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KIMAKS

Kimek, Yimek, Imek, and other variations

Subdi6sions and ethnic affiliates

 

1800 BC-1070 AD

Links

http://www.tataroved.ru/publicat/turky.pdf

Mini-Glossary

 

Teles - eastern Tegin            
Tardush - western Khanlyk Khandom          
Yabgy -              
Shad -              

 

Forword

 Unfortunately, most of the dates are approximate, lined up to indicate a relative order of the news or events, and their accuracy varies from half of a decade to quarter of a century to a century, indicated by trailing zeroes in the date. Thus, 1800 BC could conservatively be 1850 to 1750, but could easily be 1900 to 1700, and even worse. Similarly, 650 could conservatively be 630 to 670, but could easily be 620 to 680, and 670 could conservatively be 665 to 675, but could easily be 660 to 680. The exact dates are shown exactly, as given in the sources, ending in zero only in 10% of the cases.

Records of Rus annals, which do not discriminate between Kumans and Kipchaks but call either one "Polovets", are rendered here as Kipchaks, unless a complimentary record allows discernment between these two groups.

 

DATELINE
Time

Events

-1800 In 18-17 centuries BC there was a displacement of Dinlins from China. Eastern group of Dinlins migrated to territory from Baikal to Ob. It led to mixture of populations. Anthropologist G.F.Debets noted distinction between Karasuk and Andronov skulls. Heads of Karasuks are higher above and narrower. Short-headed wide faces also exist. Andronov skulls are short-headed wide faces. Arrival of dolichocephalics Debets explains by infiltration of Mongoloid Dinlin elements of N.Chinese type and preservation of old Afanasiev types..
-1300 At end of bronze age in Southern Siberia almost synchronously existed Andronov Culture and Karasuk culture. (13-8 cc. BC) who left monuments of mixed populations which came from West and South. Their anthropological type is Europoids with admixture of Mongoloids. People lived in permanent settlements, in frame type houses. Economy was complex, they bred large horned livestock, horses and sheep. In Karasuk period developed high level of bronze metallurgy. Characteristic for Karasuk Culture are extensive cemeteries, tombs are fenced with stone slabs laid on crest. Karasuk Culture is result of migration of eastern part of Dinlins
-1000 1000 BC - 300 AD During an epoch of bronze Kypchaks (Kyu Chaks, i.e White Sakas) derogatorylived in Minusinsk depression
-700 Scythians in the West, Savromats in Itil region and S Ural, Massageto-Saka world of Central Asia, Dinlins, Tagar and Mayemir tribes of Sayano-Altai, population of Mongolia, Baikal and Ordos used identical weaponry and horse harness, used the same images and fantasy in art. Local distinctions did not weaken affinity of their cultures.
-400 Chinese historical annals of 4-3 c. BC recorded "Dinlin state" (Ch. Dinlin Go) in Minusinsk depression. Dinlin state soon became dependency of Hunnu
-400 Dinlins living in antiquity Minusinsk depression, are considered to be ancestors of Kypchaks. Minusinsk and Altay burials testify of rich culture achieved during  epoch of bronze
-300 Chinese sources know Kipchaks from 3 c. BC under name "Tsüyshe" (Ch. for ?)
-200 Kypchaks were members of Hunnish Kaganate
93 Üebans (aka Yueban, Yuehban, a Chinese generic collective name for Huns) are thought to descend from "Weak Huns", who after tragical events of 93 fled to Tarbagatai and Saura mountains
100 Üebans left from Tarbagatai and Saura mountains to Jety-Su and Djungaria
100 Üebans Huns lived in 2nd-8th cc. West of mountain ridges separating Inner Asia from Outer, and created state Üeban
300 Originally, in 4-9 cc. Mongolian tribes were sedentary, lived in cold forests, in hefty dwellings, mainly occupied with hunting and fishery, horse-breeding and hog-breeding. At the end of 9th - beginning of 10th cc. began a process of gradual Mongol-speaking tribes migration toward west, with consequent replacement of Türks
490 Üeban independence was destroyed by Teleuts at the end of 80es in 5th century
495 In 495-496 Teleuts (and Üebans) were subjugated by Hephtalites
500 In 6-8 cc. Üebans were called "Chuy Tribes"
500 In 6 c. in E Asia Huns are already not known as ethnos, they lived as Türkic tribes known under different ethnonyms
547 In 547 Türkuts subdued Teleuts (and Üebans). This fast change of ruling tribes helped survive Üeban Huns, later they developed into four Türkic tribes: Chuüe, Chumi, Chumuhun (Chumugun) and Chuban
550 Tatars' name is mentioned for a first time in connection with events of middle of 6 c. in inscriptions in Kosho-Tsaydam Kül-Tegin and Bilge-Kagan monuments. Tatar tribes participated not only in creation of Kimak state, but also in ethnogenesis of Kimaks.
550

KYRGYZ KAGANATE
ca 550 - 1293 AD
Founder-
Area - borders: W - Abakan Ridge and Alatau, S - W. Sayan Ridge, E - probably E.Sayan Ridge, N - to taiga and estuary of r. Angara

552 Üeban Huns Chuüe, Chumi, Chumuhun and Chuban played huge role during existence of Great Türkic Kaganate, they were part of Shato Türks and Kimaks
552 Kypchaks lived in Altai and were part of Great Türkic Kaganate (552-743)
600 Originally Kimaks lived along Irtysh between Altai and Tarbagatai
630 In 630 a part of Kypchaks was exterminated by Türküts and Chinese. Grumm-Grjimailo tells that remaining Kypchaks split, one part mixed with Kangls (i.e. Kangals, Kangly, Kungurs, Kangars, Kangüys etc.) and formed people known under name Komans (i.e. Kumans, Cumans, Kubans, Cubans, Comans, Qumans, Comani, Kumandy, Kun-ok, Kun, Kangli, Kengeres, Qangli, Falven, Falones, Val(e)we(n,) Phalagi, Sakaliba, Khartesh, lvi, lw, lui, lwci, lz(k), Polovetsy etc.). Because of great turbulence in Türkic world, Kypchaks forgot most of rich cultural heritage of their ancestors. Though Kypchaks were close relatives of Kimaks, they were settling separately
646 Tokuz-Oguzes seriously defeated Sirs. Türkologist S.G.Klyashtorny in Russian service expressed an illuminating opinion that at that particular time Sirs accepted a second, derogatory name "Kybchak", i.e. " unfortunate, doomed". Kypchak people must be first in history to accept a derogatory title as their ethnonym
650 Kimaks, these "Weak Huns" Üebans, named by Chinese historians "Chumugun",  lived west of Tarbagatai and Altai
650 By middle of 7 c. Kimaks lived by Irtysh, north of Altai, and were members of Western Türkic Kaganate
650 In 2nd half of 8 - beginning of 9 c. Kimak tribes moved in two directions: northwest to Urals and southwest to northern Jety-Su. Their main body remained in Irtysh area
650

Kimaks, moving from Irtysh, occupied huge territory between rivers Ural and Emba, and also Aral and Caspian steppes.

Before middle of 8 c. Kimaks southern neighbors were Karluks, eastern were  Yenisei Kyrgyzes. Tokuz-Oguzes country was south of Kimaks. Khakan's residence was in Imakia on Irtysh. Kimaks also gradually took over other areas of federation, many were in Jety-Su

650 Kypchak kurgans were piled from rocks or tiled with rocks, diseased was laid head toward east. Hext to diseased also was buried horse or its effigy complete with legs
657 In 657 Karluks were subjects of empire Tan. In empire it was easier for them, because they preserved their relative independence, and could fight against Second Eastern Türkic Kaganate
700 In 8 c. Tatars lived in northeastern part of Mongolia 
723 "Tokuz-Tatars" for first time were recorded in Bilge-Kagan inscription as allies of Tokuz-Oguzes who rose against Bilge-Kagan in 723-724
740 In 740-840 Tatars were members of Uigur Kaganate
743 740-840 After disintegration of Western Türkic Kaganate a part of Kimaks remained in Uigur Kaganate, and another part was independent. During that period evolved a nucleus of Kimak tribes. Head of tribe had a title "Shad Tutuk", i.e. "Prince Governing or Holding (power)".  Shad was western governor and Yabgu eastern governor in Göktürk Kaganate
743 Civilization created by Great Türkic Kaganate was carried on by, many peoples: Kypchaks, Kimaks, Uigurs, Bechens, Oguzes, Karluks, Kyrgyzes, Türgeshes, Khazars, Bulgars and others who inherited it after destruction of Kaganate
743

KIMAK KAGANATE
743-1050 A.D
Founder - title Shad Tutuk ("Ruling Prince")
Area -

743 Abu Said Gardizi (d. 1061) wrote that Kimak federation consisted of seven tribes: Kimaks (Imak, Imek, Yemek), Imi, Tatars, Bayandur, Kypchak, Lanikaz and Adjlad
743 After splinter of Western Türkic Kaganate southern neighbors of Kimaks, Karluks, preserved their independence for 200 years
745 Early in life of Kimak Kaganate the arrival of Huns and their other Türkic tribes unknown to us changed ethnic layout of Middle Itil and Lower Kama areas, leaving behind Imenkov Archeological Culture with ceramics identical to ancient Bulgarian
747 Uigur Kagan Muün-chur (747-759) inscription named Tokuz-Tatars again as allies of Oguz tribes insurgent against Kagan
750 After split of Second Eastern Türkic Kaganate, Karluks for 200 years lived in territory of Jety-Su along caravan roads from Central Asia to China, their only rival was Türgesh Khanlyk
756 In 756 in Türgesh Khanlyk flashed conflict between clans
757 In 757-766 Karluks took over entire territory of Türgesh state. Karluk capital from 766 to 940 were. Suyab on r. Chu, then sarai of Yabgu was relocated to Koinakly on r. Ili. Karluks preserved their independence for 200 years
759 When in 759 Türgeshes subordinated to Karluks, a part of them migrated east to Uigurs
759 Name "Kypchak" is recorded in Moün-chur (747-759) monument
800 Ethnonym "Kimak" appeared suddenly in Arabic sources in 9 c. and disappeared suddenly in second half of 11th c., no sources tell where Kimaks left or why their name disappeared from historical documents
800 Name "Tatars" was used in 9-10 cc. Khotano-Saka documents
800 In 9 c. Tatars were neighbors of Tanguts. In Tangut state Tatars lived in steppes Gansu and in Alashan (Tian Shan) mountains
800 In 9 c. Oguzes were allied with Kimaks
800 Kimak religion was the same as majority of Türks, they believed in Tengri. Among Kimak was spread tradition of reverence to ancestors. Kimaks on border with Uigurs adopted Manichean version of Christianity. Characteristic for steppes from Baikal to Danube before arrival of Mongols were stone balbals (memorial sculptured icons) revered by Kimaks and Kypchaks
808 Chinese historians called "Chumuhun" descendants of those "Weak Huns" Üebans who remained, pointing that they lived west of Tarbagatai and Altai and were independent. That is area where coincidently formed Kimaks. Thus, Kimaks, as descendants of Huns, continued their history the longest
808 Part of Üeban Huns,  Shato Türks, in 808 made their way to China and there supported dynasty Tan before its demise
810 In beginning of 9 c. Tatar tribes, which Chinese authors called Shiwey (border guards) during that period, migrated to Inypan mountains and spread west reaching r. Kerulen
830 Persian traveler Gardizi made first records about Kimaks, noting them  where lived Huns' descendants, called by Chinese authors "Chumugun". First mentioning about Kimaks also has Tamim ibn Bahr in first half of 9th c.
840 Tatars, probably joined Kimak federation after 840
840 After breakup of Uigur Kaganate in 840 to core of Kimak tribes joined portions of Eymür, Bayandur and Tatar Türkic tribes. Kimaks occupied western part of Kaganate along Irtysh coast. Tatar tribes also participated initially in creation of Kimak Kaganate
842 In Chinese sources Tatars (Da-Da, Da-Dan, Tatan) are first mentioned in connection with events of 842, as allies of last Uigur Kagan. After demise of Uigur Kaganate, Tatar tribes, together with Uigurs, emigrated to Eastern Turkestan
842 Each large tribe entering in Kimak Kaganat, had its Khanlyk (Khanate). Kypchaks also had their Khanlyk, but politically they were dependent from Kimaks. Khans of individual tribes were nominated or confirmed by Kagans (traditionally, Khan is elective position)
842 After breakup of Uigur Kaganate, Central Asian tribes found themselves unattached. Kimaks, of all the numerous tribes, were ready to head new political union of tribes, and they created new Kimak Kaganate state, a federation of seven tribes, seven Khanlyks
842

Significant part of Uigurs, led by minister Pan-Tegin moved to Eastern Turkestan and created new Turfan Uigur Princedom. Part of Uigurs went in China.

So ended history of one more ancient Türkic state. But in Central Asia formed other Türkic states, most significant among them was Kimak Kaganate

850 Under influence of active trading relations with Muslim Arabs, Kimak Kaganate was drawn into slave-trading business.  "Objectionable" people, and even relatives were sold into slavery. Slave-trade became destiny of multitudes, they were sold by Kidanes, who were running endless manhunt attacks and roundups. This tragedy lasted for 200 years
850 From second half of 9 c. Kypchaks lived in steppes from Irtysh up to borders of Khoresm
870 In second half of 9 c. Arabian Tamim ibn Bahr Al-Mutavai traveled to Tokuz-Oguzes through Kimak and Kypchak lands. His description of travel , description of Türks were later used by others authors
870 In second half of 9 c. Kimaks began drifting westwards. They occupied lands of Bechens, whose. nucleus were tribes of Kangar (i.e. Kangals, Kangly, Kungurs, Kangars, Kangüys etc.) political union, in formation of Bechen tribal union participated, in addition to purely Türkic tribes, Sarmatian and Finno-Ugrian tribes. Bechens lived by cattle breeding in a tribal society
870 In second half of 9 c. Bechens' position worsened, their union was defeated by alliance of Oguzes, Kimaks and Karluks. Kimaks, together with Oguzes, seized Bechen lands along Seyhun (Jaxartes, Yaxartes, Syr-Darya, Syrdarya etc), and in Aral area, began pasturing in Southern Ural. Under pressure of Kimaks, Bechens from Aral moved to Lower Itil steppes, and from there to Don-Dniepr interfluvial, pushing Hungarians westward
880 In 880es Abu-l-Kasim Ubaidullah ibn Abdallah ibn Hordadbeh, head of mail and intelligence service in Baghdad Caliphate, wrote "Kitab Al-malik Al-masalik" ("Book of ways and states") describing caravan road routes and distances between locations, which contained information about Türks, including Kypchaks and Kimaks
890 Originally Kypchaks lived together with Kimaks, but for some reasons at the end of 9 c. Kypchaks separated from Kimaks and stayed in western lands of Kaganate. In the south Kypchaks bordered Bechens, who in 8th - beginning of 9th c. lived in basin of Seyhun and Aral area. Later Kypchaks drifted toward Urals.. In 7-12 cc. Kypchak and Kimak culture was identical
890 At the end of 9 c. in the south of Eastern European steppes formed new nomadic union of Bechens. Byzantines called them Patsinaks, Arabs - Badjnaks. Began formation of new political union of Bechen ethnos. Their neighbors were stronger and better known people: Oguzes, Kypchaks, Magyars and Khazar Kaganate. Using weakness of Khazar Kaganate, they moved through its territory to the west
890 Allied with Khazars Oguzes harassed Bechens, who at the end of 9-10 cc hurriedly proceeded to the west. Bechens' migration was accompanied by plundering and fires. Bechens stopped in Dnepro-Don interfluvial. Second branch of Bechens stopped in foothills of N.Caucasus
890 To pass from N.Aral steppes to Dnepro-Don interfluvial, Bechens had to cross lands in multiple and fairly autonomous jurisdictions. Ibn Fadlan, who made a similar trip during that period, gives a good picture of local conditions and tiered allegiances. Bechens had to cross lands of their linguistic Oguz cousins, Alans speaking mix Bechen (Badjanak in Al-Biruni) language with Horezmian, Khazars speaking a dialect of Oguzo-Kipchak language, again Alans,  and Kara Bulgars in N. Caucasus steppes, and Majars (Magyars) in N. Azov Lebedia. Leaving behind a branch that joined N.Caucasian Alans, Bechens wedged into Kara Bulgaria that just split into autonomous Kara Bulgaria and incipient Rus.
890 At the end of 9 c. in Aral and Caspian area formed Oguz state with center in Yangikent. Part of Oguz tribes came there after defeat by Yenisei Kyrgyzes of Uigur Kaganate Tokuz-Oguzes. In 9-10 cc. Oguzes were in alliance with Kimaks. Apparently, they occupied small part near Caspian Sea, because Arab sources tell that Kimak state covered from Irtysh to Caspian sea. In Firdousi's "Shah-name" Caspian Sea is called Kimak Sea
890 In Arabian sources of the end of 9th - beginnings of 10th centuries, specifically in work of Al-Yakub, arrived a first mentioning of Kimak state. Unlike rulers of Türkic Kaganates, Arabian sources call ruler of Kimak Kaganate "Khakan". Khakan had 11 deputies. Power of Khakan and tribal Khans was hereditary ( maybe Arabs meant "hereditary within a clan"?)
890 Kimaks were organized as military democracy. Military commanders doubled as provincial rulers. Provincial rulers had to furnish military contingents for armies Khakan. 11 Khakan deputies indicate number of provinces in the state. The excess of provincial rulers over the number of Khanlyks (there were seven Khanlyks) shows that some Khanlyks had more than one  provincial ruler
890 Organization of Kimak Kaganate shows  direct connection between state system of previous Türkic states and  Kimak Kaganate, indicating continuity between them
890 In Kimak state were 16 cities, 11 of them located on r. Irtysh, Khakan's residence was in Imakia on Irtysh. Its exact location is not known. Provincial governors with their courts and army lived in other cities, fortified and surrounded with walls. Sources report about part of taxes going to Khakan. Khakan had a state apparatus. Biggest constituent of Kimak Kaganate was Kypchak Khanlyk
890 By the end of 10 c. Kimak central authority weakened, and Kypchaks gained independence. They pushed aside all their neighbors and became owners of ancient Kangüy. In Middle East Kypchak country began to be called Desht-i-Kypchak (Deshtikypchak)
900 Arabian and Persian geographers, travelers and historians provide plenty information about Kimaks, but mostly starting only from 10 c.. T, Despite of remoteness of Caliphate and Persia, these authors preserved historical data about tribes, languages, economy of Kimak Kaganate tribes. Most information is about Kypchaks, who were most numerous after Kimaks.  Muslim authors write much about Kypchaks
900 Kimak federation occupied huge territory from Tobol and Irtysh to Caspian Sea and Seyhun, from taiga to Kazakhstan semi-deserts. Borders of Kimak state were naturally protected from enemies. Muslim authors draw northern border of Kimak Kaganate near mythical country of Gog and magog (Yadjuj-Madjuj). Northern border of Kimak federation was Siberian taiga, eastern was Altai mountains, southern was lifeless steppe Bet Pak. Therefore Kimaks lived peacefully
900 Expanding geography of their settlement, Kimaks touched  Karluks, Oguzes and Kyrgyzes
900 In 10 cc. Oguzes were allied with Kimaks
900 Written and archeological sources show that in 10 c. Kimak economy was semi-sedentary. Permanent settlements also existed. Kimaks left remains of irrigation systems and ruins of castles
900 Kimak farmers cultivated millet, barley, wheat, legumes, and even such labor extensive culture as rice. Kimaks also raised grapes, were beekeepers. Favorite animal of Kimak Kaganate population was horse. They were used for riding and draught, in agriculture, horse meat was considered best
900 Kimak cities were mostly located along trading ways. Trade was mostly exchange, farmers exchanged grain and flour for lambs and leather. Also was active monetary trade
900 Among crafts first was leather processing, felt manufacturing, clothing and footwear, horse harnesses of leather and felt. Kimaks and other tribes of Kaganate themselves produced weapons, implements, agricultural tools. In forest-steppe areas was widely spread woodwork. Of him{it} did{made} Utensils, yurt details, etc. were made of wood. Iron was mined and processed. Gold and silver were mined
900 In the end of 9th - beginning of 10th cc. began process of gradual migration of Mongol-speaking tribes toward west, accompanied by replacement of Türks. In 200 years Mongols from walkers, mainly forest hunters and horse-breeders became nomads and cattlemen. They borrowed from Türks all types of steppe cattle, skill and experience of nomads, and also mobile houses and other forms of material culture steppe-dwellers, and retaining much of their previous settled life
900 In Kimak Kaganate formed and lead active economic life many Türkic tribes: Kimaks, Kypchaks, Bechens, Oguzes, a bigger portion of whose population migrated to the west, beyond Yaik, beyond Itil, Don and Dnepr, changing the ethnic map of Eastern Europe
924 First intrusion of Kidans into Central Asian steppes began in 924, it turned into a real catastrophe for Türks, and led to change of ethnic map of Central Asia. Kidan's pressure of 10-11 cc. caused flight of many Türkic-speaking tribal associations and ethnic groups from borders of China to the west, and signal advancement of ancient Mongol-speaking tribes from basin of r. Amur and Manchuria to steppe spaces of Central Asia
940 ca 940 Kimak Kaganate writing is indirectly described by Abu Dulaf: "They have reeds with which they write". Were found bronze mirrors with inscriptions, dated 10th-11th c.
950 By the middle of 10th c. Bechens occupied large territory from Itil to Danube. Bechens  played significant role in life of neighboring peoples. Bechens helped in demise of Khazar Kaganate. Byzantium maneuvered to collide Bechens with Rus. Bechens attacked Rus in 915, 920 and 968
950 Speculations (S.V.Kiselev) of possible penetration of Islam to Kyrgyzes is improbable, since western neighbors of Kyrgyzes, i.e. Kimaks, Kypchaks, Oguzes, Bechens, Karluks, etc., who were located closer to Muslim countries, during that period still professed Tengrianism 
960 Karluks preserved their independence for 200 years, for long time resisted Islam, but in 960 voluntary accepted Islamic religion, after which Karluks did not  have any relations with China
966 Tatar tribes allied with empire Sun to fight against Kidans
982 Written about 982 in Persian language, anonymous geographical treatise "Hudud Al-alam min mashrik ila-l-magrib" ("Borders of world from east to west ") is a crucial source about ancient Türks, containing many descriptions of Türks, and a whole chapter dedicated to Kimak Kaganate and social system of Kimaks. V.V.Bartold was first who studied in detail that work
982 In Kimak Kaganate Kimaks, Kypchaks, Oguzes, Bechens, Ugrs and other peoples and ethnic groups lived peacefully. Kimak Kaganate was prospering
982 "Hudud it Al-ala" related Tatars directly with Tokuz-Oguzes
984 Chinese had a habit to change monikers for peoples and tribes. Chinese  began to call Tatars "Tszübu". Tatars' exoetnonim "Tatars" was also their endoetnonim
984 Tatar tribes alliance with empire Sun to fight against Kidans did not help Tatars, and in 984-985 they sufferred defeat from Kidans
985 In 985 Oguzes concluded alliance with Vladimir (Budimir) Svyatoslavich, pra-pra-grandson of Lachyn (Rürik)
990 At the end of 10 c. Karluks joined Karakhanid state.China lost its positions in western lands, retaining only four fortresses: Kucha, Karashar, Hotan and Kashgar. Almost nothing is in sources about relations between Karluks and Kimaks, because their lands were separated by lifeless desert Bet-Pak
990 By end of 10 c. in Kimak Kaganate separate Khanlyks grew stronger, grew centrifugal forces, weakened central authority
990 When started intensive migration of Kypchaks to the west, Kypchaks crushed Oguz state. Northern branch of Oguzes left to Don-Dniepr steppes, occupying lands where lived Bechens. Oguzes entered into relations with Rus princedoms, where Oguz Türks were called "Torks"
995 In 990es Oguzes set off with Kiev Rus Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich to campaign against Itil Bulgaria, which at that time was still a strong state and Vladimir alone, without help of Türks, did not dare to attack her
1000 Kimaks and Kypchaks pushed Oguzes to the south, Bechens to the west, Karluks to the southeast, Ugrs to the north into Siberian taiga, and by that they weakened also themselves
1000 In 11th c. central authority in Kimak Kaganate degraded. Khakan became only military leader of militia. There was no central army. Each Khan also had small number of militia soldiers
1000 From 11 c. Kypchaks and their descendants, Kypchaks  and Kumans, occupied huge open spaces of southern part of Eastern Europe. Arabian and Persian authors call these territories " Desht-i-Kypchak"
1010 From beginning of 11 c. Kypchak Khanlyk moved as a Horde to the west, whole Khanlyk, occupying lands belonging earlier to Oguzes. After seizing Oguz lands Kypchaks grew considerably stronger, Kimaks became dependents of Kypchaks
1010 Migration was not an ordinary pastoral coaching, but resolute invasion: capture of richer pastures. Part of Kimaks remained in ancient land, in Irtysh, another part left with Kypchaks to the west
1010 Significant mass of Kypchaks remained in Irtysh. Together with Kimaks they joined ancient population of Western Siberia. Subsequently, they participated in forming of Siberian Tatars and other Türkic peoples
1010 Exist a myth that name Kypchak comes from color of their hair, as though their hair was blond. Perhaps, some of their groups were blond-haired, but mostly they were dark-haired (On one hand we have exoethnonyms coming from blond: Kipchaks, Kukiji, Cumans, Falven, Falones, Val(e)we(n,) Phalagi, Sakaliba, Khartesh, lvi, lw, lui, lwci, lz(k), Polovetsy, Polovtsy, see Zakiev M. Z. Sakaliba, on the other hand we have black-haired antropology)
1010 Western Kypchak subdivision of Kumans had endoethnonym  "Sorochin" (i.e. Sary Jin = Yellow Junes). (A fascinating fact should be noted that presence of Sorochins/Saracens/Sarochinetses in E.Europe is evidenced in pre-Hunnic times)
1010 In 11th-12th cc. archeology are some clear differences between Kuman's and Kypchak's funeral traditions
1010 In 1010 Kidan army invaded Northwest Jety-Su, but was defeated
1017 In 1017 Kidan army invaded Northwest Jety-Su, but was defeated
1020 Kypchak Hordes followed path taken by Bechens under pressure of Oguzes, and later under pressure of Kimaks and Kypchaks taken by Oguzes. Kypchak crossed Itil, crossed Don, Dnestr, Dniepr, reached Danube. On the way Kypchaks were joined by remains of Bechens and Oguzes
1020 Kidan nomads occupied lands west of Irtysh. These tribes in mass came to Kimak and Kypchak lands and played leading role in demise of their state
1030 Approximately in 30es of 11 c. Persian author Baihani found Kypchaks on border of Khoresm, in the middle of 11 c. eastern authors call Aral steppes not Oguzian, as wrote their predecessors, but Kypchak's
1030 In 30es of 11 c., because of coming of Kidans, Türkic-speaking Kais, who lived near Great Chinese wall, seized lands of Türkic-speaking Kuns. Kuns moved over to the lands of Shars (Sary Kypchaks, i.e. Yellow Kipchaks), and Shars moved over to the lands of Turkmens. Turkmens occupied the eastern lands of Oguzes, and Oguzes displaced Bechens, who during that period already lived near Black Sea, and settled on Bechens' lands
1050 In middle of 11 c. of Kipchaks collided with Rus princes and inflicted on them a few heavy defeats
1050

Kypchak kurgans were built from stone or dirt tiled with rocks, diseased was laid head to the east. Near the diseased was also buried a horse or its effigy complete with legs.

Burials of Kumans acquired many funeral features of Bechens and Oguzes. Became widespread ancient Kypchak tradition of building sanctuaries dedicated to male and female ancestors

1050 Mahmud Kashgari (1072 - 1074) notes linguistic affinity of Kimaks, Oguzes and other Türkic tribes
1050 Mahmud Kashgari noted that Kimaks and Kypchaks spoke same language. Kypchaks did not identify themselves with Kimaks, but held Kimaks as separate branch. Kypchak tribal structure was complex, it had 9 tribes
1050 Mahmud Kashgari (1072 - 1074) lists Tatars among tribes speaking in Türkic
1050 Kimak Kaganate lasted to the middle of 11 c. Formation in 916 in Northern China of Mongol-speaking Kidan state Lyao pushed Central Asian Mongol-speaking nomadic tribes to migrate. Kimak Kaganate fall was caused by external factor: migration of Central Asian Mongol-speaking nomads
1050 End of KIMAK KAGANATE
743 - 1050 A.D
Founder -
Area -
1050 Following Kidans the Mongol-speaking Naimans in 11-12 cc. displaced from Altai and Upper Irtysh remains of Türkic-speaking Kimaks and Kypchaks. Part of Kimaks and Kypchaks migrated to Western Siberia. Naimans destroyed Yenisei Kyrgyz State
1050 In 11th-12th cc. Mongol-speaking Naiman tribe in its move to the west  displaced Kimaks-Kypchaks from Mongolian Altai and Upper Irtysh, from middle of 12th c. almost in all territory of modern Mongolia predominated Mongolian tribes
1060 One of signs of common past in culture of Kyrgyzes, Orhon Türks and Kimaks is Türkic (aka Türkic runic) alphabet that differ a little in different regions
1060 Ancient religion of Türks, Tengrianism, was common religion, and it was closer to monotheistic religions
1070 From 2nd half of 11th c. from historical sources ethnonym Kimak disappears. It appeared suddenly in 9th c. and suddenly disappeared, sources are silent about where Kimaks left to, and why their name was dropped off historical documents
1100 In 12th c. Tatars for some time seized hegemony in steppes, and all population from Great Chinese wall to taiga began to be called by term "Tatars"
1100 Chinese historians brought big mess in ethnonym "Tatars". Unil 12th c. Chinese historians viewed Mongols as part of Tatars, contrariwise, in 13 c.  Chinese historiography viewed  Tatars as part of Mongols. In 13 c. names Tatars and Mongols became synonyms
1100 Miriad of sculptures stood in 12th - beginning of 13th cc. in Lower Dniepr, on right bank of Northern Donets and Don. Besides, they are found in N. Caucasus, between Don and Itil. They were set facing east, passersby revered them, made offerings
1100 Tribes that come from Kimak Kaganate lands constituted significant part of Türkic state Kipchak Khanate population created by Mongols
1100 After demise of their states and some regress of traditional culture, elements of shamanism began penetrating Türks
1115 In 1115 defenseless Kuman settlements were ravaged by Vladimir Monomakh, and Kumans ceased to be big threat for Rus princedoms, though the clashes did not stop
1200

Chinese historians divided Tatars into three groups: white Tatars, black Tatars and wild Tatars.

White Tatars included Tatars proper, and Onguts (descendants of Shato), who lived south of Gobi desert. They were civilized, wore silk clothes, ate from porcelain with silver utensils, their leaders were literate and Confucius teaching

Black Tatars, including Keraits, were nomadic cattlemen, they lived far from cultural centers. They most valued independence. At nights they fenced off from attacks by other tribes with a ring of coaches, with posted guards around their stan. They despised and felt bad for white Tatars, because those sold their freedom for silk cloth and alien fruits of civilization.

Chinese held as wild Tatars hunters and fishers of Southern Siberia, who did not recognize any authority, except for authority of their elders to whom they submitted voluntary. Famine and need constantly waited for them, but wild Tatars despised work. They sympathized with black Tatars, who had to watch after their cattle

1220 Multitude of Kypchak hordes joined Mongolian army in 20es-30es of 13th c.. In Itil, Dniepr steppes they met their relatives, Kipchaks and Kumans
1293 End of KYRGYZ KAGANATE
ca 550 - 1293 A.D
Founder -
Area - borders: W - Abakan Ridge and Alatau, S - W. Sayan Ridge, E - probably E.Sayan Ridge, N - to taiga and estuary of r. Angara
1312 From 1312 trade in Türkic slaves stopped, since Kipchak Khanate Khan Uzbek made Islam state religion, slavery was forbidden, and it was forbidden to sell Moslems from Kipchak Khanate in markets of Muslim countries
   
 
Chinese chronicle Tan-shu (618--907)
 
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8/6/05

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