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Zakiev M. Z. Who Are Alans?
Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Genetics: Lingo-Ethnical Tree
Genetics: Blood Types
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline


Kangju, Kangar, Kangly, Besenyos, Beshenye, Badjanak, Beçen, Beçenek (pl), Bejen, Bejenek (pl), Bissenus, Badzinags, Budin, Budini, Budun, Pasiani, Patzinaks, Peçenek, Pecheneg, Pechenachi, Pachenase, Pezengs, and other variations

W Huns 5c AD Kushan 6c AD Kushan 6c AD Avaria 6c AD Kyrgyz Kaganate
ca 600 AD
Uigur Kaganate
ca 740 AD
Kimak Kaganate
ca 750 AD




1766 BC

Eventually recorded Chinese traditions tell of Kia, 17th member of old Chinese Hia dynasty, dethroned due to evil ways. His son Sunni went with 500 members of his Hia nationality to Hun relatives. Hia still has many common words with Altaic languages

1766 BC

Oldest Türkic words are in Chinese annual chronicles noting cultural and political events. Hun’s (Hsiung-nu) words tanry, kut, byoryu, ordu, tug, kylych etc are oldest monuments of Türkish language. State rulers endoethnonyms Hun, Türkic "man, male, people"

1390 BC

First elements of Hun state in highlands of Ordos

1200 BC

First Hun state in highlands of Ordos

800 BC

Sword myths traditions are all early Anatolian, are also found in Hun and Magyar traditions and mentioned by Herodotus amongst early Scythians.

800 BC

Greeks associated invention of iron working with northern Messopotamian and Anatolian Scythian tribes like Kalybs tribe which gave steel its name in many early European languages. In time Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig.

801 BC

Kalybs are absorbed by Sarmatians and Yazig, via Yazig cavalry taken by Romans to Britain and were foundation of King Arthur myths of Ex-Calibur, and sword myths which are all early Anatolian traditions

685 BC

685 - 643 BC Rule in Tsi of Huan - hun

679 BC

679 BC Huan - hun organizes a congress of rulers in Tsi, taking that right from Chjou

659 BC

659 - 621 Rule of Mu-hun in Tsin

500 BC

Persepolis inscription text is "Darius Hystapes (522-486) rex popularum bonorum posui. Hi adorationem igni mihi attulere: Choana, Media, Babilon, Asyria, Guthrata, Armenia, Cappadocia, Sapardia [Sabir], Hunae."

318 BC

First historical document connected with Huns is Chinese-Hun treaty signed in 318 BC

300 BC

In Chinese sources Alans are one of four Hunnish tribes (Xu-la, Lan, Hiu-bu, Siu-lin) most favored by kings of Eastern Huns (Mao-dun/Mete and his son Ki-ok/Kök) of 3rd century B.C.(ToOD 146).
(Türk. alan field, akin to 'fieldman', 'polyane', 'polovets')

300 BC

Hun state consists of 24 clans, some of them:
Kuyan (Jack rabbit)
Lan (Orchard)
Suybu (West Tribe)

124 BC

Asi (Yazig), Pasiani (Budini/Beçen/Peçenek), Tocharian, Sabir (Sabaroi) tribes break into Sogdiana (Chinese "K'ang-chu") and Baktria (Chinese "Ta-hsia"). In next five years two Parthian emperor die in wars. Later Sakauraka tribe is also conquered by them

40 BC

Pompey (Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus, 106 - 48 BC), Roman general, had to march against Alans/Asses, crossing the Caspian gates. Nomadic pastoralists Alans lived in Asia and Europe around Caspian Sea

36 BC

Turanian coins were minted north of Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) river before the Scythian invasion into Baktria, and a large number of these anonymous coins are collected in the British museum

35 BC

Archaeological work shows that both Bactria and Sogdia contained large nomadic populations well in advance of Yu-chi migration


Joseph Flavius: "Alan people were a Scythian tribe"


Hou Han shu: Alans were earlier known as Yancai ("Vast Steppe"). They have about 100,000 bowmen and same way of life and clothes as the Kangju and identical with Ta Yüeh-chih. Yancai changed its name to kingdom of Alanliao with capital Di.


Hou Han shu: Alans are a dependency of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) basins). The climate is temperate. Wax trees, pines, and aconite are plentiful


Hou Han shu: Alans were vassals of Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes (Syr-Darya) basins). Now they are no longer vassals


Genealogy: Gaogüys =>Tele =>15 tribes =>
1 Uange (Uygurs)
2 Seyanto (Sir + Yanto)
3 Kibi
4 Dubo (Tubalar)(Dabo)(Tele)
5 Guligan (Kurykan)(Yakut)
6 Dolange (Telengits)
7 Bugu (Pugu)(Uygurs)
8 Bayegu (Baiyrku)(Uygurs)
9 Tunlo (Tongra)(Uygurs)
10 Hun
11 Sygye (Uygurs)
12 Husye
13 Higye
14 Adye(Eduz)
15 Baysi (Barsil)


Atilla has a full control in N. Caucasus. Treaty with Persian Shakh Yazdagar


Kipchaks mixed with Besenyos between Black Irtysh and Syr-Darya in Deshtikipchak

700 In the south Kypchaks bordered Bechens, who in 8th - beginning of 9th c. lived in basin of Seyhun and Aral area. Later Kypchaks drifted toward Urals. In 7-12 cc. Kypchak and Kimak culture was identical


Amu-Darya flowed into Caspian sea until 8-th c. ? Climatic change caused relocation of Oguz Basenyos and Alans or Asses, from lower reaches of Amu-darya (Uzboy) flowing into Caspian Sea. After Uzboy dried, they migrated to coast of Sea of Khazars


Besenyos (Kengeres/Pecheneg/Kangar) neighboring Uygurs on the west and hostile to them


Besenyos live between rivers Emba and Yaik, took control of trading route from Itil to Khorezm, dealt a hard blow to Khazarian trade, and became their dangerous neighbors

820 In the south Kypchaks bordered Bechens, who in 8th - beginning of 9th c. lived in basin of Seyhun and Aral area. Later Kypchaks drifted toward Urals.. In 7-12 cc. Kypchak and Kimak culture was identical


860-880 Allied forces of Khazars and Oguzes displace Besenyos because of threat to their trading routs. Crossing Itil, they settled instead of Magyars, whom they displaced, in the vicinity of Don and Kama

870 In second half of 9 c. Kimaks began drifting westwards. They occupied lands of Bechens (Besenyo, Badjinak, Patsinak), whose. nucleus were tribes of Kangar (i.e. Kangals, Kangly, Kungurs, Kangars, Kangüys, Kanjüys etc.) political union, in formation of Bechen tribal union participated, in addition to purely Türkic tribes, Sarmatian and Finno-Ugrian tribes. Bechens lived by cattle breeding in a tribal society


After 889 Besenyos break through Khazarian border guards and replace Magyars from Levedia


889-893 Besenyos, displacing Magyars from Atil-Kuzü toward Carpathian mountains, settle down on plains from Don to western Dniepr


Besenyos stop their pusuit of Majars at Dniepr, winter near the mouth of the river Buh


Catastrophically cold winter of 892-893 froze Itil and Don made it possible for Besenyos, whom the Oguzes attacked, to flee across the frozen rivers into Atelkuzu, although some of them were stuck east of Yaik river


Besenyos allied with Bulgars start a second attack of Majar tribes forcing them to leave Atilkiji for Transylvania and the Upper Tisza region


Besenyos, once a part of confederation of W. Khaganate, were driven toward lower Syr-Darya and Aral Sea by Karluk Türks. They were grazing their herds between Yaik and Itil rivers


North of Sea of Azov Besenyos occupied Levedia, taking it from Magyars, and then drove them from area between Dnepr and Lower Danube - Atelkuzu (Itil-Kiji ?)


Besenyos appear before Kiev for first time in force. Kiev Prince Ingvar (Igor) I the Old signs peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between Don and Dniestr (? In 915 Kiev was controlled by Olaf (Oleg I the Seer, 882-916 )?)


Khazars fight with Burtas (Steppe Alans or As), Oguzes, Byzantines, Besenyos and Kara Bolgars


Besenyos join in Hungarian invasion of Byzantium. Thrace.


Besenyos join in Kiev Prince Ingvar (Igor) I the Old raid on Byzantium


Emperor K.Porphirogenesos (948-952)D’Administrando Imperio: Besenyos consist of communities:
Ertim (or Erdem; the leader - Baicha, then - Yavdy),
Chor (the leader - Kyugel, then - Kuerchi),
Yula (the leader - Korkutkhan, then - Kabukschin),
Kukhey (the leader - Ipa, then - Sura),
Karabai (the leader - Karduxm),
Tolmach (the leader - Kortan, then - Boru),
Kapan (the leader - Yazy),
Choban (the leader - Batahan, then - Bula).


Besenyo communities, three of which (Ertim, Chor and Yula) are ”Kangar”, meaning “brave”, occupied banks of rivers running into Black Sea:
Choban (in Don area),
Tolmach (in area of Don flowing into the sea),
Kyulbey (Donets),
Chor (the east of Dnepr),
Karabai (between Dnepr and Bug),
Ertin (Dniestr),
Yula (Prut),
Kapan (lower Danube)


First three Besenyo communities had contacts with Oguzes, Khazars, Alans, and Crimea;
Yula bordered on “Türkey” (Hungary),
Kapan bordered with Danube Bolgars.
A part of names are Türkic title ranks (Yula, Chor, Kapan = Kapgan, Kul, Bey), and names of leaders in most cases mean colors: Kuerchi = blue, Kakhushkin = wood bark, Sulu = ash, Boru = grey, Yazy = swarty, Bula = multi-colored, Yavdy = brilliant


Al Mas'udi (died in 956) describes 4 Türkic peoples: Ydjni, Badjkurt (Maskurts, Masguts, Herodotus (5-th c. BC), Strabo (c.64 BC - A.D. 20), and C. Plinius Secundus (62-113 AD) Massagetae Scythians), Badjanak (Besenyos), Nukardi)


Besenyos live in Moldova (10th cent.-1171)


Besenyos seriously threaten Khazaria


Svyatoslav possibly signed agreement with Besenyos before crossing their territory. He allies with Oguz (Russ. Torks/Uzes). Purpose to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yasians and Kasogians in Taman-Kuban area.


Knyaz Svyatoslav of Kiev seizes Sarkel


Besenyo Khan Kura captures Kiev


8 Besenyo tribes, under Khan Kura, of Kipchak stock with Oguz element, freed of Khazar dominance, defeat Russian prince Svyatoslav and make a drinking cup of his scull. Besenyos continuous fights with Khazars, Byzantines and Rus


Rus defeat Besenyos and found city Pereyaslavl (Russ. “Victory”)


Besenyo attack Belogorod


Besenyo invasion of Byzantium is repulsed by Constantine Diogenes


Yaroslav's victory over Besenyos


Byzantine-Besenyo agreement. Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus (1042-1055) accepts part of Besenyos, led by Kegenes, to settle down in Dobruja, they received land and three fortresses, as federates, against attacks of other Besenyo tribes, led by Tyrach


Byzantines call Besenyos and Kumans "Skythicon"


Biruni of Khwarezm: Language of Alans is a compound Khwaresmian and Besenyo-Türkish


Before 800, Alans or Asses lived, together with Besenyos, around lower reaches of the Amu-Darya (Uzboy) flowing into Caspian Sea, and later, after river changed its course, they migrated to coast of Sea of the Khazars


Besenyo invade Byzantium.


Kipchaks replace Besenyos from N Caucasus steppes. Stan of Kipchak Khans is located on river Sunj. N Caucasus steppe is an important component of Deshti-Kipchak.


Besenyo invade Byzantium across Thrace to gates of Constantinople


600K Oguzes crossed Danube and devastated Balkans to Thessalonica. Emperor Constantine X Ducas, and then Besenyos and Bolgars annihilated them. remains of Oguzes were subjugated, eliminated or assimilated by Kipchaks


Besenyo, in service of Byzantium, desert Emperor Romanus Diogenes V (1067-1071) in favor of Sultan Alp Arslan.


Besenyo invade Byzantium across Thrace, are driven back, and defeat Alexius Comneus.


Kipchaks under Tugorkhan (?-1096) (Grousset's Togortak) and Bonyak (Grousset's Maniak) are allied with Byzantium under Alexius Comnenus, and together crushed Besenyo army at Mount Lebunion


Per Rabbi Nissim, seventeen Khazarian communities join nomads (Besenyo, Bolgars, Oguses)


Kipchaks under Khan Otrok retreat to N Caucasus steppes. Kipchak Khan Syrchan remains in Don Steppes. Kipchaks under Khan Otrok on way to N Caucasus destroy Sarkel. Its inhabitants with Besenyos and Oguz Türks migrate to Russian principalities


Vladimir Monomakh defeats Berendeys, Oguzes (Torks), and Besenyos. The latter flee from Rus


Kipchak Khan Bonyak defeats Besenyos at battle of Eski Zagra. Cumans subsequently occupy their lands


Scyths/Besenyos were really wiped out by Byzantine Emperor John II in 1123


Besenyos lose control of Moldova to Cumans (1171-1241)


Gengiz Khan conquest of Bukhara, Samarkand, Tirmidh and Gurganj. Kangli garrisons slaughtered


Invasion of Asses and Kipchaks in N.W. Caspian and N. Caucasus. Leading Kipchak warrior Bachman killed, Khan Kotyan retreat beyond Tanais. Batu starts encircling maneuver going through Burtases, Erzya Moksha, and Rus


Assimilation of Alania into Ulus Juchi


In 13th century number of Besenyo communities grew to 13, and among names were Aba, Balchar, Bator, Bychkyly, Eke, Ilbeg, Kure, Karaja, Temir, Teber, Sol. Besenyo fortresses are named: Salma, Saga, Kerbak. From these words it is clear that Besenyo language most of all resembled Türkic Kipchak dialect

In Russian

Russian Version needs a translation

Zakiev M. Z. Who Are Alans?
Besenyos, Ogur and Oguz
Ethnic Affiliation Scythians
Scythians and their descendents
Genetics: Lingo-Ethnical Tree
Genetics: Blood Types
Alan Dateline
Avar Dateline
Besenyo Dateline
Bulgar Dateline
Huns Dateline
Karluk Dateline
Kimak Dateline
Kipchak Dateline
Kyrgyz Dateline
Sabir Dateline

Updated on: 11/15/2002.