A Little Case Glossary

Three primary cases (present in  PIE):

Genitive case expressing ownership
Nominative case nouns serving as the grammatical subject of a verb
Oblique case any grammatical case other than the nominative

Non-primary cases (present in  PIE):

Accusative case nouns serving as the direct object of a verb
Vocative case (in some inflected languages) used when the referent of the noun is being addressed

Secondary cases (not present in  PIE):

Ablative case instrument or manner or place of the action described by the verb
Allative case "onto".
Causal case producing an effect
Comitative case "together with".
Instrumental case noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action
Locative case place of the state or action denoted by the verb
Perlative case indicating movement through or across

Phonetic articulation

Secondary articulation PHONETICS: If a sound is produced with two places of articulation, the secondary articulation is the point of articulation with the lesser degree of stricture. Types of secondary articulation: glottalisation, labialisation (e.g. on /s/ in the Dutch word 'stroop'), laryngealisation, nasalisation, palatalisation,  pharyngealisation, sibilatisation, velarisation

Glottalisation: stop consonant articulated by releasing pressure at the glottis; as in the sudden onset of a vowel

Labialisation: Pronounce with rounded lips

Laryngealisation or vocal fry, or creaky voice is a kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating mass. The frequency of the vibration is very low (20–50 pulses per second) and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. A slight degree of laryngealisation, occurring e.g. in some Korean consonants is called "stiff voice".


Palatalisation: production of sound at the hard palate: the pronunciation of a speech sound by raising the tongue to or toward the hard palate

Pharyngealisation is a constriction of the pharynx produced at the same time as a phoneme is produced. In Russian, the letter l can represent two phonemes, one traditionally called palatalised, the other called plain. The "plain" l in Russian is realised as l with pharyngealisation. Ubykh is Adyghe (Circassian) possess 14 pharyngealised consonants

Sibilant noun: a consonant characterized by a hissing sound (like s or sh)
Sibilant adjective: of speech sounds produced by forcing air through a constricted passage (as `f', `s', `z', or `th' in both `thin' and `then')
Sibilate verb: pronounce with an initial consonant characterized by a hissing sound (like s or sh)
Sibilating: to pronounce sounds with a hiss

Velarize To articulate a sound by retracting the back of the tongue toward the soft palate
Velarization PHONOLOGY/PHONETICS: An assimilation process in which a sound is adjusted to a neighboring velar by raising the back of the tongue towards the soft palate.
Cf. secondary articulation. EXAMPLE: English postvocalic /l/ is velarized before velar sounds in milk [mI l k].

Ablaut noun: a vowel whose quality or length is changed to indicate linguistic distinctions (such as sing sang sung song)
Anlaut) noun An initial sound, as of a word or syllable
Auslaut  noun Ling. 1. final position in a word, esp. as a conditioning environment in sound change, a sound in auslaut  position