In Russian (Later)
Contents Türkic languages
Classification of Türkic languages
Language Types
Lingo-Ethnical Tree
IE, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
V.I.Abaev: girdle of Scytho-Iranian theory
Ogur and Oguz
Türkic and European in Neo- & Mesolith
Türkic in Romance
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

Swadesh List - Urdu

Links -


Posting Introduction

The popular interpretation that Urdu is a language of the Horde, in a sense that the Horde was the Timurid Army, appear to be grossly incorrect. Although apparently the term zaban-i-urdu language of the camp was a true definition of the lingua franca vernacular in the motley army, in the following 500 years the army vernacular dissolved during ensuing historic and demographic events. In the Muhgal era, Urdu was the official language of the Gurkan (aka Muhgal) empire (15261857). The modern Urdu has all the distinctions of a lingua franca between disparate languages that had absorbed and adopted to active use the interchangeable doublet vocabularies from numerous languages, it is a hybrid language of the native languages of the region with the Arabic, Pashto, Türkic, and Persian. Although Urdu carries some traces of the original Middle Asian Türkic languages, for historical reconstructions it is largely useless, notwithstanding any claims to the opposite. The inter-legibility between Urdu and Türkic must be about nil except languages historically loaded with Hinduisms and Iranisms. A Hindi language without any vocabulary influence of Sanskrit, Persian or Arabic is called Hindustani; the common portion between the Urdu and Hindi is called Hindi-Urdu, or one mans Hindi is another mans Urdu.

Morphology is the structure of words and their different dictionary forms in a sentence. Nominally classified as an Indo-European language, Urdu grammar has little to do with the Indo-European languages. In grammatical structure Urdu and Hindi are similar. The Urdu morphology is agglutinative SOV type. Urdu has two genders. The Urdu morphology is pronoun-dropping. Some affixes called clitics are treated as postpositions because they play a syntactic role, agglutinated to one word but modifying another word. Some affixes are the same in Urdu and Türkic languages.

Swadesh list is a compilation of concepts for which words are deemed to exist in the largest number of languages. Swadesh list allows to quantify interrelatedness of languages. Swadesh lists are used in lexicostatistics (quantitative assessment of linguistic kinship) and glottochronology (dating of linguistic divergence). Modified Swadesh list, developed by Morris Swadesh in the beginning of the 1950's and modified by S.A.Starostin in the middle of the 1980's, is used as a study tool for the history of the genetically related languages. For glottochronology, which presumes a natural divergence of a homogenous population into geographically separate areas, borrowings are excluded from the list, while in contrast for the ethnolinguistic studies, which assess contribution of differing linguistic families to the modern languages, the fraction of borrowings is the object of the studies. The Swadesh lexicostatistical analysis reflects the admixture effect, not accounted for in the romantic linguistic tree model.

Societal mobility and fluidity of the nomadic peoples brought them in long symbiotic contacts with multitude of other languages, leaving enduring traces of the past events. On a taxonomic level, the ratios of the components roughly reflect demographic ratios, but the societal, temporal, demographic factors, and the process of creolization impact the outcome and blur the picture, imposing a level of uncertainty that combines with the innate inaccuracy of the linguistic analysis. Under most thorough, detailed typological and statistical analysis the margin of error produced by the Swadesh list method is quite compatible with the magnitude of the results; 10%, 20%, and up to 50% error margins can be routinely suspected, and any claim to accuracy to the last significant digit is an empty pretense. However, the shallow historical depth of the modern Urdu allows scientifically less room for presumed phonetical shifts in comparison with other linguistic reconstructions. The cognates are quite close phonetically, and correspondingly the margin of error is fairly small, probably in the vicinity of 10%. The not numerous words with greater phonetical difference point to the processes much deeper than the 500-years history of the Urdu. That historical depth is quite compatible with the depth of the modern European languages, each one of which was a collection of mutually unintelligible and frequently belonging to unrelated linguistic vernaculars.

In spite of routinely accentuated closeness of the Urdu and Persian languages, at a first approximation Urdu is a Hindi language, with 86% of its basic vocabulary originated in Hindi. Since the Hindi and Persian share a significant portion of their vocabularies, a very substantial proportion of the Urdu vocabulary has that shared inheritance, of the 86% of the Hindi words (151), 69 words or 46% are also found in Persian. In the Urdu vocabulary, the uniquely Persian words account only for 9 words, or 5%. That is quite compatible with the 12 words or 7% of the uniquely Türkic words. The balance of the 41 Türkic words in the Urdu basic vocabulary are words shared with Hindi and/or Persian. A much larger portion of the 207-word Urdu vocabulary comes neither from the Hindi, nor Persian, nor Türkic; they are words from local vernaculars belonging to Urdu, they provide synonymous doublets with the Hindi, Persian, and Türkic words. These doublet words probably constitute 60-70% of the 207-word Urdu basic vocabulary. For each of the 151 words associated with the Hindi, Persian, and Türkic, Urdu on average has 2-3 doublet words. Semantical shades decorating each doublet make language exceptionally nuanced and expressive.

Statistically insignificant few words resemble their Sogdian and Ossetic counterparts, probably ascending to the Middle Asian vernaculars of the Timurid time. Statistically insignificant few words resemble European counterparts, not found in the Asian languages; they probably also ascend to the Middle Asian vernaculars of the Timurid time absorbed into the local languages; these European words are traditionally ascribed as Indo-European.

Urdu Words %
Total =N-? 206 100%
Associated 175 85.0%
Unknown association 32 15.0%
Hindi 151 86.3%
Persian 78 44.6%
Türkic 41 23.4%
Sogdian 4 2.3%
Ossetian 2 1.1%
IE 1 0.6%


This English-Urdu Dictionary is a mirror, see links above.
doubled vowels twice length duration
^ glottal stop like /uh/ at the beginning or almost /aa/ in other positions
'    short /i/ sound

aa a in /far, harm, palm, heart/ low central unrounded vowel.
a u in /bud, run, love/ lower-mid central unrounded vowel.
ae ae in /apple, ran, fan/ fronted and lowered
ah or aH in the middle or in the end   /a/ or /ae (ə)/
ai ai in /fine, dye, tie/
au ow in /how, mount, sour/
e e in /bell, men, pet/
ii ee in /lean, eel, seize/ high front unrounded vowel
ey ai in /bail, paint, rain/ tense mid front unrounded vowel
i i in /pin, busy, hymn/
o o in /fore, soar, floor/ mid-back rounded vowel.
uu oo in /booed, fool, sou, tour/ high-back rounded vowel
u u in /put, good, would/ lower-high-back rounded vowel.

bh, chh, dh, Dh, gh, jh, kh, ph, Rh, th, Th voiceless aspirates
ch chat   voiceless alveopalatal affricate
D dog, dust voiced alveolar
final h only few mono- syllabic words retain final h.
GH Parisian r voiced velar fricative
H hat, hurt
KH loch voiceless velar fricative
ñ nasalization, like in inkT tap, tar voiceless post-alveolar retroflex stop
R carro voiced alveolar or post-alveolar retroflex flap
s tooth originally th
s sin voiceless post-dental grooved fricative
SH shame, rush   voiceless alveopalatal grooved fricative
z dh in Riyadh. 
Z   pleasure voiced alveopalatal grooved fricative: the zh 'pleasure'.
W at the end oo/o/au
y /ee/e/ae/i/ at the end   both consonantal and vowel
a.  adjective
adv.  adverb
coll. colloquial
conj. conjunction
dim.  diminutive
f.  noun feminine
f.p.  femine plural
f.s.  femine singular
fig.  figurative
i.e.  that is
intj. interjection
lit.  literature
m.  noun masculine
m.p.  masculine plural
m.s.  masculine singular
n.  noun
pa.p. past participle
pa.t. past tense
pl.  plural
pr.p. present participle
pr.t. present tense
poet. poetical
pref. prefix
prep. preposition
pron. pronoun
s.  singular
sl.  slang
suff. suffix
v.i.  intransitive verb
v.t.  transitive verb
vulg. vulgar
A.  Arabic
H.  Hindi
P.  Persian
S.  Sanskirit
T.  Turkish
Swadesh List - Urdu

In the Association (Ass.) column are used designations: E - Indo-European, H - Hindi, N - Nakh, O - Ossette, P - Persian, S - Sogdian (presumed), T - Türkic, - - Unknown association, ? - no entry. Links in the table lead to the Wikipedia pages. The Wikipedia's Türkic lexicon is complemented by entries from the Old Türkic Dictionary, 1969, Leningrad, Science. The Urdu closest languages, Pashto, Dari, Kashmiri, and Sogdian are not available. The comparison should be taken as a rough assessment requiring much closer examination of the phonetical resemblance and etymological origin of the lexemes. Yellow highlighting marks words used for association allocation in unclear cases.

key chetowr uyssyn khabidan/deraz kishidan badyn neshastan læuuyn istadan/ pa shodan yakh zadan
No English Urdu Ass. Bashkir Bashkorcha Turkic Türkche Ossette
Hindi Tajik
1 I (me) maeñ T min men æz man maĩ man
2 you (thou) agar cheh/go keh/mubaada - hin sen (inform), siz (formal) dy to tu, tum, ap tu
3 he woh T ul ol uyi, ui u vo vai
4 we hona, chehra, utarna, kamzor H bez biz ma, matæ ma ham mo
5 you (pl.) bachchah/laRka - hez siz syma, symatæ, uæ, uyn, dytæ shoma tu, tum, ap shumo
6 they dabiiz/dal daar/gaaRha/ghana/ ghaneyra/ guñjaan/kasiif/moTa/poRha/ zaKHiim - ular onlar uydon, uydontæ, uydættæ, uyitæ ishan ve onҳo
7 this aesa T byl bu, ošbu, ošul ai, atsy in ye in
8 that ya-aa-ni P tege tege, shu, ol, ošul, šul uyi, ui, uytsy an vo [[]]
9 here idhar/is taraf/yahaañ H bynda burada, murada am, amyty, mænæ inja yaha incho
10 there taqriiban T tegende q/g shurada, orada, anta uym, uymyty, uærtæ, uyrdæm, uyrdæmyty anja vaha oncho
11 who bhar puuri - kem kim (interrogative) chi, chitæ, [kætsy, kætsytæ] ki kaun ki
12 what chaap luusi (f.)/KHuSH aamad (f.) P nime ne (interrogative) tsy, tsytæ, tsæi, tsæity chi kya chi
13 where kahaañ sey T kaiza nerede (no movement, interrogative) kæm, kæmyty, kædæm, kædæmty koja kidhar, kahan kucho
14 when jahaañ sey - kasan ne zaman (interrogative), erkän  kæd, kuy kab kai kana
15 how is taraH/aesey/ T nisek nasıl (interrogative), kebi, qaltï, teg kuyd, kuydtytæ kaisa chi tavr sar
16 not mat/naa/nahiiñ/qata-i-i nahiiñ TE tügel değil (separate word); -ma-, -me- (infix inserted within the verb), -ma-/-mä-, aŋ, næ, nætæ na nahī ne
17 all hamah/har/kul/puura/sab/saara/ tamaam P böte bütün, hepsi, alqu ægas, iuuyldær, æppæt, altsy, altsytæ, ænǽæn hame sab/sara ҳama
18 many bahot/aksar/ka-i-i/kasiir/ muta-aa-addid H küp chok, arqan, arqun, bunča, munča, bütä, tekïm, ükil biræ, birætæ chandin/ ziad bahut/zyada bisör
19 some kuchh/ba^z/chañd/ka'i/kisi/ko'i/ thoRa T ber nise birkach, bazı tsaldær, tsasdær barkhi kuch barxe
20 few thoRa/chañd/kam H az az gæzæmæ, chysyl, tsus andak thora andak
21 other diigar/diigar/aur/baqiyah/duusra/ GHaer/muKHtalif T bashka adïn, adïnaɣu, adnaɣu, δnaɣu, adïnsïɣ, adruq, aduruq, ajruq, aδruq, amarï, bashka, digar, diğer, ikinči, ikindi, öŋi, öŋin, özga, ændær, innæ digar dūsra digar
22 one eyk/eyk KHaas/waaHid/yak H ber bir iu yek ēk yak
23 two baRa seyTh (m.) - ike iki dyuuæ do du
24 three musallas - ös üch ærtæ se tīn se
25 four chaar H dürt dört tsyppar chahar car chaxor
26 five paañch H bish besh fondz panj pāc panch
27 big âziim/baRa/kalaañ/KHatiir/zabar H zur, böiök büyük æstyr, styr, egau, dyndjyr bozorg baṛa buzurg
28 long daraaz/lamba/tawiil O ozon uzun, eškïn darg boland lamba daroz
29 wide âam - kin genish fætæn, uæræ pahn cauṛa vase
30 thick moTa - kalyn kalın stavd, bæzdjyn koloft gaṛha gafs
31 heavy bhaari/bhar puur/bojhal/dhuñdla/ ghaTa daar/giraañ/patthar/saKHt/ saqiil/SHaaq/SHadiid/Thos/wazni HSP auyr ağır, ačïɣ, aɣïr uæzzau sangin bharī vaznin
32 small chhoTa/KHurd/kotaah/qaliil/saGHiir/thoRa HS belekei, kese küchük, bičä, kičig, kičüg, ušaq, uvšaq gytstsyl(gytsyl), kannæg, chysyl kuchak choṭa hurd
33 short chhoTa/kotaah/past qaamat/ muKHtasar H kychka kısa, qïrt, qïsɣa/qïsqa tsybyr kutah kama, choṭa kutox
34 narrow thoRa/tañg/baKHiil/chhoTa/gaehra/ GHaa'er/kam chauRa/ kam meqdaar/kam wasii^/kañjuus/KHasiis/kotaah/ maeHduud/muSHkil/ muta^assib/ qaliil/tañg nazar/ HT tar dar uyngæg, naræg tang tang tang
35 thin teyra T nezek ince, yïlmïq, yuyqa, yupqa, yuqa, yuvɣa, yuvqa, taytur tænæg, mællæg, tsola, kæsuyr, fyduyz nazok patla nozuk
36 woman âjuubah/fikr/Haeraani/Haerat/ e^jaaz/ta^ajjub - katyn kadın, katyn, ebchi, evlig, evlüg, evlik, evlük, qïz, tishi, uraɣut, uzun sylgoimag, us zan aurat zan
37 man (adult male) aadmi/mard/iñsaan/bañdah/baSHar/ Haewaan e naatiq/kas/nar/SHauhar HT ir adam, er/ir/ar, erän, erkäk nælgoimag, læg mard admī/mard mard
38 man (human) aadam zaad/aadmi/ iñsaan/iñsaan/iñsaani/ baSHr/baSHri/fitri T adam, keshe, ezem adam, kishi, insan adæimag, læg, udgoimag ensan/kas/ nafar manushya/ insan nafar
39 child baalak (m.)/bachchah (m.)/bachchi (f.)/naa samajh/pisar/tifl HT bala chocuk, bala, kenč, oglan/oɣlan, ogul/oɣul syvællon, sabi, æbul bachche bacca bacha
40 wife TeyRhi meyRi lakiir - katyn karı, katyn,  ebči/evči,  evlüg/evlük, evlig/evlïk, isi, yeŋga, kis/kisi/kishi us, binoinag zan patnī/bīvī zan
41 husband baalam/ghar waala/KHaawiñd/KHasam/mard/ miyaañ/ pati/piitam/pi/piya/pritam/SHauhar HP ir koca, beg/begï, er/ir, erän, erkäk moi, læg showhar patī shavxar
42 mother maañ/waalidah H ese anne, ana, aba, apa, ög, uma mad madar mā/mata modar
43 father baaba/baap/pidar/waalid HPT ata baba, ata, dedä, hata, ata, aju, qaŋ fyd pedar bap/pita padar
44 animal Haewaan/jaan war/chau paayah/ waeHSHi HPT ienlek, aiuan hayvan, ienlek, aiuan, janvar tsærægoi, syrd janvar janvar chonvar
45 fish machhli/maahi HP balyk balık kæsag, kæf mahi machlī moxi
46 bird pariñdah (m.)/chiRya (f.)/pakheyru (m.)/pañchhi (m.)/taa'ir (m.) HP kosh kush marg, tsiu parande pakshī/ciṛiya parranda
47 dog kutta (m.)/kutya (f.)/marduud/sag/zaliil H et köpek, it kuydz sag kutta sag
48 louse ? - bet bit, sunzï syst shepesh shapish
49 snake saañp H iylan yılan, bükä, maɣa kalm mar sāp mor
50 worm halkaan karna/naak meyñ dam karna/ pareySHaan karna/tañg karna - kort solucan, kurt zulk, kalm kerm kīṛa, varma kirm
51 tree ghasiiTna T agas ağach, agas, yïɣač. ïɣač, söğüt bælas derakht peṛ daraht
52 forest jañgal P urman orman/urman, arïɣ, bük, æd jangal van changal
53 stick laaThi/lakRi/tiili O botak, sybyk chubuk, değnek lædzæg chomagh ḍanḍa chomoқ
54 fruit meywah/tuKHm/natiijah/phal/paeda waar PT emesh meyve dyrg mive phal meva
55 seed biij/ HPT orlok tohum, uruɣ, čigit tauinag tokhm/dane bīj tuhm
56 leaf barg/par/parat (f.)/patta/patti(dim.)/ waraq/warqah HP yaprak yaprak, yapïrɣaq, yalbïrɣaq syf barg pattī barg
57 root jazar/asl/biiKH/jaR H tamyr kök, yïldïz, töz, tüp uidag rishe jaṛ resha
58 bark (tree) chhaal (f.)/chhilka (m.)/post (f.) HP kaiyr, kabyk kabuk tsar pust e derakht chal pusti daraht
59 flower gul/phuul HP seske chichek didinæg gol phūl gul
60 grass ghaas/haryaali/gyaah H ülen ot, ülen kærdæg alaf ghas alaf
61 rope lañgar/rasan/rassi - bau ip, halat, bau bændæn tanab ḍōrī tanob
62 skin chamRi udheyRna/khaal utaarna H tire deri, qïrtïš, qoɣuš, quyqa, saɣrï, teri tsarm pust camṛī pust
63 meat goSHt HP it et fyd gusht mās/gosht gusht
64 blood KHuun/lahu HPT kan kan tug khun rakt, khūn,
65 bone haDDi/haaR H höiek kemik, söŋük stæg ostokhan haḍḍī ustuhon
66 fat (n.) chaaq/farbih/jasiim/phapphas/moTa - mai yağ, yaɣ, yaqrï, yön, čır, öz, qazi, vžir soi charbi/ rowghan vasa ravgan
67 egg añDa (m.) H iomortka yumurta, yumurqa aik tokhm anḍa tuhm
68 horn siiñg H mögöz boynuz, mügüz, müyüz, miŋiz, müŋüz syka shakh sīg shoh
69 tail darzi/KHayyaat - koirok kuyruk, qudruq dymæg dom pūch dum
70 feather par HP kauryi tüy, yük, yüŋ, tezik sis par pãkh/par par
71 hair baal (m.)/geysu (m.)/mu (m.)/paSHm/ruu'aañ (m.) HP ses sach, tüg uyn, is mu bal/kesh mu
72 head sar (m.)/dimaaGH (m.)/khopRi (f.)/mañba^ (m.)/ sar bah raah (m.)/sar daar (m.)/sar garoh (m.) HP bash bash, kafa, töpü sær sar sar sar
73 ear goSH (m.)/kaan (m.) HP kolak kulak us gush kan gush
74 eye aañkh/âen/basar/chaSHm/diidah HP küz göz, qaraq tsæst cheshm ākh chashm
75 nose naak/nathney H tanau burun fyndz, byrynk bini/ damagh nak [[]]
76 mouth chheyd/dahaanah/dehan/muñh/ niwaalah/ suuraaKH baRi baat karna/ hoñToñ sey ragaRna/muñh meyñ Daalna HP auyz ağız, aɣaz dzy dahan mūh/mukh daxon
77 tooth daañt ka dard HP tesh dish, azïɣ, tish dændag dandan dãt dandon
78 tongue (organ) aaj raat (f.) - tel dil, til, ævzag zaban jībh/zaban zabon
79 fingernail kiil/meyKH/mismaar/naaKHun HP tyrnak tırnak, tïŋraq, tïraŋaq. tïrŋaq ny nakhun naxūn nohun
80 foot paa/paa'oñ/paer/qadam HP ayak ayak/ayaq, adaq/aδaq, ataq, azaq fad pa pair/pāv po
81 leg laat/marHalah/paa/paa'oñ/ paayah/Taañg H bot bacak, bot, ayak/ayaq, adaq/aδaq, ataq, azaq ka leng ṭang/pāv ling
82 knee ghuTna H tubyk diz, tiz zonyg zanu ghuṭna zonu
83 hand dast/haath/kaf/yad HP kul el, aya, adut, aδut, avuč, avut, tutam, tutča, tutum ku dast hath dast
84 wing chaSHmak/iSHaarah/jhapki - kanat kanat, uch bazyr bal pãkh bol
85 belly jauf/kokh/peyT/SHikam/toñd HPT korhak kh/r karın guybyn shekam peṭ shikam
86 guts ojhRi - esek bağırsak tang rude antaṛī ruda
87 neck gala/gar dan HP muiyn boyun, boyïn, æftsæg gardan gardan gardan
88 back paa'iñ/piichhey/saabiqah/ulTa/ waapas HP arka arka, sırt fæsontæ pas/posht pīṭh pusht
89 breast chhaati (f.)/siinah (m.) HP kükrek göğüs riu, dzidzi (female) sine chatī/sīna sina
90 heart aatma/dil/fuwaad/jigar(poet.)/man/qalb/zamiir HP iörek yürek, kalp, köŋül, baɣïr zærdæ del dil dil
91 liver jigar/kaleyja/kaleyji(dim.) HP bauyr karaciğer, baɣïr igær jegar kaleja chigar
92 to drink piina/chRhaana/chuus leyna/jazb karna/noSH karna H eseü ich nuazyn nushidan pīna nushidan
93 to eat DaaRh garam karna/khaana/ tanaawal karna H ashau ye, asa, aša, ašla, æryn khordan khana hurdan
94 to bite Daañt kaaTna/kaaT khaana H teshleü ısır, tislä ætsyn gazidan kaṭna gazidan
95 to suck chasakna/chuusna/piina H imeü em dæiyn makidan cūsna makidan
96 to spit thuukna pirona ugalna HT tököröü tükür tu kænyn tof/deshne thūk tuf kardan
97 to vomit aaz/hauka/Hirs/laalach/tama^ baguula/bhañwar/girdaab/marGHol H kochou kus omyn kai kardan chamtana
қai kardan
98 to blow khilna/phuuñkna/hawa chalna H öröü üfle, öröü, es, esnä, tüpir, ür dymyn vazidan phuṅka
99 to breathe saañs leyna H tyn alyu nefes almak, soluk al, ahla, ïyïn, yaqur, ulæfyn nafas kashidan/ dam zadan sas lena nafas kashidan
100 to laugh hañsi uRaana/hañsna/khil khilaana/KHuSH hona/ KHuSH taba^ hona/masruur hona/mazHakah uRaana/tamasKHur karna/ThaTTha maarna banaana/ kisi par hañsna/tañz karna/tazHiik karna HT kölöü k/g gül/kül, qatɣur, qatur, udyn khandidan hãsna handidan
101 to see deykhna/nigaah Daalna H küreü gör, kör uynyn didan dekhna didan
102 to hear kaan dharna/suñna/tawajjoh deyna H isheteü ishit, ešid, esit, tïŋla usyn shenidan sunna shunidan
103 to know aagaah hona/aaSHna hona/idraak karna/jaañna/ ma^luum karna/paana/paehchaañna/ zehen meyñ biTha leyna îlm hona/waazeH taur par maeHsuus karna/yaad daaSHt meyñ hona H beleü bil, tanï zonyn danestan janna donistan
104 to think falsafi/mufakkir - uilau düshün uydy kænyn andishidan socna andeshidan
105 to smell suuñghna - echkeü kokla, echkeü, islä, bur, jïdï/jïδï, qoq, övis, sasi æmbudyn buedan mahakana
gandha dena/
106 to fear añdeySHah karna/Darna/haulna/KHauf zadah hona H kurkyu kork, ajïn, gorg/gӧrg/ɣort/ qorq/qoruq tærsyn tarsidan ḍarna tarsidan
107 to sleep sona/lambi taañna/paRna sulaana H ioklau uyu, udï/uδï, uyssyn khabidan sona hobidan
108 to live /ziñdah hona/basar karna/guzaarna/ qayaam rakhna/raehna H iesheü yasha, jïlla, sür, tir, tiril, tur tsæryn zistan jīna zistan
109 to die chal basna/dam nikalna/dam toRna/ faut hona/guzarna/iñteqaal karna/ KHaatimah hona/marna/mar miTna/ruuH nikalna/wafaat paana H üleü öl, bar, keč, uč mælyn mordan marna murdan
110 to kill halaak karna/kaam tamaam karna/ KHatm karna/lahu meyñ haath rañgna/maarna/maar Daalna/ sar qalam karna/qatl karna H ültereü öldür, arta, öltür, ölür maryn koshtan marna kushtan
111 to fight laRaa'i karna/laRna/ulajhna H hugyshyu dövüsh, čal, küräš, qarïšïqlan to kænyn jangidan jhagaṛna/ laṛna changidan
112 to hunt piichha karna/SHikaar karna/ ta^aaqub karna H aulau av, aulau, avla, saɣïr tsuan kænyn shekar kardan shikar karna shiko kardan
113 to hit lagaana/lagna/maarna/piiTna/ Takraana Hazf karna/kaaT deyna H hugyu vur, artla, badar, chal, köcüklä, püs, qaq, sal, soq, toqï/toqu, ur tsævyn zadan marna zadan
114 to cut kaaTna/cheerna/kaaT karna/ katarna/qata^ karna H kicheü kes, bïch, yamur, qïy, tanchula, toɣra, kærdyn boridan kaṭna buridan
115 to split phaaRna/phoRna khilna/phuuTna/ masakna H yaryu yar, adar/adïr, bïch, böl, bugra/gra uaryn shekaftan vibhajita
pharana taqasima
chudo kardan
116 to stab zaKHmi karna P senseü, kazau bıchakla, bögdalä, sanch, cheknä, kazau sadzyn zakhm zadan bhõkna zahm adan
117 to scratch khurachna/kureydna/nochna HP tyrnau kashı/ichi/qashï, emri, qurtan yrtt-yrtt kænyn kharashidan kharõcna haroshidan
118 to dig khodna/kureydna HPT kazyu d/z/fr kaz/qaz kayn hafr kardan khodna xafr zadan
119 to swim taeraana/taeraak/GHaSH khaana/paeraana paeraak/SHinaawar HP iözöü yüz, čap lenk kænyn shena kardan tairna shino kardan
120 to fly uRna H osou uch tæyn paridan uṛna paridan
121 to walk aasaani sey haraana/ko'i chiiz churaana - atlau yürü, bar, yorï, tsæuyn rah raftan calna/ṭêhêlna rox raftan
122 to come aana/aa jaana/chalna/taSHriif laana H kileü gel, kel, yetil, kir, ærtsæuyn, tsæuyn amadan ana omadan
123 to lie (in bed) chhal/daroGH/dhoka/fareyb/ jhuuT/kizb/riya - yatyu leṭna, yat, ? hobidan/ daroz kashidan pashlyol shoa
124 to sit baeThna/daraaz hona/paRna/taSHriif HS ultyryu baiṭhna, atlan, bin, mün, yïɣrïl, oldur, oltur, olur, orna, tuɣraɣlan ? nishastan beshel bôsha
125 to stand khaRa hona - torou khaṛa hona, tur istun istodan tordyol dãṛano
126 to turn (intransitive) phir jaana puura chakkar T borolou
borolou, dön/tön, emit, evür/evir/evrül, qay/qayït/qav, qatïrt, qajtïš, tevir, tür, yüzlän zdayn gardidan muṛna gardidan
127 to fall girna/pachhaRna/paRna H töshöü čök/čaq/čoq, ek, yaɣ/yaɣu/yaq/yavu, düsh, qamïl/qamul, tay, tüs, uč auyn oftadan girna aftidan
128 to give deyna/âta karna/baKHSHna/ênaayat karna/pakRaana/phal deyna H bireü ver, ber, tapčur, tapsur, tapuš dættyn dadan dena dodan
129 to hold pakaRna/maañna/rakhna/ sadhaana/thamaana
H totou tut daryn negah dashtan pakaṛna nigox doshtan
130 to squeeze daabna/dabochna/masalna/nichoRna H kychyu sık, boɣ, jigtür, qarïš, qavur/qavïr, qïs, tartïš, tolɣa ælivyn feshordan dabana fishurdan
131 to rub ragaRna/maaliSH karna/ghisaa'i karna/ghisna/
ghis jaana/ghisna
H yshkyu qabar, jaq, kinla, kikchür, sürt, türt, uvun afyn sudan ragaṛna/ malna molidan
132 to wash muñh haath dhona
dhobi khaanah/dhulaa'i ghar
H iyuyu yıka, yu, čun, suqïn/suqun, æsyn shostan dhona shustan
133 to wipe puKHtah/âalim/âaqil/âliim/âqalmañd/biina/ daana/ farzaanah/fitrati/KHirad mañd/samajh daar/siyaana
âql/âql mañdi/daanaa'i/daaniSH/ daaniSH mañdi/farzaangi/fazl/firaasat/fitrat/ Hikmat/îlm/îrfaan/KHirad/KHirad mañdi/SHo^uur
HS hörtöü sil/sili, yd/yoδ/yt, særfyn zedudan põchna pok kardan
134 to pull ukhaaRna/khasoTna/ghasiiTna/khiiñchna/ HP tartyu chek, chuj, yet, tarït, tart, uzat ivazyn keshidan ukhāṛanā kashidan
135 to push Dhakeylna/khiskaana/lagaana/Theylna H eteü it, talqï, tul soiyn feshar dadan dhakka dena fishor dodan
136 to throw pheyñkna/Daal deyna/luTaana/tark karna H tashlau at, chal, kemish, sal, tashla, æpparyn part kardan phẽkna andohtan
137 to tie bañdhna bañdhan/gaañTh/girah HT beileü bağla/baɣla, atqan, chek/chïɣ/choɣ, kisä, örkla, tüg, ba- tie battyn gereh zadan bandhana girex zadan
138 to sew siina/baKHiyah karna/silaana/Taañkey lagaana HT tegeü dik, yeδ, köbi, tefchit/tevchi, tik
siŋir sinew
uiiyn dukhtan sīna duhtan
139 to count giñna/Hesaab lagaana/SHumaar karna HT hanau say, sa/san/sana, hana, nymaiyn shomardan ginna shumurdan
140 to say kaehna/bolna/ârz karna/ bataana/farmaana/ H eiteü de, te, ay, ay- te-, ayt, aɣzan, sayra, sandïrï. sanrï, savla, sözla, tilda dzuryn goftan kêhna/bolna guftan
141 to sing gaana gaana H iyrlau sharkı söyle, et/ot, ïrla/yïrla/yurla, kogla/köglan, sayra, sma/säma zaryn khandan gana hondan
142 to play kheylna/bajaana HP uinau oyna, atïz azyn bazi kardan khelna bozi kardan
143 to float paeraana paerna - iözöü dalgalan, chap, salla, yüz naudzu kænyn شناور tairana istodan
144 to flow baehna/Dhalakna H agyu ak/ag, jadïl/jajïl, yügür, savruq kælyn [[]] bêhna shuridan
145 to freeze jamna/ThiTak jaana/yaKH bastah hona P öshöü don (intransitive), dondur (transitive), bud/buδ, buduɣ/buδuɣ, üsü sælyn jamna yah shudan pahosajvel
146 to swell phulaana/suujan/umañDna
H shesheü shish, yelna, qabar,  shïshïl dymyn [[]] phūlna/sūjna bod kardan
147 sun siraaj/suuraj/aaftaab/dhuup/KHaawar/ KHurSHiid/mehr/ naiyyar/SHams/(m.) H koyash günesh, yašiq ur khorshid sūraj oftob
148 moon chaañd/maah/maah taab/badar/qamar HP ai a, ay mæi mah chãd mox
149 star sitaarah/taara/âjm HT iondoz yıldız, ai moon staly setare tara/sitara sitora
150 water baet ul KHala/jadiid paaKHaanah - hyu su don ab panī ob
151 rain baariSH/baar/barsaat/meyñh/paani HP yauyu yağmur uaryn baran barish boron
152 river nadi (f.)/darya (m.) H iylga ır, arïg/arïɣ/arïk, aqïg/aqïɣ/aqïm/aqïn, aqmaq,  darya, iti/idel/iylga, kelgiz, munduz, müran, ögüz/öküz, su/shu/sub/suv/suɣ/chai, talay, tamga/tamɣa, yuvar tsæugædon rudkhane nadī dare
153 lake jhiil/GHadiir/taal/taalaab H kül göl/köl/kül, kölman, teŋ tsad daryache jhīl kul
154 sea samañdar/baeHr/saagar/ H dingez deniz dendjyz darya samandar baxr
155 salt namak HP toz tuz tsæ namak namak namak
156 stone patthar/sañg/guThli/Hajar/roRa HP tash tash, ir dur sang patthar sang
157 sand baalu (f.)/reyg (f.)/reyt (f.) H kom kum, qayïr zmis mase ret/balū reg
158 dust jhaaRna - san, tuzan qoq, san, tuprak/topraq, toz/tuz/tog/toɣ, ryg gard o khak dhūl/xak chang
159 earth zamiin/arz/dharti/gaeti/gil/KHaak/miTTi HP tuprak yer zamin bhūmi/zamīn zamin
160 cloud baadal/abr/saHaab HP bolot bulut ævrag abr badal abr
161 fog kohra/dhuñd H toman sis, toman/tuman/tümän, mig meh kohra tira
162 sky aasmaan (m.)/charKH (m.)/falak (m.) HP kük gök/kök/kük, qalïq/xalïq, täŋri, arv aseman asaman osmon
163 wind aab e talKH/baadah/mae'y/SHaraab - el rüzgâr, yel, esin, tïntura, tüŋür, tüpi uad bad hava shamol
164 snow barf (f.) HP kar kar/qar/qaɣar mit barf barf barf
165 ice barf H boz boz/buz/muz i yakh barf yah
166 smoke dhu'aañ HP tötön duman, tütün fæzdæg dud dhũa dud
167 fire aag/aatiSH/jawaala/naar HPT ut od, atesh, ört, art, čoɣ, yalïn art atash, âzar ag/agni otash
168 ash raakh/KHaak HP köl kül ærtutæg khakestar rakh hokistar
169 to burn jalan HT yanyu yak/yan, yïlït, köy/kön/kon, ӧpäl, örta sudzyn sukhtan (intr)
suzandan (tr)
jalana (intr)
jalana (tr)
170 road raastah/raah/saRak/Dagar/guzar gaah/jaadah/ HP ül yol, oruq fændag, balts rah/ rah/ khiaban saṛak/marg/ rasta/rah rox
171 mountain pahaaR/koh/parbat HP tau dağ, art, tag, taɣ, tau o kuh pahaṛ kux
172 red laal/surKH HPT kyzyl kızıl, kırmızı, al syr ghermez,
lal surh
173 green hara/kachcha/KHaam/naa baaliGH/naa tajribah kaar/naya/SHaad aab/taazah H ieshel yeshil, yaš tsæ sabz hara sabz
174 yellow piilahaT/zardi maa'el/zard faam HP hary sarı, etrak, quba bur zard pīla zard
175 white pakki fehrist - ak ak, beyaz, yürüŋ, urüg urs sefid safed safed
176 black kaala/siyaah/bhayaanak/gañdah/ makruuh/mukaddar/najis/tiirah/zañi HPT kara kara, siyah sau siah kala siex
177 night raat/SHab/lael/ HP tön gece, kečä, æsæv shab rat shab
178 day din/roz/yaum HPT kön d/k gün/kön, gündüz bon ruz din ruz
179 year aarzu/armaan/chaah/dili KHwaahiSH/ laaley/SHauq/tamañna - iyl yıl, sene, jaš afædz sal sal/baras sol
180 warm garam do baarah karna HP iyly sıcak, yïlïɣ, emik, isig, ïsïɣ, ïlïɣ, arm garm garm garm
181 cold sard/ThañDa/bey dam/KHunuk/sard mehr/ HP hyuyk soğuk, salqïm, sɣuq, soɣïq, don, ton, üšik uazal sard ṭhanḍa sard
182 full puura/pur/bhara hu'a/labaalab/lab reyz /maala maal/pakka HP tuly dolu, toi, tolu, pür, qalïsïz, qamu, qamïɣ, tükal dzag por pūra pur
183 new nau (m.)/naya (m.)/Haadis (m.)/Haaliyah (f.)/jadiid (f.)/ kora (m.)/ (f.)/naweyla (m.)/naweyli (f.)/ taazah (m.)/taazi (f.) HP yany yeni næuæg now naya nav
184 old puraana/kuhan/buuRha/buDDha/buzurg/dey riinah/KHurraañT/kohnah/kuhan saal/paariinah/paraa chiin/piir/peySHiin/peywastah/qadiim/za^iif HP ichke eski (non-living things), yashlı (living things) zærond kohne purana kuxna
185 good KHuub/bhala/Hasan/KHaer/khara/neyk/ mustaHsan/suud mañd/Thiik/ûmdah PT yakshy iyi, edgü/eδgü/eygü, kushal, yaxsï/yaqsï/yakshy/yeg, nik, saɣ; aša (asha) (adv.) very orz khub accha hub
186 bad bad/KHaraab/bura/bigRa/GHaer/muzir/naa qis/qabiiH/SHariir/siyaah kaar/zabuuñ HPT nasar, yaman kötü, alïɣ, aman, anïɣ, bat, bäd, tas, yabïz, yafuz, yavïz, yavuz, yablaq, yavlaq, yaman ævzær bad xarab/bura bad
187 rotten saRa hu'a/phus phusa/KHaraab/nikamma/ HPT serek bül, boɣdäm, chürük/serek, artaq/ardaq/artaɣ, erïk, kög, küviz, yunchïɣ, æmbyd puside saṛa pusida
188 dirty gañdah/maela/GHaliiz/naa paak/najis/paliid/paliit H bysrak arïɣsïz, boɣdam, bysrak, kirli, pis, chizi cherkin maila/ganda chirkin
189 straight siidha/raast/baraabar/khula khula/ustuwaar H tura düz, rast, tikim, toɣrï/toɣru/torqu/tortü, tura rast rast sīdha rost
190 round gol/aaftaabi/moTa/mudawwar/taqriiban H iomoro, tünerek yuvarlak, toparlak, yap, yumɣaq, oqlaɣu, tegirmä, tegirmi, ulïnčïɣ tymbyl gerd gōl gird
191 sharp (knife) teyz/zaki HPT ütker keskin, yiti, süvrä tsyrg tiz tīkha tez
192 dull (knife) dhuñdla/bey rañg/bey waquuf/maañd/naa samajh/naa SHaad/phiika/sard/sust/uchaaT HP ütmech kör, ɣïl kuymy kond kund kund
193 smooth chikna/ham waar/saliis/sapaaT HP shyma düzgün, pürüzsüz, shyma/sïɣan, šuvlaŋ, tüzdäm, üsaŋ, yap, yasul lægz hamvar cikna xamvor
194 wet dal dal - dymly ıslak uylydz tar gīla/ōda tar
195 dry suukha/KHuSHk/phareyra/ruukha/yaabis HP koro kuru, arut, urut, qaq, qur, quruq us khoshk sūkha hushk
196 correct Thiik/durust/baja/pakka/raast/saabit/saHiiH/sachcha HP döröch doğru/döröch, chïn, köni, oŋ, rast, savab/säbab, tetrü, toɣrï/toɣru/torqu/tortü, tüzük rast dorost ṭhīk durust
197 near qariib/qariin/nazdiik/paas/aas paas/aaSHna/baal baal bachna/bey takalluf/bi/lag bhag/lañgoTiya/palley/ peywastah/ HP yakyn yakın, yaɣru, yaɣuru, yavuq, yaɣüq  farsmæ, tsur nazdic qarīb/nazdīk/ ke pas nazdik
198 far duur/ba^iid/parey aba^iid HP alych, iyrak uzak, ïraq dard dur dūr dur
199 right durust/baja/Haq/pakka/rawa/saHiiH HP un sağ, oŋ/öŋ, ogdun/ogtun/oŋdïn, oŋdïnqï, oŋïqlan rast rast daya rost
200 left baayaañ/matruuk/ulTa H hul sol, choŋ, oŋ galiu chap baya chap
201 at par/bar/samey/key/ paas/sey HP   -da/ta, -de, -a, -e, tsur dar par/mẽ dar
202 in dar/bar/par/ba/bi/ biich/fi/jab keh P   -da/ta, -de, qat, ichinde, icherisinde -y (affix) [[]] mẽ dar
203 with rokey rakhna/waapas nah karna
- menen ile, ile beraber, bilä/bilän/birlä, menen æd, -imæ (affix) ba se/ke sath/ke pas/ke sang bo
204 and aur/phir H hem ve, hem, u, ulatï æmæ, dær va aur va
205 if agar/bil farz HPT eger abam/abaŋ, birök, eger/eğer ... ise, -sa, -se, xaiï kuy agar agar agar
206 because kiyuñ keh HT sönki chünkü uymæn (æmæ), uymæ zira kyõnki zero
207 name ism/naam HPT isem ad, isim, at, ajaɣ, nom nam, esm nam nom
In Russian (Later)
Contents Türkic languages
Classification of Türkic languages
Language Types
Lingo-Ethnical Tree
IE, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
V.I.Abaev: girdle of Scytho-Iranian theory
Ogur and Oguz
Türkic and European in Neo- & Mesolith
Türkic in Romance
Türkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
Рейтинг@Mail.ru ~