In Russian (Later)
Contents Trkic languages
A.Askarov The Aryan problem
Classification of Trkic languages
Language Types
Lingo-Ethnical Tree
IE, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
Ogur and Oguz
Trkic and European in Neo- & Mesolith
Trkic in Romance
Trkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline

Swadesh List - Ossetian

Links - Ссылки


Posting Introduction

Swadesh list is a compilation of concepts for which words are deemed to exist in the largest number of languages. Swadesh list allows to quantify interrelatedness of languages. Swadesh lists are used in lexicostatistics (quantitative assessment of linguistic kinship) and glottochronology (dating of linguistic divergence). Modified Swadesh list, developed by Morris Swadesh in the beginning of the 1950's and modified by S.A.Starostin in the middle of the 1980's, is used as a study tool for the history of the genetically related languages. For glottochronology, which presumes a natural divergence of a homogenous population into geographically separate areas, borrowings are excluded from the list, while in contrast for the ethnolinguistic studies, which assess contribution of differing linguistic families to the modern languages, the fraction of borrowings is the object of the studies. The Swadesh lexicostatistical analysis reflects the admixture effect, not accounted for in the linguistic tree model.

Societal mobility and fluidity of the nomadic peoples brought them in long symbiotic contacts with multitude of other languages, leaving enduring traces of the past events. On a taxonomic level, the ratios of the components roughly reflect demographic ratios, but the societal, temporal, demographic factors, and the process of creolization impact the outcome and blur the picture, imposing a level of uncertainty that combines with the innate inaccuracy of the linguistic analysis. Under most thorough, detailed typological and statistical analysis the margin of error produced by the Swadesh list method is quite compatible with the magnitude of the results; 10%, 20%, and up to 50% error margins can be routinely suspected, and any claim to accuracy to the last significant digit is an empty pretense.

Under prevailing doctrine advocated by V.I. Abaev, Ossetic is a leftover of a language that used to span Eurasia from Pacific to Adriatic, in generic terms called Scythian and Sarmatian. Ossetic is typologically agglutinative language, supposedly distinct from the bulk of the surrounding Caucasus languages by elevated level of the Iranic and Indo-European layers, but with the morphology of the surrounding languages, with agglutinative declension (aka declination, i.e. inflection of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives in categories such as case, number, and gender) and some flexive noun conjugation, with innate to the agglutinative languages blurred categories of adjectives, numerals, participles and postpositions, and prominently no category of the grammatical gender. In the linguistic doctrine composed by V.I. Abaev, Ossetic is classed as Northeastern, Scytho-Sarmatian branch of the Iranian languages. Ascribing Ossetic, with its key linguistic features of phonology, agglutination, morphology, semantics, and syntax not compatible with IE and Iranian language families to the Northeastern branch of the Iranian languages is a linguistic mockery. The only justification for classing Ossetic with the Iranian languages was its linguistic composition. So far, no academic analysis on the linguistic composition of the Ossetic has been performed, no canonic linguistic analysis with the Swadesh List tool has ever been published neither for Iron, nor for Digor, not for the aggregated Ossetian languages. An analysis based on the Wikipedia version of the Swadesh List for Ossetic roughly confirms the eyeball assessment done by  V.I. Abaev that Ossetic lexicon is 80% non-IE, that only about 10% of the Ossetic lexicon belongs to the Iranian family.

The Russian authoritative academic encyclopedia Languages of Russian Federation states in 2 places the Caucasian substrate of the Ossetian, although in a funny twisted form: there is a reason to talk about Caucasian substrate of the Ossetian language (p. 393), Words from Caucasian languages constitute the main lexicon of the Ossetian language, so we are forced to talk about its Caucasian substrate (p. 403).  The canonic definition of a linguistic substrate reads: An indigenous language that contributes features to the language of an invading people who impose their language on the indigenous population. The poor Russian academic linguists found strength to subtly state the Caucasian substrate twice, 10 pages apart in a 15 page article, and no strength to explicate what it means: that the base lexicon, vocalism, phonetics, morphology, nouns, pronouns, verbs, grammar voice, participles, conjunctions, grammatical gender, exclamations, grammatical particles, word formation, and syntax have no relation whatsoever to the Iranian languages (Languages of Russian Federation and neighboring countries. "Encyclopedia in three volumes, Volume 2, Moscow, Science, 2001, pp. 391-405 ).

The V.I. Abaev's eyeball assessment largely holds true, within the margin of error: unknown association 48.8% vs. Abaev's 60%; Persian 15.3% vs. Abaev's 10%; IE 7.0% vs. Abaev's 10%; and combined Persian + IE 22.3% vs. Abaev's 20%. V.I. Abaev did not specify the ratio breakdown of  Persian + IE, the  10% + 10% composition is implied based on his numerous references, and the combined 20% vs. 22.3% was a pretty good guess: with the assumed margin of error +/- 30%, the statistical association is 22.3% +/- 7%, and the Abaev's number of 20% is squarely within the margin of error.

Abaev's number of 60% ascribed to the Caucasian languages agrees well with the sum of the unknown association 48.8% plus 4.9% Nakh for a total of 53.7% +/- 18%,  it is squarely within the assumed margin of error.

It is apparent that V.I. Abaev grossly underreported the component of the Trkic words in respect to the Persian words, the Trkic words outnumber the Persian words 1.5:1, i.e. 24.0% vs. 15.3%. In fact, the 24.0% number of the Trkic lexemes exceeds the combined number of 22.3% for Persian + IE taken without correction for the margin of error; however accounting for the margin of error would equalize the proportion. In any case, for an objective observer that would apply V.I. Abaev's and Soviet/Russian academia's reasoning for classification, the first preference would be Trkic instead of Iranic, provided that the observer would also completely ignore the 53.7% predominance of the local Caucasian languages. An honest observer would surely not allow such machinations.

Update (7/21/2016) changed association to Trkic (T) in four instances, insignificantly changing the earlier estimates:  Digor + Iron 69 > 77, Digoron (Digorian) 14 > 18, Iron (Iran) 55 > 59; the corresponding percentage of Trkic component has changed 24.0% > 26.8%, 17.1% > 22.0%, 26.8% > 28.8%. Changes occurred at the expense of IE (3 words) and Unknown (1 word) associations (highlighted).

Digor + Iron Words % Abaev %
Total =N-? 287 100% 100%
Associated 149 51.9% 0%
Unknown association 138 48.1% 60%
Trkic 77 26.8% 10%
Persian 44 15.3% 10%
Nakh 14 4.9% 0%
IE 14 4.9% 10%
Digoron (Digorian) Words %
Total =N-? 82 100
Associated 34 41.5%
Unknown association 48 58.5%
Trkic 18 22.0%
Persian 8 9.8%
Nakh 6 7.3%
IE 2 2.4%
Iron (Iran) Words %
Total =N-? 205 100
Associated 115 56.1%
Unknown association 90 43.9%
Trkic 59 28.8%
Persian 36 17.6%
Nakh 8 3.9%
IE 12 5.9%
Swadesh List - Ossetian

In the Association (Ass.) column are used designations: T - Trkic, P - Persian, N - Nakh, IE - Indo-European, "-" - Unknown association, "?" - no entry. Links in the table lead to the Wikipedia pages. The Wikipedia's Trkic lexicon is complemented by entries from the Old Trkic Dictionary, 1969, Leningrad, Science. The comparison should be taken as a rough assessment requiring much closer examination of the phonetical resemblance and etymological origin of the lexemes. Highlighted entries in the Turkic column indicate update (7/21/2016).

key chetowr хuyssyn khabidan/deraz kishidan badyn neshastan luuyn istadan/ pa shodan yakh zadan
No. English Urdu Bashkir Bashkorcha Turkic Trkche Digoron (Digorian) Ass. Iron (Iron, Irian) Ass. Nakh Chechen Nakh Ingush Farsi Persian Hindi Tajik
1 I (Ik) (me) mae min ič (es) (min) z T z T so so man maĩ man
2 you (thou)   hin sen (inform), siz (formal) du IE dy IE ħo ħo to tu, tum, ap tu
3 he   ul ol e, ei T uyi, ui T     u vo vai
4 we   bez biz maх T maх, maхt T txo, way txo, way ma ham mo
5 you (pl.)   hez siz sumaх, u, uin I symaх, symaхt, u, uyn, dyt I     shoma tu, tum, ap shumo
6 they   ular onlar et T uydon, uydont, uydtt, uyit T     ishan ve onҳo
7 this   byl bu, obu, oul ai, a, atsi - ai, atsy - ha-ra ye-r in ye in
8 that   tege tege, shu (pron.), ol, oul, ul e, etsi, uotsi, i T uyi, ui, uytsy T dkhaː-ra dkha-ra an vo [[]]
9 here   bynda burada, murada ami, mn - am, amyty, mn -     inja yaha incho
10 there   tegende shurada, orada, anta uomi, uomiti, urt, uordm - uym, uymyty, urt, uyrdm, uyrdmyty -     anja vaha oncho
11 who   kem kim (interrogative) ka, kat, [ktsi, ktsit] T chi, chit, [ktsy, ktsyt] T mi-la, ħa ma-la, ħa ki kaun ki
12 what   nime ne (interrogative) tsi, tsit, tsi, tsiti, tsiti - tsy, tsyt, tsi, tsity - hkhun fu chi kya chi
13 where   kaiza nerede (no movement, interrogative) kmi, kmiti, kum T km, kmyty, kdm, kdmty T     koja kidhar, kahan kucho
14 when   kasan ne zaman (interrogative), erkn  kd, ku - kd, kuy -     kab kai kana
15 how   nisek nasıl (interrogative), kebi, qalt, teg kud, kudtit - kuyd, kuydtyt -     kaisa chi tavr sar
16 not   tgel ne (part.), değil (separate word); -ma-, -me- (infix inserted within the verb), -ma-/-m-, aŋ, n T n, nt T tsa tsa/ts na nahī ne
17 all   bte btn, hepsi, alqu gas, euguri, ppt, nkkt, altsi, altsit T gas, iuuyldr, ppt, altsy, altsyt, nǽхъn T d=err-ig d=err-iga hame sab/sara ҳama
18 many   kp chok, arqan, arqun, bunča, munča, bt, tekm, kil ber, beur - bir, birt - duqa duqa chandin/ziad bahut/zyada bisr
19 some   ber nise kim (morph.), birkach, bazı tsaldr - tsaldr, tsasdr -     barkhi kuch barxe
20 few   az az gzm, mngi, mnkъi - gzm, chysyl, tsъus -     andak thora andak
21 other   bashka bashka, diğer, adn, adnaɣu, adnaɣu, аδnaɣu, adnsɣ, adruq, aduruq, ajruq, aδruq, amar, digar, ikinči, ikindi, ŋi, ŋin, zga, ndr, inn T ndr, inn T     digar dūsra digar
22 one   ber bir eu I iu I tsxakh tsakh yek ēk yak
23 two   ike iki duu IE dyuu IE shikh shikh do du
24 three   s ch rt - rt -     se tīn se
25 four   drt drt tsuppar I tsyppar I     chahar car chaxor
26 five   bish besh fondz I fondz I     panj pāc panch
27 big   zur, bik byk ustur, stur, stur, egъau - styr, styr, egъau, dyndjyr - d=oqqa d=oqqa bozorg baṛa buzurg
28 long   ozon uzun, ekn dargъ N dargъ N d=eːx-a d=khxa boland lamba daroz
29 wide   kin genish ftn, urх - ftn, urх -     pahn cauṛa vase
30 thick   kalyn kalın stavd, stavd, bzgin - stavd, bzdjyn -     koloft gaṛha gafs
31 heavy   auyr ağır, ačɣ, aɣr uzzau N uzzau N d=ez-a d=ez-a sangin bharī vaznin
32 small   belekei, kese kchk, bič, kičig, kičg, uaq, uvaq mingi, minkъii, mingii, mngi, mnkъi - gytstsyl(gytsъyl), kъanng, chysyl IE ima zkham-iga kuchak choṭa hurd
33 short   kychka kısa, qrt, qsɣa/qsqa tsubur - tsybyr - d=oːtsa l=oatsa kutah [[]] kutox
34 narrow   tar dar ungg, narg - uyngg, narg -     tang tang tang
35 thin   nezek ince, taytur, ylmq, yuyqa, yupqa, yuqa, yuvɣa, yuvqa tng, mllg, tsola, kъsхur, fudхuz - tng, mllg, tsola, kъsхuyr, fydхuyz - d=utqʼ-a d=itqʼ-a nazok patla nozuk
36 woman   katyn kadın, katyn, ebchi, evlig, evlg, evlik, evlk, qz, tishi, uraɣut, uzun silgoimag, uos - sylgoimag, us - zud-a qal-sag zan aurat zan
37 man (adult male)   ir min (pron.), adam, er/ir/ar, ern, erkk nlgoimag, lg N nlgoimag, lg N stag makha-sag mard admī/mard mard
38 man (human)   adam, keshe, ezem adam, kishi, insan adimag, lg, uodgoimag T adimag, lg, udgoimag T stag sag ensan/kas/nafar manushya/insan nafar
39 child   bala chocuk, bala, kenč, oglan/oɣlan, ogul/oɣul suvllon, sabii - syvllon, sabi, хъbul -     bachche bacca bacha
40 wife   katyn karı, katyn,  ebči/evči,  evlg/evlk, , evlig/evlk, isi, yeŋga, kis/kisi/kishi uos - us, binoinag -     zan patnī/bīvī zan
41 husband   ir koca, beg/beg, er/ir, ern, erkk moin, lg - moi, lg -     showhar patī shavxar
42 mother   ese mam, anne, ana, aba, apa, g, uma mad T mad T     madar mā/mata modar
43 father   ata baba, ata, ded, hata, ata, aju, qaŋ fid T fyd T     pedar bap/pita padar
44 animal   ienlek, хaiuan hayvan, ienlek, хaiuan, janvar tsrgoi, sird - tsrgoi, syrd -     janvar janvar chonvar
45 fish   balyk balık ksalg, kf - ksag, kf - tskhaːra tskhaːri mahi machlī moxi
46 bird   kosh kush margъ T margъ, tsъiu T olxazar oalxazar parande pakshī/ciṛiya parranda
47 dog   et kpek, it kui IE kuydz IE jkhla, phu jkhali sag kutta sag
48 louse   bet bit, sunz sist - syst - meza maza shepesh shapish
49 snake   iylan yılan, bk, maɣa kalm - kalm - lħkha bkhexa-l mar sāp mor
50 worm   kort solucan, kurt klm I zulkъ, kalm I nkhna nkhana kerm kīṛa kirm
51 tree   agas terek, ağach, agas, yɣač. ɣač, sğt blas - blas - ditt, xi, xen ga, xi derakht peṛ daraht
52 forest   urman orman/urman, arɣ, bk, gъd - хъd -     jangal van changal
53 stick   botak, sybyk chubuk, değnek kъutsl - ldzg -     chomagh ḍanḍa chomoқ
54 fruit   emesh meyve rz - dyrgъ -     mive phal meva
55 seed   orlok tohum, uruɣ, čigit ?   tauinag I hkhu gi tokhm/dane bīj tuhm
56 leaf   yaprak yaprak, yaprɣaq, yalbrɣaq sif - syf - ɣkha ɣkha barg pattī barg
57 root   tamyr kk, yldz, tz, tp bundzar - uidag - oːra-m owla rishe jaṛ resha
58 bark (tree)   kaiyr, kabyk kabuk   - tsъar - kewstig kost pust e derakht chal pusti daraht
59 flower   seske chichek deden, dedeng - diding -     gol phūl gul
60 grass   len ot, len krdg, dzedzo - krdg -     alaf ghas alaf
61 rope   bau ip, halat, bau rvin - bndn -     tanab ḍōrī tanob
62 skin   tire deri, qrt, qoɣu, quyqa, saɣr, teri dzar - tsarm T nekh tskhoːka pust camṛī pust
63 meat   it et ?   fyd - ii-g dulx gusht mās/gosht gusht
64 blood   kan kan ?   tug - cʼiy cʼiy khun rakt, khūn, lahū xun
65 bone   hiek kemik, sŋk ?   stg - dkhaxk tʼexk ostokhan haḍḍī ustuhon
66 fat (n.)   mai yağ, yaɣ, yaqr, yn, čır, z, qazi, vir ?   soi - moh muh charbi/rowghan vasa ravgan
67 egg   iomortka yumurta, yumurqa ?   aik IE khkhoa fukh tokhm anḍa tuhm
68 horn   mgz boynuz, mgz, myz, miŋiz, mŋz ?   sykъa I makha mukha shakh sīg shoh
69 tail   koirok kuyruk, qudruq ?   dymg I tskhoga tskhog dom pūch dum
70 feather   kauryi ty, yk, yŋ, tezik ?   sis IE peːlag bedar par pkh/par par
71 hair   ses sach, tg ?   хъuyn, хъis T mas čo mu bal/kesh mu
72 head   bash bash, kafa, tp ?   sr I korta korta sar sar sar
73 ear   kolak kulak ?   хъus I lerg lerg gush kan gush
74 eye   kz g- (v.), gz, qaraq ?   tsst T bkhrg bkharg cheshm ākh chashm
75 nose   tanau :z, burun ?   fyndz, byrynkъ T mara mera- bini/damagh nak [[]]
76 mouth   auyz ağız, aɣaz ?   dzyх N baga bage dahan mūh/mukh daxon
77 tooth   tesh dish, azɣ, tish ?   dndag I tserg tsarg dandan dt dandon
78 tongue (organ)   tel dil, til, ?   vzag T mott mott zaban jībh/zaban zabon
79 fingernail   tyrnak tırnak, tŋraq, traŋaq. trŋaq ?   nyх I mkhaːra, makhar mkhara nakhun naxūn nohun
80 foot   ayak but, ayak/ayaq, adaq/aδaq, ataq, azaq ?   fad T kog kog pa pair/pāv po
81 leg   bot bacak, bot, ayak/ayaq, adaq/aδaq, ataq, azaq ?   kъaх -     leng ṭang/pāv ling
82 knee   tubyk diz, tiz ?   zonyg I goː-la go zanu ghuṭna zonu
83 hand   kul el, aya, adut, aδut, avuč, avut, tutam, tutča, tutum ?   kъuх T k-g ku-lg dast hath dast
84 wing   kanat kanat, uch ?   bazyr I     bal pkh bol
85 belly   korhak karın хъst N guybyn N gay, geː čeː shekam peṭ shikam
86 guts   esek bağırsak хlor - tъang -     rude antaṛī ruda
87 neck   muiyn boyun, boyn, vgrdn IE ftsg - worta foart gardan gardan gardan
88 back   arka arka, sırt ? - fsont -     pas/posht pīṭh pusht
89 breast   kkrek gğs ?   riu, dzidzi (female) T naːqa, maːmag naːqa sine chatī/sīna sina
90 heart   irek chre, yrek, kalp, kŋl, baɣr ?   zrd T dog dog del dil dil
91 liver   bauyr karaciğer, baɣr ?   igr T dokhax diyx-k jegar kaleja chigar
92 to drink   ese ich ?   nuazyn I miyl-a mel-a nushidan pīna nushidan
93 to eat   ashau ye-, asa, aa, ala, ?   хryn T d=akh-a d=akh-a khordan khana hurdan
94 to bite   teshle ısır, tisl ?   хtsyn - cerg-a y=oxka, leːca, qaħ-ar carg-a y=oxka gazidan kaṭna gazidan
95 to suck   ime em ?   diyn I     makidan cūsna makidan
96 to spit   tkr tkr ?   tu knyn T     tof/deshne thūk tuf kardan
97 to vomit   kochou kus ?   omyn IE     kai kardan [[]] қai kardan
98 to blow   r fle, r, es, esn, tpir, r ?   dymyn T     vazidan [[]] vazidan
99 to breathe   tyn alyu nefes almak, soluk al, ahla, yn, yaqur, ?   ulfyn T     nafas kashidan/dam zadan sas lena nafas kashidan
100 to laugh   kl gl/kl, qatɣur, qatur, ?   хudyn T     khandidan hsna handidan
101 to see   kre gr, kr ?   uynyn - ga-n g-o didan dekhna didan
102 to hear   ishete ishit, eid, esit, tŋla ?   хъusyn T xaz-a xaz-a shenidan sunna shunidan
103 to know   bele bil, tan fsmrun   zonyn - xakh-a xa danestan janna donistan
104 to think   uilau dshn ?   хъuydy knyn -     andishidan socna andeshidan
105 to smell   echke kokla, echke, isl, bur, jd/jδ, qoq, vis, sasi ?   mbudyn P     buedan [[]] buidan
106 to fear   kurkyu kork, ajn, gorg/gӧrg/ɣort/ qorq/qoruq ?   trsyn P     tarsidan ḍarna tarsidan
107 to sleep   ioklau uyu, ud/uδ, ?   хuyssyn T     khabidan sona hobidan
108 to live   ieshe yasha, jlla, sr, tir, tiril, tur ?   tsryn T     zistan jīna zistan
109 to die   le l, bar, keč, uč ?   mlyn IE d=al-a d=al-a mordan marna murdan
110 to kill   ltere ldr, arta, ltr, lr ?   maryn IE d=eː-n d=e koshtan marna kushtan
111 to fight   hugyshyu dvsh, čal, kr, qarqlan ?   toх knyn -     jangidan jhagaṛna/laṛna changidan
112 to hunt   aulau av, aulau, avla, saɣr ?   tsuan knyn -     shekar kardan shikar karna shiko kardan
113 to hit   hugyu vur, artla, badar, chal, kckl, ps, qaq, sal, soq, toq/toqu, ur ?   tsvyn -     zadan marna zadan
114 to cut   kiche kes, bch, yamur, qy, tanchula, toɣra, ?   krdyn T     boridan kaṭna buridan
115 to split   yaryu yar, adar/adr, bch, bl, bugra/воgra ?   uaryn T     shekaftan [[]] chudo kardan
116 to stab   sense, kazau bıchakla, bgdal, sanch, chekn, kazau ?   sadzyn T     zakhm zadan bhkna zahm adan
117 to scratch   tyrnau kashı/кichi/qash, emri, qurtan ?   хyrtt-хyrtt knyn T     kharashidan kharcna haroshidan
118 to dig   kazyu kaz/qaz zgelun   kъaхyn T     hafr kardan khodna xafr zadan
119 to swim   iz yz, čap nak knun   lenk knyn N neːka dan nek de ~ nk de shena kardan tairna shino kardan
120 to fly   osou uch ?   tхyn - leːl-a leːl-a paridan uṛna paridan
121 to walk   atlau yr, bar, yor, ?   tsuyn - d=ax-a d=ax-a rah raftan calna/ṭhlna rox raftan
122 to come   kile gel, kel, yetil, kir, ?   rtsuyn, tsuyn - d=aː-n w=a amadan ana omadan
123 to lie (in bed)   yatyu leṭna, yat, yat, uzan (action, state)   ? T kh=ill-a all-a hobidan/daroz kashidan pashlyol shoa
124 to sit   ultyryu baiṭhna, atlan, bin, mn, yɣrl, oldur, oltur, olur, orna, tuɣraɣlan otur (action, state)   ? T xikh-na v=aɣ-a nishastan beshel bsha
125 to stand   torou khaṛa hona, tur kalkmak (action), dikilmek (state)   istun - latt-a latt-a istodan tordyol dṛano
126 to turn (intransitive)   borolou borolou, dn/tn, emit, evr/evir/evrl, qay/qayt/qav, qatrt, qajt, tevir, tr, yzln ?   zdaхyn -     gardidan muṛna gardidan
127 to fall   tsh čk/čaq/čoq, ek, yaɣ/yaɣu/yaq/yavu, dsh, qaml/qamul, tay, ts, uč ?   хauyn -     oftadan girna aftidan
128 to give   bire ver, ber, tapčur, tapsur, tapu ?   dttyn IE d=al-a d=al-a dadan dena dodan
129 to hold   totou tut ?   daryn -     negah dashtan pakaṛna nigox doshtan
130 to squeeze   kychyu sık, boɣ, jigtr, qar, qavur/qavr, qs, tart, tolɣa ?   lхъivyn -     feshordan [[]] fishurdan
131 to rub   yshkyu qabar, jaq, kinla, kikchr, srt, trt, uvun ?   хafyn T     sudan ragaṛna/malna molidan
132 to wash   iyuyu yıka, yu, čun, suqn/suqun, ?   хsyn T     shostan dhona shustan
133 to wipe   hrt sil/sili, yоd/yoδ/yоt, ?   srfyn T     zedudan pchna pok kardan
134 to pull   tartyu chek, chuj, yet, tart, tart, uzat ?   ivazyn -     keshidan [[]] kashidan
135 to push   ete it, talq, tul ?   sхoiyn -     feshar dadan dhakka dena fishor dodan
136 to throw   tashlau at, chal, kemish, sal, tashla, gldzun   pparyn -     part kardan phẽkna andohtan
137 to tie   beile bağla/baɣla, atqan, chek/chɣ/choɣ, kis, rkla, tg, ?   battyn -     gereh zadan [[]] girex zadan
138 to sew   tege dik, yeδ, kbi, tefchit/tevchi, tik ?   хuiiyn -     dukhtan sīna duhtan
139 to count   hanau say, sa/san/sana, hana, ?   nymaiyn -     shomardan ginna shumurdan
140 to say   eite de, te, ay, ay- te-, ayt, aɣzan, sayra, sandr. sanr, savla, szla, tilda ?   dzuryn - aːl-a aːl-a goftan khna/bolna guftan
141 to sing   iyrlau sharkı syle, et/ot, rla/yrla/yurla, kogla/kglan, sayra, sаma/sma ?   zaryn T     khandan gana hondan
142 to play   uinau oyna, atz ?   хъazyn -     bazi kardan khelna bozi kardan
143 to float   iz dalgalan, chap, salla, yz ?   naudzu knyn -     شناور [[]] istodan
144 to flow   agyu ak/ag, jadl/jajl, ygr, savruq ?   klyn -     [[]] bhna shuridan
145 to freeze   sh don (intransitive), dondur (transitive), bud/buδ, buduɣ/buδuɣ, s ?   slyn -     jamna yah shudan pahosajvel
146 to swell   sheshe shish, yelna, qabar,  shshl ?   dymyn -     [[]] phūlna/sūjna bod kardan
147 sun   koyash gnesh, yaiq ?   хur IE malx malx khorshid sūraj oftob
148 moon   ai a, ay, ?   mi I butt butt mah chd mox
149 star   iondoz yıldız ?   stъaly IE seːda sedqʼa setare tara/sitara sitora
150 water   hyu su ?   don - xi xiy ab panī ob
151 rain   yauyu yağmur ?   uaryn I dokhɣa dokhɣa baran barish boron
152 river   iylga ır, arg/arɣ/ark, aqg/aqɣ/aqm/aqn, aqmaq,  darya, iti/idel/iylga, kelgiz, munduz, mran, gz/kz, su/shu/sub/suv/suɣ/chai, talay, tamga/tamɣa, yuvar ?   tsugdon -     rudkhane nadī dare
153 lake   kl gl/kl/kl, klman, teŋ ?   tsad -     daryache jhīl kul
154 sea   dingez deniz ?   dendjyz T     darya samandar baxr
155 salt   toz tuz ?   tsхх T txa tux namak namak namak
156 stone   tash tash, ir ?   dur - tkhulg qera sang patthar sang
157 sand   kom kum, qayr ?   zmis T ɣum ɣum mase ret/balū reg
158 dust   san, tuzan qoq, san, tuprak/topraq, toz/tuz/tog/toɣ, ?   ryg T     gard o khak dhūl/xak chang
159 earth   tuprak yer ?   zхх T latta, yobstʼ ltta zamin bhūmi/zamīn zamin
160 cloud   bolot bulut ?   vragъ I marxa morx abr badal abr
161 fog   toman sis, toman/tuman/tmn, ?   migъ IE     meh kohra tira
162 sky   kk gk/kk/kk, qalq/xalq, tŋri, arv   arv -     aseman asaman osmon
163 wind   el rzgr, yel, esin, tntura, tŋr, tpi ?   uad I mox mux bad hava shamol
164 snow   kar kar/qar/qaɣar ?   mit -     barf barf barf
165 ice   boz boz/buz/muz ?   T     yakh barf yah
166 smoke   ttn duman, ttn хъuts   fzdg N kkhur kkhur dud dhũa dud
167 fire   ut od, atesh, rt, art, čoɣ, yaln ?   art T tskhe tskhi atash, zar ag/agni otash
168 ash   kl kl ? - rtхutg - yuqʼ yoqʼ khakestar rakh hokistar
169 to burn   yanyu yak/yan, ylt, ky/kn/kon, ӧpl, rta tsfsun   sudzyn P d=aːg-oː d=oag-ade sukhtan (intr)
suzandan (tr)
jalana (intr)
jalana (tr)
170 road   l yol, oruq nad   fndag, balts - neq niq rah/ rah/ khiaban saṛak/marg/rasta/rah rox
171 mountain   tau dağ, art, tag, taɣ, tau ?   хoх I lam loam kuh pahaṛ kux
172 red   kyzyl kızıl, kırmızı, al, ?   syrх I tskhen tskhe ghermez, sorkh lal surh
173 green   ieshel yeshil, ya ?   tsъх - btstsa-r-a btstsa-r-a sabz hara sabz
174 yellow   hary sarı, etrak, quba ?   bur - moː-a khaa-ɣa zard pīla zard
175 white   ak ak, beyaz, yrŋ, urg ?   urs T kkhay-n kkhay sefid safed safed
176 black   kara kara, siyah ?   sau   kharja kharja siah kala siex
177 night   tn gece, keč, ?   хsv I bysa biysa shab rat shab
178 day   kn dn, gn/kn, gndz ?   bon -     ruz din ruz
179 year   iyl yıl, sene, ja ?   afdz - o u sal sal/baras sol
180 warm   iyly sıcak, ylɣ, emik, isig, sɣ, lɣ, ?   хъarm I d=owx-a d=khayx-a garm garm garm
181 cold   hyuyk soğuk, salqm, sоɣuq, soɣq, don, ton, ik ?   uazal T iyla iyla sard ṭhanḍa sard
182 full   tuly dolu, toi, tolu, pr, qalsz, qamu, qamɣ, tkal ?   dzag N d=z-na < =utskh- ~ uz d=zz-ina por pūra pur
183 new   yany yeni ?   nug IE kerla kerda now naya nav
184 old   ichke eski (non-living things), yashlı (living things) ?   zrond -     kohne purana kuxna
185 good   yakshy iyi, edg/eδg/eyg, kushal, yaxs/yaqs/yakshy/yeg, nik, saɣ ?   хorz - dik-a d=al-a khub accha hub
186 bad   nasar, yaman kt, alɣ, aman, anɣ, bat, bd, tas, yabz, yafuz, yavz, yavuz, yablaq, yavlaq, yaman ?   vzr T     bad xarab/bura bad
187 rotten   serek bl, boɣdm, chrk/serek, artaq/ardaq/artaɣ, erk, kg, kviz, yunchɣ, ?   mbyd -     puside saṛa pusida
188 dirty   bysrak arɣsz, boɣdam, bysrak, kirli, pis, tsъumur   chъizi P     cherkin maila/ganda chirkin
189 straight   tura dz, rast, tikim, toɣr/toɣru/torqu/tort, tura ?   rast P     rast sīdha rost
190 round   iomoro, tnerek yuvarlak, toparlak, yap, yumɣaq, oqlaɣu, tegirm, tegirmi, ulnčɣ ?   tymbyl T gorga gerga gerd gōl gird
191 sharp (knife)   tker keskin, yiti, svr ?   tsyrgъ I     tiz tīkha tez
192 dull (knife)   tmech kr, таɣl ?   kъuymyх T     kond kund kund
193 smooth   shyma dzgn, przsz, shyma/sɣan, uvlaŋ, tzdm, saŋ, yap, yasul ?   lgъz -     hamvar cikna xamvor
194 wet   dymly ıslak ?   хuylydz       tar gīla/ōda tar
195 dry   koro kuru, arut, urut, qaq, qur, quruq ?   хus I d=eqʼ-a d=eqʼ-a khoshk sūkha hushk
196 correct   drch doğru/drch, chn, kni, oŋ, rast, savab/sbab, tetr, toɣr/toɣru/torqu/tort, tzk ?   rast P     dorost ṭhīk durust
197 near   yakyn yakın, yaɣru, yaɣuru, yavuq, yaɣq  ?   farsm, tsur - gerga-ra garga-ra nazdic qarīb/nazdīk/ke pas nazdik
198 far   alych, iyrak uzak, raq izol   dard Т geːna-ra gna-ra dur dūr dur
199 right   un sağ, oŋ/ŋ, ogdun/ogtun/oŋdn, oŋdnq, oŋqlan ?   rast P     rast daya rost
200 left   hul sol, choŋ, oŋ ?   galiu T     chap baya chap
201 at     -da/ta, -de, -a, -e, ?   tsur T     dar par/mẽ dar
202 in     in (n.), -da/ta, -de, qat, ichinde, icherisinde ?   -y (affix) T     [[]] mẽ dar
203 with   menen ile, ile beraber, bil/biln/birl, menen d   d, -im (affix) -     ba se/ke sath/ke pas/ke sang bo
204 and   hem ve, hem, u, ulat dr   m, dr -     va aur va
205 if   eger abam/abaŋ, birk, eger/eğer ... ise, -sa, -se, xai ku   kuy T     agar agar agar
206 because   snki chnk uomn ma, uom   uymn (m), uym -     zira kynki zero
207 name   isem ad, isim, at, ajaɣ, nom   nom IE tskhe tskhi nam, esm nam nom
In Russian (Later)
Contents Trkic languages
A.Askarov The Aryan problem
Classification of Trkic languages
Language Types
Lingo-Ethnical Tree
IE, Arians, Dravidian, and Rigveda
Scythian Ethnic Affiliation
Ogur and Oguz
Trkic and European in Neo- & Mesolith
Trkic in Romance
Trkic in Greek
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Khazar Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline
Seyanto Dateline
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