly, terrestrial and underground are in turn divided between visible and invisible (abstract). The invisible heavenly world looked as a layered pie: the sky consists of three horizontal layers. Each layer was a habitat of this or that deity or spirit (inhabitants of the heaven). The upward extent of the heavenly world is not defined. On the highest layer lives the Great Spirit of Sky Tengri himself. In the concept of the ancient Türks, the heavenly spirits rode horses, therefore horses were brought in sacrifice to them. The horse was viewed as an animal belonging to the deities of the upper world, whereas a bull belonged to the lower world. The "born by Sky" kagans and princes rode horses of light color. It is pointed out in many monuments of the Türkic writing. In the inscription in honor of Kül-tegin the color of his horses is mentioned about ten times. Some kams called the invisible heavenly world "the heavenly land". "The heavenly land" is populated not only by deities and spirits, there also live people whose distinctive feature is the way they wear belt on their clothes, under armpits (koltyk).

The visible sky from the earth seems to be dome-shaped and therefore it was called the "bosom of the sky" or the "nearest sky". On that sky are located the sun and the moon, stars and rainbow. There are born peals of the thunder, move the clouds, from there descend lightning and rain, hailstones, and snow. This sky on the horizon frequently touch and separate from the ground; it occurs in a beat of pulse. The cupola of the sky, or the nearest sky, was seen by the Türks as material substance. In the winter, in their opinion, it froze, and it was impossible for the kams to penetrate it from the ground, with rare exceptions.

Division of our world, mountains/water, their owners

The middle world, like the heavenly world, was divided into the and invisible parts. The invisible middle world (or otherwise called the other world) is populated by spirits - hosts 14 of the mountains, forests, waters, passes, springs, etc., which rule the visible world. Their titles, "ezes, huias, iyas", i.e. "host", "master", indicates that they were viewed as true hosts of the forests, mountains and rivers.

The permanent location of the spirits - hosts is a border between the human and natural worlds, it is a special zone, the human invasion into which is connected with their economic activities. Thus, the territory populated by people simultaneously is also a residence of many different spirits - hosts. And at the same time the spirits - hosts are the creatures of the other world. As shows scientific research, the relations between the people and the spirits - owners of location were perceived as relations of partnership, and if they were revered, it was as the senior relatives, or ancestors, how they were frequently thought of.

In the ordinary life, as was seen by the ancient Türks, an important role was played by the hosts of mountains and water. It was known that in the summer they were becoming more active, and in the winter their activity is like frozen, it calms down, they sleep in their caves and do not appear untill the spring.

The Türks were organizing public sacrifices for the hosts of the mountains, forests, and waters, with the caveat that their frequency depended on the status of "mutual relations" the people had with these spirits. In addition to the hosts of mountains and waters, the Türks also revered other "hosts" of the passes, springs, etc. However, the mutual relations with the hosts of mountains and forests were held as most important: it was believed that entirely on them depended the economic well-being of the society, and people had most "close" relations with that category of the spirits. With them people "shared" the populated world.

The elements described above allow to reconstruct the following components in the landscape model of the middle world. The plain part of the landscape belongs to the people. There they live and work. It is a mountain valley, or a steppe. The places located above or below the plain, i.e. mountains, passes, meadows, gorges, ravines, rivers, are populated with host spirits. A foothill of the mountain, a pass, and also the bank of the river, lake, ravines, etc. are a border, beyond which a man felt like being a visitor. Certainly, men were penetrating beyond this border, but always after a "feeding", or a simple sacrifice, which was conducted mostly at the foot of the mountains, on the banks of the river, lake, creek, spring, i.e. in a border zone where the dialogue with host spirits is easier. As a rule, such places are rich with the monuments of the cult activity: petroglyphs, stone courses, etc. (in the European part already thoroughly destroyed, but still preserved in the Asiatic part of the Eurasia, see for example  I.LKyzlasov surveys - Translator's Note).

Upper and lower worlds. Kams as intermediaries

The middle (visible) world was understood by ancient Türks as alive and lifeless, located on the earth. For a human the middle (real) world was the most accessible for development and perception, especially at the place of the birth, growth and living. And everyone of such small worlds was understood as a miniature cosmos. People who were living in the middle world were viewed as true people, therefore they wore the belt on the waist.

The lower, underground world, like the heavenly and middle worlds, was divided into the invisible and visible parts. The invisible underground world was viewed by the ancient Türks as multilayered, and besides it was implied that it has a "bottom" (limit). The kams called it "underground land". The lower, underground world was seen as a concentration of malicious forces led by a powerful deity Erlik. The lower world has mountains, bottomless seas, reservoirs. In the lower world live people whose term of life in the middle world has elapsed. The inhabitants of the "underground (or lower) land" wear the belt under a belly (on the hips). They have homes, cattle, all necessary things (with which they are supplied at the funerals in the middle world). The main colors, the traits of the lower world, are black, yellow, colorless. Black color is firmly connected with night, bottom, negative beginning. Almost all metals known to the Türks, and their color derivative designations, are connected with the world of the Erlik deity: iron (temir/timir, jelezo), pig-iron (chuen/chugun), copper (bakyr/tabir). One more feature of the underground world is a deliberate "abnormality", mirror image, opposite of many parameters, and the creatures of the lower world differ from people by smell. The lower world has a visible structure with definite borders, it is the surface of the earth, any opening and depression that could turn out to be an entrance into the underground kingdom. Everything alive, that lives in the ground, under the surface, and in the water, was viewed as belonging to the lower world. The productive characteristics of the lower part of the human body were transposed on "bottom" world in all its functions. The lower world is a most vast part of the cosmic "bottom", directly related to the birth.

In the traditional ancient Türkic views the world was not as much figured as it was emotionally experienced. The world existed as an action, change, but not as a assembly of symbols. The action was also a tool to learn the world. The main function of the world is a continuity of life, its permanent renewal. A human, as a part of the world, is bloody interested in the same. For protraction of the existence were targeted, directly or indirectly, all rituals. It is clearly visible in prayers of the kams, addressed to the God Tengre:

Ah, the Eternal Blue Sky!
Multiply our cattle and herds,
Make us rich and happy,
Multiply our grandsons and great-grandsons,
Make us numerous and healthy.

The natural rhythms - the seasonal changes, sunrise and sunset, change of the Moon phases - programmed the activities of the society. People not only actually synchronized their activity with the natural rhythms, but also reinforced the coordination with rituals.

Manifestation of time in the nature, the consecutive sycling of the seasons, and the movement of heavenly bodies were perceived as attributes of a vital process, identical to the human process, and connected with it. Every morning the sun defeats darkness, like it was on the first day of creation, and like happens annually on the first day of the new year. The time between light and darkness is a connection of a beginning and an end, that creates an opportunity to transition from one to another. The morning was understood as a time connected with the creation, both mythological, and in general with any physical creation. The service of weekly sun worship rituals was conducted in the mornings. The morning and evening were not viewed in opposition, they have equal rights, like the processes of increase and reduction, sunrise and sunset, like the beginnings and the end, that is a precursor of the new beginning. Ancient Türks had the same vision about the day and night, morning and evening, spring and autumn, summer and winter.

It is known that the Asian consciousness is closest to the nature, as juxtaposed against the western consciousness. The feeling of deep connection of the humans with space, time, Cosmos was underplaying the use of a national calendar.

Continued below unedited machine translation


Türkic calendar

Türkic and Mongolian peoples before acceptance of world religions used a calendar of a twelve-year animal cycle. On Altai it{he} has been completely superseded in XVIII - XIX century by an orthodox calendar. To the Volga region after acceptance by Tatars of an Islam, have entered chronology on a Muslim calendar. But even after several centuries also in XVIII century, Tatars, in parallel with Muslim, used also a Türkic calendar. The history does not know, when and where this calendar for the first time began to use, however the facts of a choice of animals and their sequences of alternation in heavenly symbolics of a twelve-year animal cycle testify, that it{he} is perceived{recognized} from Türks - nomads of the central Asia. Then the calendar was rather quickly distributed and was recognized at various peoples of all Asia, many of which which use him{it} till today.

Türkic peoples had many legends about occurrence of " a calendar of an animal cycle ". About one of them has written down M.Kashgari in XI century. In a legend it is told, that one of Türkic khans has wished to learn{find out} date of war which has taken place up to him{it}. But date to it{him} have informed with a mistake. And khan, in order to prevent similar mistakes in the future, has suggested people, being based on 12 months and 12 constellations to establish a 12-years circle and to give names to years of this cycle. Then khan has enjoined to drive animals to the big river.

The river was crossed by 12 animals, Khan has named years nikla named the animals forwarded through the river

There were also other variations of this 1. V one ta'ppo '-, to a legend it is told about jum, that animals - the thief <> \. " ^* the cow, a dog, kuriia mypi, and .-\ - uopyshchpr *!:.> and ■ people want to name god m ^-: , ' pch imochami> ts , '1-.! ^ have argued on that, what name an animal "! spolue; to name eoon- YEAR of the CYCLE. HAVE AGREED On ^OM: WHO per [* U'ZIDIT RISING f gchg-.i tsa, his{its} name also will name the first year. The artful mouse: *; , hpa las on a hump of a camel and the first has seen gpiuoch I shall sing gop? Therefore its{her} name byp names the first k-d. And neponm! Beer! ' A camel have at all excluded from the list of applicants. Mom.ch; the ork " the Camel, hoping on the rosl has remained oe - picho'o. vozmog but, is an echo of these event. Dann'i variash with noy-p-shimi changes it is known kyr) yaam 'pzaham. Crimean tia frames, to Buryats both other Türkic and Mongolian peoples

In traditional culture Türkic and Mongols of whom naron ' a significant place always zanimapi kamendartsmo customs and <> ridges. It were the ceremonies noting change natural) tsik; 1 '-transition from one season at drutmu. But before sopato there were the ceremonies connected to cattle breeding. Snow, cvpn vye winters, with biting winds. Hot <\ droughty leju. vhvm number esteg " vennyh water sources, it{her} >: in . os.o kupnosti with other factors it is rendered oi romnoe influence on hi; n (. Türks - nomads On whims sriroly depend not i-.. m ^ well-being, but also existence lmtsoi On a basis iee nogo coexistences with the nature also there was naiiona '-'- a Türkic religion - tengriachesho and calendar holidays ^l

SHOe NUMBER TürkIC Usual And OORCHDOV PZNP ^: With \ ¥) {) nacha ' , m ■:

TENGrianstve. It is connected with :. : itself relishja has consisten and: two various direction: perch and worship. Belief (.; it p-inverted to '-: |;; .1:.. isch^nip-+-it^p , 1-½ <. nenie - to spirits pg) edkov. prisugstgik , kojur'CH ikmomkh .-.:. - pressed to feel in E " an ohm a material world.

Thus, in *-creations calendar poychgk> ■ g ceremonies of Türks it is possible vydepi! '-i|M-i main whom! Nanometer ' " t; 1 labour activity connected with - ■ * in '.', shzh-june^i-; to the idolized forces of the nature and a cult prelkpn In dalnri!-1 ' ^ " settled peoples have borrowed:> t'ch-. prieppeo^shchp ' under the local climatic conditions and tr-adin.pi the Gjuskopk-calendar ceremonialism always bore{carried} social naipv-Ji-v.> ' ^

LJAJAS Important SOS'tavNOP chaSJU SPIRITUAL And ^ULYURCHOJ * |. '?-; ':

Societies, tnorkskie poavitelg with/' and middle g-> l.; n \ ■■ zovali her{it} in quality i-n '.-! :-> .- people.-; |-*.->-The most important holidays as state.

At close{attentive} research of ancient Türkic calendar holidays the attention their indissolubility with a rhythm of the nature, with human activity, with biorhythms of a human body pays to itself. The calendar holidays connected to seasons, with labour activity of a society, were as though breaks in infinite current of time. Each holiday became a symbol of new life in which incorporated the past, the present and the future. Calendar holidays of an annual cycle designated traditional ceremonies, the customs which are carried out in established days, the dates connected both with revolution of the season, and with the major boundaries in economic, labour activity of people {the cattleman, the farmer, the hunter). This connection was reflected both in the holiday, and in the calendar ceremonies playing the important role in his{its} structure. Component of this structure already at early stages of development of a calendar holiday become entertainments, games, national shows, the statement of experience and knowledge of surrouning world . The holiday, being in itself complete system of symbols, belongs to more extensive symbolical systems embodied in an annual cycle. It{he} expresses the completeness of life submitted in contrast forms of ordinary and sacred time, supports culture. The holiday always bears{carries} in itself something out of the common leaving, superfluous, creates an atmosphere of general excitation. In a calendar holiday the society identifies and asserts{approves} itself. The big ethnographic material about life and ceremonies of ancient Türks contains as in folklore - songs, fairy tales, sayings, and in products of the Türkic and Mongolian medieval literature. Calendar folk customs and ceremonies have taken the place as reflection of traditional culture, as expression of a national originality and consciousness of Türks.

imes of year and seasons

The Tjurksko-Mongolian calendar of a 12-years animal cycle, is based on three natural parameters; the monthly reference{manipulation} of the Moon around of the Earth, the year reference{manipulation} of the Earth around of the Sun and a cycle time of the Jove around
The sun. Türkic astronomers of ancient centuries have established, that the Jove does{makes} a full revolution approximately for 12 years. Having divided{shared} a circle of the Jove on 12 equal parts on 30 degrees, to each of these parts gave the name of the determined animal:

Signs of the Zodiac Year

Mouse (Rat) 1-st
Cow (Bull, vol) 2-nd
Tiger (Leopard) 3-rd
Hare (Rabbit) 4-th
Dragon 5-th
Snake 6-th
Horse 7-th
Sheep (goat) 8-th
Monkey 9-th
Hen (Cock) 10-th
Dog 11-th
Pig 12-th

So there was a calendar of a 12-years animal * year, according to national representations , had the attributes p .9

I. MOUSE YEAR favorable, With plentiful RAINS. 1 og " mny harvesting very good and the prices for them nizkir Opch^t mice can put the big harm of productivity z^rml. tp ^ -1- birth rate is great. And the mice given birth in year July are clever and perspicacious.

II. In one year of the bull (cow)  winter severe and cold, animals frequently are sick, productivity sharply falls, and given birth this year people very talented, cheerful, talkative and konservativ , to people concern yours faithfully and goodwill,

In one year of a leopard (tiger) winter early and cold, among sla byh people and clerics comes big smert nost, however productivity high, and given birth this year- Beautiful. And in one year of a hare winter unpredictable, but productivity horoshaja, death rate is great among clerics, year not Quiet, hostile, given birth in one year of a hare become from

III. Year of a dragon rainy, fruitful, people - strong, zdorovye, love itself and to shine in a society.

IV. Year of the snake cold, fruitful, people - wise , reshitelnye, purposeful, reticent.

VII. In one year of a horse weather cold, poor harvest, wars , smertnost among older persons, and people given birth this year Have cheerful character, are clever, acute , talantli You also are independent.

VIII. In one year ovtsy winter cold, but year safe, urozhajnyj, and people given birth in this year are allocated stremlenisem to To religious doctrines.

IX. Year of the monkey rainy and droughty, and given birth in This year - unreliable, inconsistent, but are clever, lovki and izob retatelny.

X. In one year of the cock winter severe and long, people, physiognomies dennye this year, - gifted, egoistichny also are courageous.

XI. In one year of a dog winter severe, conflicts between people, Given birth this year - are fair, true, sharp on language and borjut sja for validity.

XII. Year of a pig vague, deterioration of a standard of life, but People given birth in this year - brave, quick-tempered, do not like Dispute, recognize only a direct way.

From here it is visible, every year had the attributes. Türks connected character of the person to one year of a birth.

The calendar of a 12-years animal cycle in the beginning concerned to a solar calendar on which year calculations were conducted. Further lunar months have been entered into a 12-years solar cycle for 29 and 30 days in everyone, and all in each 12-years cycle is totaled for 148-149 lunar months. Year began with the period of a spring equinox which carried definition - eats - syrty - a ridge of year. In result this lunar year missed a solar calendar for eleven days. For conformity every three year added 13-th month. Therefore the 12-years calendar became lunno-solar.

As unit of measurements of month time between two new moons served. Month shared for two periods; " ai nazy " (the new moon) and ai maps (the old moon). The sickle of month appears for the third day of a new moon. On the eighth - moon is visible precisely half and her{it} named " an onions{a bow} with the tense bowstring ". For 14-th day when she{it} appeared completely, named her{it} " ak toly " a white full moon. The fifteenth day referred to " kyzyl toly " - a red full moon. Since the next day, at slow dying the moon, the account conducted upside-down. According to four phases of the Moon, month divided into four weeks. Each day of week had signs, poverja and interdictions.

In an ancient Türkic monument in honor Bilge-kagana there are such lines: " How many having got, father my khan has died in one year of the Dog (734), in the tenth month, twenty sixth. In one year of the Pig, in (735) the fifth month, in twenty seventh (day) I have arranged funeral. Apparently from record, in VIII century months named serial numbers, further, in Middle Ages every month began to have the determined name and the signs. Phenological supervision have fixed in names of type: month of the big heat, month of the big frost , month of a cuckoo, month burunduka etc. Thus, for carriers of national culture the season, fullness of time concrete occupation, instead of month in his{its} modern understanding was important.

There are bases to believe, that each of allocated timesnyh pieces (day, month, year) was perceived as something the purpose noe as the process, having started, the middle and end Nepre ryvnost natural cycles corresponded{met} to representation about Continuity of cycles cultural, labour. Labour process Should not interrupt, it{he} reaches{achieves} the purpose only then when It is made continuously from the beginning up to the end '
Türks divided year into four cycles: spring, " summer, autumn and winter Besides year shared for 24 seasons for 15 days in everyone " Each season has consisten of three small seasons, in each of which was for five days. This division detailed weather signs even more in detail.
Division of year into 24 seasons on the sun not always coincided with lunar months, in particular, days of an equinox and a solstice fell to the middle of seasons.


The beginning of spring On February, 4
Rain water On February, 18
Awakening of insects on March, 6
Spring equinox on March, 21
Clear weather On April, 5
Rain cereal On April, 21


The beginning of summer{years} May
Small completeness On May, 21
Seeds June
Years{Summer} solstice on June, 21
Small heat On July, 7
The big heat On July, 24


Upon the beginning dawn On August, 8
The termination{discontinuance} of heat On August, 23
White dew On September, 8
Autumn equinox on September, 21
Cold dews On October, 8
Loss of hoarfrost On October, 23


The beginning of winter ? November
Small snows On November, 22
The big snows On December, 7
Winter solstice on December, 22
Small colds January
The big colds On January, 21

Day was defined{determined} on the sun and referred to iken " the sun as Hours among Türks served jurta which doors were strictly orien-
tirovany to the east, and internal furniture settled down in the determined order. " When the sun rose for length of an occasion of a horse ", his{its} first beam shined{covered} an internal circle of a flue. At this time cattle expelled on pastures. Further the solar beam , slowly moving to a dinner reached{achieved} female (northern) side. By four o'clock the beam left from the female side. At this time , it was necessary to drive{adjust} home teljat. At last the beam slided by the top part of a flue and disappeared from jurty. It meant, that the sun was lowered{omitted} for length of an occasion of a horse, " and has come{stepped} it is time to exhaust cattle in sheds and to milk cows " .10

So in ancient and Middle Ages Türks rose, lived and lay down on a sundial. People lived naturally, according to natural environment. The internal rhythm of time of the person coincided with a space rhythm.

In modern conditions, certainly, so to live difficultly, sometimes and not probably. Not waiting a dawn or after a decline, the sun, people work on manufactures as there is an electricity. Besides there are also such continuous (round-the-clock) manufactures where it is impossible to stop the conveyor. But in most cases the modern person in harm to ignores a space rhythm of time.

Researches conducting bioritmologov both domestic, and foreign, testify that a primary factor determining the most effective rhythm of ability to live of the person, daily rotation of a planet is. Thus paramount value at synchronization of daily physical and chemical rhythms of an organism has a cycle: light - darkness, day - night. It is proved, that an eye - a receptor of light, on spectral sensitivity "is adjusted" on a sunlight. With action of a sunlight after sunrise activization of internal processes in an organism, providing serviceability and activity of the person in the mornings communicates. Moving of the person to other time zones has shown, that the adaptation to a new daily rhythm proceeds within 10-25 day. At about or infringement of a former rhythm is accompanied head -iv:, deterioration of appetite, a sleeplessness, infringements of pulse and ar serialno; with., pressure, decrease{reduction} of serviceability, etc.

About the end of 60-years of 20th century some scientists in Soviet Union have put forward idea (under influence of the West), that if sutoch-!; i, i hours to shift at one o'clock (one hour has already been shifted before tXur.-iKui Domestic war) for the vesenne-autumn period from, iogo the country will receive economy of the electric power. And in spite of pp that against this idea other scientists have acted, the governor - i-rpo of former Soviet Union has approved and has entered in the country law about translation at one o'clock with " winter on years{summer} " ereuja which there are already some tens years in some countries of the former USSR including Russia, From this artificial intervention in our biorhythms the country has not received economy of the electric power, but it has affected on health of the population.

"Scientists make a conclusion, that transition with "winter" for "years{summer}" time is accompanied by infringement of biological rhythms even at children. Reorganization of rhythms of a body temperature, frequency of intimate reductions, arterial pressure, parameters of intellectual serviceability occurs only after 2 weeks after introduction of "years"{"summer"} time. And children and teenagers are more vulnerable to changes of time environment, than adults. Moreover, it is experimentally revealed, that infringement of a light rhythm reduces life expectancy. So, suffer both adults, and children. Suffer that the special rhythm imposed to an organism does not match with an external natural rhythm. Attempts of an organism somehow to be arranged to space and planetary rhythms two times one year about care of economy of the energy necessary for "prosperity" of the person are broken.

"Artificial allocation of the time zones which have been not coordinated with natural rhythmics of a light mode, is the additional factor of stress for the population of the given region. Annual changes of time are for people additional factors, istoshchajushchimi reserves of an organism and rendering loosening action on health of people. From here at people hypertonic illnesses, a cancer, etc. grow mental, intimate.

It is impossible to experiment the nature, and furthermore of it{her} to struggle. People should live in harmony with rhythms of the universe, coordinating with them all social, industrial, domestic rhythms, rather the reverse, forcing to live on the imposed rhythm. All told testifies what and understanding us of all complex{difficult} interrelations of space, biosphere of the Earth and the person is incorporated the closest way to : upra-lenija by health and longevity ". 11

At creation of a calendar to ancient Türkic astronomers seven "wandering" stars were already known, i.e. - planets , to which they carried the Sun, the Moon, Merkury, Venus, Mars, the Jove and Saturn. Having assumed as a basis a cycle time in two revolutions of Saturn, i.e. 60 years or one human century, they have received, that the Jove for this time will make five revolutions. Each revolution of the Jove in the eyes of the Türks had the color; dark blue, red, yellow, white and black. Thus, in a 60-years cycle every year had a conditional combination inherent only in it{him}. So in result Centuries-old supervision over heavenly bodies Türks and Mongols have revealed laws of their movement on the basis of which have created lunno-solnechno-jupitersky a calendar of a 12-years animal cycle.

Calendar religious holidays and ceremonies

The winter was the heaviest time in life of nomads. A penetrating cold, strong a wind, shortage of a pasture for cattle, snowfalls quite often conducted to beskormitse and to a case of cattle. People too lived on a rigid food diet as the stocks of food prepared for winter, frequently did not suffice. Life of all plants stops, except for fur-trees. Insects measure. It is hard for the person during this period. The winter was understood as threat of famine, deep dream of the nature, time of revelry of nocuous forces, approach of chaos, dying of year. Long winter nights were the heaviest time. For many and until now the winter period is accompanied by a heavy emotional background - behind a window in the morning and in the evening darkly. Many badly transfer the lowered temperature modes. All life-giving processes in an organism are slowed down. With approach of winter in average breadthes many animals run into hibernation, and it helps them to go through the adverse period. Not ulegshijsja for any reasons in a den or the woken bear (rod), as a rule does not live till the spring. JAblonja, suddenly blossomed in the late autumn, almost always perishes.

In the winter movement of the person in space was reduced. Night and a cold surrounded dwelling. Therefore Türks and Mongols named winter the period of Death.

Day of a winter solstice, on December, 22 (nardugan) celebrated everywhere because from this day duration days starts to increase. To date of a winter solstice the important place was allocated{removed}, similarly modern New Year's for it is day when the sun finishes the annual cycle and should come back again. Day of a winter solstice named " small New year " (Nardugan).

On holiday Nardugan in all houses of the woman prepared for celebratory dishes. In the morning of the man made a sacrifice to spirits of ancestors and spirits - houses for well-being of family in the expired year and asked about its{her} prosperity in the future. After sacrifices to spirits of ancestors members of family with its full complement were present at a celebratory feast. After a dinner all making related, neighbours left on street and fun, games, dancings began. People, having formed a circle, went around of fur-trees on a course of the sun. Thus, typed{collected} vital energy for overcoming the stayed winter season.

Türks considered, that during the most terrible time (on a modern calendar it falls at the middle of January) it was necessary to tell daily fairy tales and heroic legends, inviting for this storyteller. During the most dark time, in the longest nights older persons gathered for hearing and the legend of heroic legends, considering, that it gives energy and strengthens spirit. On these assemblies children were not supposed, and after the ending skaza arranged thujas (entertainment). The winter slowly lasted, but all is closer and closer New year - the end of winter, the beginning of spring. Ahead not Simply new year, and a new coil of life. Especially important it{he} was considered for those who entered in 13, 25, 37-th, etc. (+ 12) years of the life as for them the next 12-years cycle comes to an end and there comes year of that cyclic mark under which they were born. National practice has considered this year as the determined symbolical boundary which transition demanded special magic secure.

New year with impatience all others expected not only people of the listed age, but also. The New Year's holiday fell to the period when first attributes of awakening of the nature were designated. After cold winter approach{approximation} of spring met as a holiday of revival of the nature and new life. The spring traditionally was considered as time of space updating. Therefore Türks and Mongols named spring the period of the Birth.

Also came on March, 20. In houses put things in order, cleaned{removed} a dirty and dust. In the evening behind a celebratory table saw off old year and went to bed. The beginning of year was understood as the beginning of creation. The world " was created anew " every morning, and in full - every year. The beginning of year was understood as turn on the new coil, a new cycle (the head of the snake was bent).

In the morning on March, 21 there came the present holiday - New year (Nauruz-bajram). The important part of a holiday the ceremony of sacrifice to spirits of ancestors was. Everyone made these sacrifices according to the position and a condition. Each family tried as it is possible to treat better spirits of the ancestors. After sacrifice New Year's feasts began: full of special sense and magic value of game, circulation from a house in the house and mutual congratulations, wishes of health and happiness, an exchange of gifts. In system of the Mongolian and Türkic culture all this took the important place.

Türks and Mongols noted New Year's holiday (Nauruz) especially solemnly and cheerfully as considered, that what will be the first day of New year, all year will be such also. Therefore arranged festivals, mass games, sports sorevnovanija, traditional competitions on shooting from the onions{bow}, having magic value. In New Year's ceremonies there were many jokes, games.

After celebrations of New year life was included gradually into a usual channel. Cattlemen and peasants started to prepare for spring works. Spring customs and ceremonies of Türks are closely connected to the beginning of business year and magic of fertility. Ancient Türks and Mongols perceived the nature sensually, more sharply realizing themselves its{her} part. The aspiration to adopt vivifying forces of the come{stepped} year was displayed, in particular, in such spring ceremonialism, as celebratory walks on a fresh grass. Them made during all spring and a summer season. During walks collected various curative grasses. Sorcerers from these grasses subsequently prepared for medicines. Country walks and picnics were made by inhabitants of many cities. With the beginning of spring local kamy made cleaning ceremonies. The most part of public rituals, sacrifices occured in the spring or in the autumn. Shout of a cuckoo and the first thunder were considered as the first sound signals of spring. In the spring when there were first leaves on a birch, Türks made prayers to the owner of the Earth.

In May made special sacrifice and arranged prayers to spirit of air that it{he} was not angry and did not bring with itself winds which perniciously operated in the beginning of spring, breaking and carrying away with trees flowers. The spring passed, there came summer.

Türks named summer the period of the Maturity. The summer was loved by all. Old men were pleased, that have wintered, children could run freely, the cattle was grazed on meadows. In summertime the traficability of the person in space increased. The summer seemed more volumetric, sated, long in comparison with winter. The summer is transitive it is time year, the moment of a unstable balance of life and death. With approach of years{summer} heat, in rough boiling life pernicious forces for the person were suddenly found out dangerous and even. Air is filled with direct evaporations of the ground, but in it{him} rush not only aromas of grasses, but also smells of decomposition and death, come to life disgusting insects and poisonous creatures. Therefore people should secure themselves in this poru against every possible nocuous forces. The important role in years{summer} festivals was played with the magic ceremonies, called to protect the person from nocuous forces and to give happiness.

The big value in national ceremonialism of years{summer} holidays had polyn. Was considered, that she{it} has not only curative properties, but also is capable to drive away malicious spirits, therefore in many houses where old men lived, bunches{beams} dry polyni usually hung.

Among years{summer} holidays among Türks and Mongols the most important the holiday of sacrifice to spirit of Sky Tengri was. It{he} was carried out in the beginning or in the middle of 5-th month (in the beginning of June), i.e. practically in day of a years{summer} solstice. After sacrifice began mass guljanija, jokes were played, sports meets - on struggle , to shooting from an onions{a bow}, to horse jumps were arranged.

The summer came to an end. There came autumn. The autumn is it is time natural withering. Türks named this period the Old age. There were many holidays in the autumn. All of them basically marked one: pleasure from the completed work, gratitude to the life-giving beginning of space, abundance peep, happiness of people. In the middle of autumn made sacrifices to Spirit of the Earth and spirits of ancestors which were accompanied by a joint feast of all inhabitants of an aul. In holidays jasnovidtsy predicted destiny. At the end of autumn kamy stopped kamlat as there came winter. People prepared for arrival of winter. Calendar year came to the end to begin again and so to go on a circle in infinite time in our universe. Thus the annual cycle was understood as analogy of human life: time was born and died to be born again.

The biological rhythm is the major mechanism, providing the adaptation of an organism to varying conditions of life. The alive system constantly is in a condition of a metabolism with an environment and, being automatically adjusting and samovosproizvodjashchejsja system, has ability to develop only due to substances and energy of an environment. The big role in development of the Earth and its{her} biosphere fluctuations of light exposure of temperature, atmospheric pressure, space radiation, electric potential of an atmosphere, change of an inclination of an axis of the Earth for a plane of its{her} orbit, etc. play a rhythm of its{her} rotation about the axis and references{manipulations} around of the Sun, solar activity.

"Some scientists consider, that dolgozhitelstvo and health are provided with synchronization of internal rhythms with external gravitational and other geophysical fluctuations of the environment, bearing{carrying} to an organism basically information influence. The growing organism gets a rhythm, and from the determined age loses it{him}. Ageing is a loss of a rhythm. The mismatch of internal rhythms of an organism with external physical gauges of time results in frustration of functioning of bodies and systems, that in final display results in chronic diseases, heavy illnesses, a premature old age.

Features of social evolution of the person have resulted to that mechanisms of interrelation with the nature start to suffer to please to mechanisms of social adaptation. The organism becomes as though a deaf person to biospheric and space pulsations. Roots of this outlook are covered in a texnocratic history of development of a human society (on the western type of development) especially in the European countries. And in the perverted education. For children prepare to beshennym to rhythms of adult life, training in all conceivable and inconceivable sciences. But nobody teaches it{him} to listen to the nature, to feel its{her} breath and to commensurate with it{her} the thoughts and affairs.

In the childhood absence of knowledge of ecological laws, about MecTf the person in biosphere, about interrelations of internal processes of an organism with space pawns scornful relation to laws of the nature. Consequence{investigation} of they be poisonous emissions in an atmosphere, acid rains, dead lakes, man-made deserts, turn of northern rivers, disappearing kinds of plants and animals. Accordingly, all these external influences, interfering in biochemical, physiological, immune and other processes, do{make} even more deaf{indistinct} a human body, rassoglasovyvajut his{its} internal rhythms with biospheric and space. In such conditions the idea of independence by nature, enough widespread{distributed} among young and healthy people is presented. Such " tsar of the nature ", sure in the forces, it is valid due to the natural internal forces incorporated in it{him}, reconstructs the organism and reduces interrelation of the internal processes with space. The reserves incorporated by the nature in an organism, allow to execute the determined social program. But... Essential "deafness" to rhythms of space conducts to accumulation of the whole circuit of mistakes in molecules and cells{cages} of the vital bodies and systems. Reserves are not boundless! And suddenly, apparently, during social prosperity and power - a heart attack, either an insult, or illnesses of a liver, a stomach, etc. Now this former " the winner of the nature " feels like peschinkoj in the universe. From now on his{its} interests become isolated on a problem of preservation of health. References{manipulations} to doctors, trips on resorts, search of strong medicines follow. Result - heavy illnesses, a premature old age " .12 Thus ancient Türks esteeming tengrianstvo knew bioritmologicheskie laws and meaningly used their force.

Türkic writing

Language - objectively existing phenomenon in life of a human society. By means of language the greatest vital values created by previous generations are kept. The structure of language influences structure Attitudes. Language is a code. One of the basic functions of language - development of the world and mastering of it{him}.

Language are words with their values. Words are the tool of knowledge of the world. Ideas are expressed through words. The word will consist of sounds. The word and speech are the major components of mentality of the person. Between thinking and speech there is a direct communication. Inherently articulate speech is first of all formal system of coding of the contents of predmetno-shaped thinking of the person. At the person , distinguished from animals an opportunity of abstract - logic thinking and articulate speech, process of training has found new quality: the person began to speak that could not show intelligibly a body.

Development of genetically caused potential of development of abstract - logic thinking and speech has opened to descendants vital skills of the far ancestors which are not inherited genetically and has expanded information base of culture due to a different clan of abstraction and common, i.e. not concrete, concepts.

But having found in structure of the intellectual power abstract - logic thinking, the person has found also ability to lie and samoobolshchatsja: researches of activity of a brain speak, that the person lies the left hemisphere, on which lozhitsja abstract - logic thinking (discrete) thinking and speech; the right hemisphere on which lozhitsja the predmetno-shaped (process) thinking, to lie is not capable. Languages of peoples - a part obshche a universal measure, - reflecting this fact, of them business of the Truth name many a just cause. Religions also allocate the right side as charitable.

Written speech has appeared after oral. At a dawn of development of human culture people began to feel necessity to fix for longer term, to transfer descendants of the information on those or other events. First steps in development of written speech scientists connect to attempts to transfer occuring events in figure. There were hieroglyphic symbols later. Marks of the Egyptian inscriptions which have been cut out in the beginning almost only on walls of temples, the Greek writers, contemporaries of Roman empire, have named hieroglyphs - from the Greek word "hieros" (sacred) and "glypho" (I cut, I cut). In hieroglyphs - marks of subjects similarity to a subject is lost. They either directly represent a word or indirectly hint at the contents of a word or designate the whole ideas. To set of subjects and the phenomena matches set of hieroglyphs - marks which need to be remembered for transfer of idea to the letter.

Further symbolical marks (letters) have been invented, designating sounds. As quantity{amount} of sounds of speech in everyone Language it is limited, a small amount of letters it is possible to express in writing any idea.

The letter develops completely new psihofiziologicheskie mechanisms of speech. The words designated by letters, are written on a paper. They are made by a hand. Words on a paper, expressing ideas and speech writing, find a physical condition. The reader perceives letters and words eyes and through them perceives ideas writing. Thus, letters and eyes of the person are the important mechanism in transfer and reception of any information.
Written speech is inverted to the broad audience of readers. Feelings and emotions of the author: his{its} agitation, love and hatred are transferred by skilful selection of words and from the text become clear to readers. The perception{recognition} of written speech necessarily assumes work of imagination, vzhivanija the reader in the text..
To read words, first of all it is necessary to know letters, i.e. the alphabet of the given language. The origin of letters in alphabets of nations of the world does not carry casual character. Alphabets have been developed in an antiquity by priests with the maximal account of psychological given peoples, t.e his{its} mentality. The alphabet corresponded{met} to spirit of language, mentality, i.e. psychology of people. These letters became a component of space language, getting force of magic and attaching the person to internal knowledge of the universe and themselves for the natural laws managing the universe, operate and inside the person. Each person represents the universe in a miniature!
Using the alphabet not matching to mentality is similar to using glasses not matching to sight. There is a distortion during transfer of spiritual idea. Therefore, in spite of even on complexity of hieroglyphs, Chinese do not change the writing as it threatens with disappearance of the Chinese civilization.
Characteristic features of Türkic writing (scientists have named its{her} orhono-Yenisei, "runi" as in basin of these rivers the first Türkic stone books have been found) have started to be made out with the beginning of the first millenium{millenia} of our era. Among Türkologists there are various points of view, about an origin of the Türkic letter. In opinion of one researchers, it is made from ancient Türkic tamg. In opinion of others - result of development of culture of Türkic tribes.

But there is one more point of view, that sources of her{it} originate from Ancient Egypt.

A little history about the ancient East. From numerous researches it is known, that the first rudiments of writing have appeared in Messopatamii at ancient Sumerians in the middle of IV millenium{millenia} d.n.e. SHumerskie priests continued to improve this writing: pictograms (marks - figures) gradually transforming in ideogrammy, i.e. such written marks, which contents did not coincide any more from them risunochnym in the image.

A plenty in shumerskom language of terse words has resulted in occurrence in writings several hundreds the marks, designating syllables, and some alphabetic marks which corresponded{met} to vowel sounds. Alphabetic and syllabic marks were used for transfer of grammatic parameters, particles and syntactic words. The more writing developed, the disappeared risunochnyj character shumerskih written marks more.

SHumerskoe the letter was adopted by Semites and have adapted it{him} for the language. In due course shumerskaja writing has was extended in many peredneaziatskih the countries of the ancient east. In the middle of III millenium{millenia} d.n.e. shumerskuju writing have adopted and in Egypt. In parallel shumerskoj writings by priests of Egypt during this period the mixed spelling has been developed. At it{him} for transfer of one word wrote together and marks which had graphic value, and sound marks. During the same period the letter began to write ink by means of long stems - brushes.

In II milleniums{millenias} d.n.e. Priests was the new letter, so-called staroieraticheskoe is developed. This name of the letter written on the papyrus, Greeks - from the Greek word "hieratikos" (priestly) as during late times him{it} only priests, as a rule, used gave. To the simplified tracing of marks of this letter hieroglyphs only were vaguely similar. In the letter public letters and the written word were not used has consisten only from concordant. Texts were written across from right to left. Such letter has well been adapted to an encryption written. It has passed to ancient Jews who further have more improved it{him}. The writing from right to left ' was adopted also by arabs.

Hieroglyphic - she{it} as though matches activity of the right hemisphere of a brain - to emotional thinking more. Ideographic - she{it} matches to the left hemisphere - abstract thinking more. Ierogificheskaja writing keeps depth of concept to the detriment of expansion of the form. And the ideographic letter provided freedom of a variation of forms, but to the detriment of depth of concept. In the West it was generated of a matter, and in the East Civilization have gone on development of emotion.
Türkic - Latin - Arabic - Uigur Alphabets
p. 64
p. 65
Türkic - Quasi-Cyrillic (official Tatar) Alphabets
p. 66


The same is possible to tell on the subject of the rule of the writing from right to left. At the writing the left hemisphere (abstract thinking) from left to right develops, and at a spelling the right hemisphere (emotional thinking) from right to left develops.

" There is one more feature: it is proved that the right hemisphere participates in creation of emotions in the much greater measure, rather than left. The right hemisphere dominates over the control over aggressive behaviour, and with amplification{strengthening} of the left hemisphere the sensation of alarm and a pressure{voltage} grows.

One of the main reasons of occurrence of negative emotions at the person is covered in insufficient functional activity of the right hemisphere. Stimulating work of the right hemisphere of a brain thus help an organism to adapt in as a whole to changes of conditions of an environment.
If to address to experience of nations of Far North which during many generations adapted to extreme climatic factors of high breadthes it is possible to see the big ability of radical northerners to art creativity. Such draft of the majority of nations living in extreme conditions to drawing and other displays of creativity not sluchajna. Severe conditions of environment forced the person to search subconsciously for the means providing the maximal stability of an organism to external factors.

As is known from numerous scientific researches artistic images, color scales, spatial sensations are perceived basically by the right hemisphere of a brain, therefore process of drawing, makes active his{its} function, ability of synchronization of processes inside the person with rhythms of an external world. Thus harmony with the nature is reached{achieved}.

At people of advanced age at which functional activity of hemispheres of a brain is in the course of time reduced, and especially right hemisphere, the important value for stimulation of their stability to negative action of weather and geophysical factors is played with the sated, bright colors. Drawing, a groove on a bone and a stone, that is creativity, display of art abilities, is one of necessary signals, programmirujushchih longevity of the person.

Apparently, uchtja all positive sides of this rule of the writing, Türkic priests (ata-kamy) also have taken it{him} for the letter. They have altered letters and have made the alphabet matching Türkic singarmonizmu to language and mentality. Under laws Türkic singarmonizma if in the beginning of a word there is a firm letter all other letters in a word will be firm.

If in the beginning of a word soft all letters in a word will be soft. There is still slozhnosostavnye words, that is one syllable of a word soft, another firm. But in Türkic language it is not enough such words. In Türkic language it is excluded, that in one word were both firm and soft sounds. Therefore for a transcription of Türkic language in the alphabet it is stipulated 11 firm pair concordant. In the Türkic alphabet there are five more unary concordant marks which promote a statement of foreign words in Türkic, according to the law of sound harmony. For unification of the letter for all Türkic and Mongolian tribes four vowels have been entered only. Have left rules of the writing from right to left. And, despite of complexity of the writing runic letters, continued to use them during several milleniums{millenias}

To VII-VIII centuries in capital of Great Türkic Kaganate Otjukene priests were engaged in unification of the alphabet for all Türkic and Mongolian tribes. Türkic priests (ata-kamy) by development of the alphabet put semantic magic force in each letter. Researches of the Türkic alphabet proceed ich today, however interesting conclusions were left by the first researchers of the beginning of 20th century. Academician W.W.Bartold has written one of these researchers about the Türkic alphabet so: " Here we have the complex{difficult} letter which is adapted to Türkic language much better, than all other alphabets. Number of public letters insignificantly, but concordant are divided{shared} into two categories according to the law of sound harmony the alphabet, quite matching to Türkic language, thus, turns out. " " The Alphabet (orhono-enisejs-ky) has been excellently adapted to Türkic language, is especial to the law singarmonizma and it is in this respect represented much more perfect, than the alphabets which have replaced it{him} Uigur and Arabian". 13
The türkic alphabet was used long time by all ancient Türkic tribes. It is enough to note, that in huge territory from Western Siberia up to the East Europe and in Transcaucasia to this day there are numerous historical monuments inscriptions on the Türkic alphabet. Various kinds of inscriptions chiselled on a stone, an inscription on ceramics, rock educational inscriptions, etc. allow to tell about rather wide for nomadic culture of Türks distribution of writing. In researched inscriptions are strictly observed spelling of marks (sounds). Almost all vowels in language of ancient Türkic monuments are said only briefly. In it{him} there are no long vowels. Long vowels the new phenomenon in modern Türkic languages, and in each of them they developed in its way.

Harmony of vowels is one of prominent features of the Türkic languages, consisting that public roots change definitely. The insignificant number of vowels in the alphabet enabled for his{its} unification for all dialects: and Türkic and Mongolian peoples and the tribes living in territory of Great Türkic Kaganate.
Records on orhonskih stone books - monuments of world culture VI-VIII of centuries - amaze with greatness of spirit, power of a word, concentration of forces of space in sechi bloody, a rumble of fights and battles of ancestors, an appeal to the world and goods, we cry, grief above the lost heroes in the name of prosperity of people.
Since 60th years of 20th century in Japan there were discussions about, expediency of transition on latin to the schedule. After discussion 20 years{summer} research of this question, in experimental classes of the Japanese schools has followed. Results of research of transition to latin letters have shown negative influence on mentality of Japanese children. The outlook and spirit of Japanese varied. But the basis of these researches of discussion on change schedules have been stopped also the Japanese government the opinion for preservation Japanese ierograficheskoj has expressed of writing.
In due course acceptances by Türks of Islamic religion and the Arabian alphabet, Türks almost not reflecting protected thousand years and preserved the Arabian world against crusaders (latinjan the West.). About it knew and in the West. And if crusaders could not win Türks in open I fight, their descendants have replaced tactics of struggle and achieve, that Türkic peoples served them, instead of arabs.. Therefore at support of pro-Western governors which today are at authority in Russia and in the Türkic states, the latin alphabet is imposed to Türkic peoples. Thus the selling ruling clique tears off from the Knowledge saved up by centuries and drags Türks on service to descendants of crusaders.
The culture is one of the facts of an inhabitancy. Development of culture has left traces on reproduction of generations of people. If in an animal and flora of a population of one kind are closed on relation to each other prirodno-geografi-cheskimi by factors the person has cultural - caused isolation on national, class, etc. to attributes.

Imposing of another's culture to people finds resistance not only in cultural traditions of his{its} social organization, but also genetically caused opportunities and predraspolo-zhennostjuetogo people, together with in vnesotsialnyh factors. Therefore the cultural exchange seldom when, brings new containnie in life of peoples; it{he} or creates conditions for disclosing their own potential of development, being for him{it} a push, or interferes with this development. For this reason eradication of objectionable culture is always accompanied by a genocide: narcotic, economic, the "state" programs of decrease{reduction} of birth rate and the control over it{her} in different social groups, etc. Thus the genocide in all kinds can be accompanied the blessing by similar chatter of notorious enemies and loyal idiots about revival of people and protection of his{its} cultural values; stjazhenie to itself of national values also interests the majority of talkers.
From higher told it is possible to draw a conclusion: to keep spirit of the nation it is necessary to hold constantly connection with the invisible world of the universe populated with spirits of the nature and died ancestors. It is necessary to know the philosophy constructed on Türkic religion, the language, the alphabet as Türkic letters have magic force and serve as a code or (key) for knowledge of deep ideas and the ideas connected to the universe. Having tried to grasp in all this it is possible to revive and become a high-grade particle of the universe.

Chapter 2. Ancient Türkic Cosmological Views

1.  Katanov N.F. "Kachin (Kamlyar=Kams, pl.) legend about creation of the world", Publisher OAIE, 1894, Vol.12, issue.2, p. 185-188.
2.  Ancient manuscript books - coll. N 39 NA IYALI K FAN USSR, file 2644, page 2 obverse (.?).
3.  Ivanov V.V., Toporov V.N. "Slavic linguistic modelling semiotics systems", ., 1965, p. 115.
4.  Dyrenkova N.P. "Shor's folklore", M.-L., 1940, p. 25-27.
5.  "Traditional beliefs of Southern Siberia Türks", USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian branch, Novosibirsk, 1988, p. 21.
6.  Kül Gali, "Kyssa and Yusyf, Yusyf turynda kyissa", Kazan, 1983, p. 315.
7.  "Traditional beliefs of Southern Siberia Türks", USSR Academy of Sciences, Siberian branch, Novosibirsk, 1988, p. 43,
8.  Malov S.E. "Yenisei script", M.-L., 1952, p. 26.
9.  Tsybulsky V.V. "Lunno-solar calendar of the East Asia countries", ., 1987, p. 17.
10. Butanaev . Newspaper "Soviet Khakassia", March, 31, 1984.
11. Hasnulin V.I. "Calendar of unfavorable days", Sankt-Petersburg, 1998, p. 74.
12. Hasnulin V.I. "Calendar of unfavorable days", Sankt-Petersburg, 1998, p. 83-84.
13. Bartold W.W. "History of Türko-Mongolian peoples", Abstract of Lecture, Tashkent, 1928, p. 6


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